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he took up his residence near Albany, and that he all his might. Coming directly upon an Englishsolicited the Mohawks to aid him against the Eng- man and an Indian, who composed a part of the amlish, but without success. The various attacks and bush at the edge of the swamp, the Englishman's encounters he had with the English, from February gun missed fire, but Alderman, the Indian, whose to August, 1676, are so minutely recorded, and in so gun was loaded with two balls, “sent one through many works, that we will not enlarge upon them in his heart, and another not above two inches from it. this place.
He fell upon his face in the mud and water, with his When success no longer attended him, in the gun under him.” western parts of Massachusetts, those of his allies whom he had seduced into the war, upbraided, and Cure for intemperance and smoking.-- Indian cún. accused him of bringing all their misfortunes upon ning:—A friend of ours, who has had extensive dealthem; that they had no cause of war against the ings with the Indians of Mississippi, relates the folthe English, and had not engaged in it but for his lowing characteristick anecdote, which he says is solicitations; and many of the tribes scattered them- undoubtedly the truth. A chief, by the name of selves in different directions. With all that would Glover, in a gush of passion, happened to slay anoth
follow him, as a last retreat, Philip returned to Po- er Indian. The invariable penalty for killing among i kanoket.
these primitive beings is death; and that punishment On the eleventh of July, he attempted to surprise is, by their custom, to be inflicted by the nearest Taunton, but was repulsed. His camp was now at friends of the deceased. These ħad met togethMatapoiset; and the English came upon him under er with the prisoner in their charge to execute the Captain Church, who captured many of his people, last sentence on poor Glover. He asked one favour but he escaped over Taunton river, as he had done a of them, before he died, and, as generous, enemies, year before, but in the opposite direction, and secre- he hoped they would grant it, as it was the fast he ted himself once more upon Pocasset. He used would ever ask of them ; it was, that he might be many stratagems to cut off Captain Church, and permitted to take one more glass of liquor and smoke seems to have watched and followed him from place one more pipe of tobacco. So small a request was to place, until the end of this month ; but continually readily granted; they promised to postpone the exloosing one company after another. Some scouts ecution until he drank and smoked again. Having ascertained that he, with many of his men, were at got them sufficiently committed to this proposition, a place upon Taunton river, and from appearances he gave them to understand that he never intended were about to repass it. His camp was now at this to do either. Such is the sacredness of an Indian place, and the chief of his warriours with him. Some promise, that this subterfuge has thus far saved Glosoldiers from Bridgewater fell upon them here, July ver's life, and this occurrence took place ten years ago. thirty-first, killed ten warriours; but Philip having disguised himself, escaped. His uncle, Akkompoin, was among the slain, and his own sister taken prisoner.
THE DEAD MARINER. The next day, August first, the intrepid Church
BY GEORGE D. PRENTICE, ESQ. came upon his headquarters, killed and took about
SLEEP ONone hundred and thirty of his people, and himself
-sleep on-above thy corpse
The winds their sabbath keep-, very narrowly escaping. Such was his precipitation The wave is round thee-and thy breast that he left all his wampum behind, and his wife and Heaves with the heaving deep. son fell into the hands of Church.
O'er thee, mild eve her beauty flings,
Some of Philip's And there the white gull lifts her wings; Indians, who now served under Church, said to him, And the blue halcyon loves to lave “You have now made Philip ready to die ; for you
Her plumage in the holy wave. have made him as poor and miserable as he used to Sleep on-no willow o'er thee bends
With melancholy air, make the English. You have now killed or taken
No violet springs, nor dewy rose all his relations—that they believed he would soon Its soul of love lays bare ;
But there the sea-flower bright and young have his head, and that this bout had almost broken
Is sweetly o'er thy slumbers flung; his heart."
And, like a weeping mourner fair; Philip having now but few followers lest, was The pale flag hangs its tresses there. driven from place to place, and lastly to his ancient Sleep on-sleep on the glittering depths
of ocean's coral waves seat, near Pokanoket. The English for a long time
Are thy bright urn-thy requiem, had endeavoured to kill him, but could not find him The musick of its waves ;off his guard; for he was always the first who was
The purple gems for ever burn,
In fadeless beauty round thy. urn; apprized of their approach. Having put to death
And, pure and deep as infant love, one of his men for advising him to make peace with The blue sea rolls its waves above. them, his brother deserted him, and gave Captain Sleep on-sleep on-the fearful wrath
Of mingling cloud and deep, Church an account of his situation, and offered to
May leave its
wild and stormy track lead him to the place. Early on Saturday morning, Above thy place of sleep. August, twelfth, Church came to the - Swamp
where But when the wave has sünk to rest,
As now 't will murmur o'er thy breast; Philip was encamped. And before he was discov
And the bright victim, of the sea ered, had placed a guard about it, so as to encompass Perchance will make their horne with thee. it, except a small place. He then ordered Captain Sleep on-thy corrse is far away,
But love bewails thee yetGolding to rush into the swamp, and fall upon Philip
For thee the heart-rung sigh is breathed, in his camp; which he immediately did—but was
And lovely eyes are wet :discovered as he approached, and as usual, Philip And she, thy young and beauteous bride, was the first to fly. Having but just awaked from
Her thoughts are hovering by thy side;
As oft she turns to view with tears sleep, had on but a part of his clothes, he fled with The Eden of departed years.
The above engraving represents the broad-tailed sheep, so common in Tartary, Arabia, Persia, Barbary, Syria, and Egypt. “ This sheep is only remarkable for its large and heavy tail, which is often
[Four-Horned Ram.] found to weigh from twenty to thirty pounds. It sometimes grows a foot broad, and is obliged to be sive plains of Siberia. Among the degenerate desupported by a small kind of board, that goes upon scendants of the wild sheep, there have been so mawheels. This tail is not covered underneath with ny changes wrought, as entirely to disguise the kind, wool, like the upper part, but is bare ; and the na- and often to mislead the observer. The variety is tives, who consider it as a very great delicacy, are so great, that scarcely any two countries have their very careful in attending and preserving it from in- sheep of the same kind; but there is found a manijury. Mr. Buffon, supposes that the fat which falls fest difference in all, either in the size, the covering, into the caul in our sheep, goes in these to furnish the shape, or the horns. The sheep without horns the tail; and that the rest of the body is from thence are counted the best sort, because a great part of the deprived of fat in proportion. With regard to their animal's nourishment is supposed to go up into the fleeces, in the temperate climates, they are, as in horns. our own breed, soft and woolly; but in the warmer The woolly sheep, as it is seen among us, is latitudes, they are hairy ; yet in both they preserve found only in Europe, and some of the temperate the enormous size of their tails.
provinces of Asia. When transported into warmer Sheep, like other ruminant animals, want the up- countries, it loses its wool, and assumes a covering per føre-teeth; but have eight in the lower jaw: two fitted to the climate, becoming hairy and rough; it of these drop, and are replaced at two years old ; there also loses its fertility, and its flesh no longer four of them are replaced at three years old; and has the same flavour. In the same manner, in the all at four. The new teeth are easily known from very cold countries, it seems equally helpless and a the rest, by their freshness and whiteness. There stranger; it still requires the unceasing attention of are some breeds, however, that never change their mankind for its preservation; and although it is found teeth at all; these the shepherds call the leather- to subsist, as well in Greenland as in Guinea, yet it mouthed cattle ; and, as their teeth are thus long seems a natural inhabitant of neither. wearing, they are generally supposed to grow old a Of the domestick kinds to be found in the differyear or two before the rest. The sheep brings forth ent parts of the world, besides our own, which is one or two at a time, and sometimes three or four.common in Europe, another variety is to be seen in The first lamb of an ewe is generally pot-bellied, Iceland, Muscovy, and the coldest climates of the short, and thick, and of less value than those of a sec-north. This, which may be called the Iceland sheep, ond or third production ; the third being supposed resembles our breed in the form of the body and the the best of all. They bear their young five months; tail; but differs in a very extraordinary manner in and, by being housed, they bring forth at any time the number of the horns ; being generally found to
have four, and sometimes even eight, growing from But this animal, in its domestick state, is too different parts of the forehead. These are large and well known to require a detail of its peculiar habits, formidable ; and the animal seems thus fitted by naor of the arts which have been used io improve the ture for a state of war: however, it is of the nature breed. Indeed, in the eye of an observer of nature, of the rest of its kind, being mild, gentle, and timid. every art which tends to render the creature moro Its wool is very different also from that of the comhelpless and useless to itself, may be considered mon sheep, being long, smooth, and hairy. Its colrather as an injury than an improvement; and if we our is of a dark brown; and under its outward coat are to look for this animal in its noblest state, we of hair it has an internal covering, that rather resemmust seek for it in the African desert, or the exten- / bleş fur than wool, being fine, short, and soft.
of the year.
The third observable variety is that of the sheep volutions, above two ells long. They are of a yelcalled strepsicheros. This animal is a native of the low colour, as was said, but the older the animal islands of the Archipelago, and only differs from our grows, the darker the horns become : with these sheep in having straight horns, surrounded with a they often maintain very furious battles between each spiral furrow.
other; and sometimes they are found broken off in The last variety is nat, of the Guinea sheep, such a manner, that the small animals of the forest which is generally found in all the tropical climates, creep into the cavity for shelter. When the musboth of Africa and the East Indies. They are of a mon is seen standing on the plain, his forelegs are large size, with a rough hairy skin, short horns, and always straight, while his hinder legs seem bent unears hanging down, with a kind of dewlap under the der him ; but in cases of more active necessity, this chin. They differ greatly in form from the rest, and seeming deformity is removed, and he moves with might be considered as animals of another kind, were great swiftness and agility. The female very much they not known to breed with other sheep. These, resembles the male of this species, but that she is of all the domestick kinds, seem to approach the less, and her horns also are never seen to grow to nearest to the state of nature. They are larger, that prodigious size they are of in the wild ram. stronger, and swifter, than the common race; and, Such is the sheep in its savage state ; a bold, noble, consequently, better fitted for a precarious forest life. and even beautiful animal : but it is not the most However, they seem to rely, like the rest, on man beautiful creatures that are always found most usefor support ; being entirely of a domestick nature, ful to man. Human industry has therefore destroyed and subsisting only in the warmer climates. its grace, to improve its utility.”
Such are the varieties of this animal, which have been reduced into a state of domestick servitude. These are all capable of producing among each other; all the peculiarities of their form have been made THE COMMON, OR WILD PIGEON, OR DOVE. by climate and human cultivation ; and none of them The
Columba includes, what are commonseem sufficiently independent to live in a state of ly called the dove and the pigeon, with all their varisavage nature. They are, therefore, to be consider-eties; and they intermix and amalgamate without ed as a degenerate race, formed by the hand of man, any apparent reluctance. They are easily domesand propagated merely for his benefit
. At the same ticated, and are far less mischievous or troublesome time, while man thus cultivates the domestick kinds, than other tamed birds. When ill treated, however, he drives away and destroys the savage rače, which they quit their old abodes, and seek the haunts of are less beneficial, and more headstrong. These, the distant forest. 'The wild pigeon is found both therefore, are to be found in but a very small num- in the western and eastern continent, and their peber, in the most uncultivated countries, where they culiar habits are generally well known. Both the have been able to subsist by their native swiftness domestiek and the wild are proverbially faithful in and strength. It is in the more uncultivated parts their connubial attachment and condition. They of Greece, Sardinia, Corsica, and particularly in the procreate almost every month in the year, and their deserts of Tartary, that the moufflon is to be found, increase therefore is remarkably rapid. As to the that bears all the marks of being the primitive race; form of the dore or pigeon, it is beautiful as any and that has been actually known to breed with the bird known, and its colours are attractive though not domestick animal.
The moufflon, or musmon, though covered with so gaudy as some others. They are very rapid on hair, bears a stronger similitude to the ran, than to any other animal : like the ram, it has the eyes placed near the horns : and its ears are shorter than those of the goat; it also resembles the ram in its horns, and in all the particular contours of its form. The horns also are alike; they are of a yellow colour; they have three sides, as in the ram, and bend backward in the same manner behind the ears; the muzzle, and the inside of the ears, are of a whitish colour, tinctured with yellow; the other parts of the face are of a brownish gray. The general colour of the hair over the body is of a brown, approaching to that of the red deer. The inside of the thighs and the belly are of a white, tinctured with yellow. The form, upon the whole, seems more made for agility and strength than that of the common sheep; and the moufflon is actually found to live in a savage state, and maintain itself, either by force or swiftness, against all the animals that live by rapine. Such is its extreme speed, that many have been inclined rather to rank it among the deer kind, than the sheep. But in this they are deceived, as the musmon has a mark that entirely distinguishes it from that species, being known never to shed its horns. In some these are seen to grow to a surprising size ; many of them measuring, in their con
[The Wild Pigeon, or Dove.]
the wing, and are known to pass over a great distance of country in a short time. From very remote ages, they have been employed to convey intelligence on particular occasions. They are so used, even now, in some parts of Europe. Very recently, some were thus employed as “swift messengers,” from Paris to Antwerp. The pigeons to be used for such a purpose, are taken from the place, to which the intelligence is intended to be sent, and the letter, of as little weight as possible, is fastened to the wings in such a way as not to impede their use ; and then they are let loose, when they return directly and quickly to their home, by an unaccountable instinct.
The wild pigeon is a migratory bird, and yet they are not so regular nor do they wander so far, as some others, which go from the extreme north to the far south. They visit differens parts of the Uni. ted States, however, at different seasons. They are not often found in the Nsw Eug...; slates, except in summer, or the lattourt of juing They abound in the inonth of May:col agair in August, when they are still more abundan. :cme parts of New York, Ohio, &c., they are wory numerous ; and a century ago, were in far greater numbers in Massachusetts now then they are. As food, they are much sought and valued.
(Lentils.) Above all other birds, the dove is most intimately and familiarly associated in our minds with ideas of "small brown," "yellowish,” and the “lintil of Prorthe quiet seclusion of rural life, and the enjoyment eaten during Lent as a haricot ; in Syria they are
ence.” In the former country they are dressed and of peace and love. This simple bird, by no means remarkable for its sagacity, so soft in its colouring used as food after they have undergone the simple and graceful in its form, that we cannot behold it process of being parched in a pan over the fire. without being conscious of its perfect loveliness, is
The edom or red pottage, was prepared, by seethin some instances endowed with an extraordinary ing lentils (adashim) in water; and subsequently, as instinct, which adds greatly to its poetical interest. we may guess from a practice which prevails in
That species called the carrier pigeon has often many countries, adding a little manteca, or suet, 10 been celebrated for the faithfulness with which it give them a flavour. The writer of these observapursues its mysterious way, but never more beauti- tions has often partaken of this self-same “red potfully than in the following lines by Moore :
tage,” served up in the manner just described, and
found it better food than a stranger would be apt 10 “The bird let loose in eastern skjes,
imagine. The mess had the redness which gainer! When hast'ning fondly home,
for it the name edom; and which, through the sinNe'er stoops to earth her wing, or flies Where idle wanderers roam.
gular circunstance of a son selling his birthright 16
satisfy the cravirfgs of a pressing appetite, it imparı. But high she shoots through air and light,
ed to the posterity of Esau in the people of Edom." Above all low delay, Where nothing earthly, bounds her flight,
Or shadow dims her way.
ON BEETLES AND LOCUSTS.
“ The return of a great abundance of beetles has To steer my flight to thee.
been long observed to be in the same places one: No sin to cloud, no lure to stay
and this is in a contradictory manMy soul, as home she springs,
nor to the abundance of the locusts, which are arThy sunshine on her joyful way,
Thy freedom on her wings."
LENTILS. “The lentil (or Lens esculenta of some writers, and tne Ervum lens of Linnæus) belongs to the leguminous or podded family. The stem is branched, and the leaves consist of about eight pairs of smaller leaflets. The flowers are small, and with the upper division of the flower prettily veined. The pods contain about two seeds, which vary from a tawny red to a black. It delights in a dry, warm, sandy soil. Three varieties are cultivated in France
ways found to be most scarce in that year. The; to maturity, as in the eggs of the butterfly for birds beetle lays its eggs in the beginning of winter, and and other creatures, and the immense number of fry these in the succeeding spring produce a sort of produced from the roes of female fish, as food for grubs, which live under the surface of the earth, other fishes. In tracing the wonders of Nature in and in this state they continue till the third year, this manner to their source, who can avoid seeing the when they change into beetles in July, and die, af- goodness of God, who has allotted the reciprocal ter laying their eggs, in October. The eggs of the increase of the beetles and the locusts in such a locust are the destined food for these animals, and manner, that there shall always be but a very few of as provident Nature has always allowed a sufficient the latter to lay their eggs in that year when they quantity for their supply, if at any time there be not will alınost all attain maturity ; but even here secsufiicient grubs to eat ihem, the country is conse- ond causes again interfere, and a dry autumn and a quently overrun by the locusts ; and this, which is wet spring prove great impediments to the increase looked upon as a miracle, or preternatural visitation, of locusts in those years when the little grubs of the is found, when strictly inquired into, 10 be only the beetles are able to do them but little injury. natural course of those laws by which the whole Tradition relates, as well as history, that the lochain of beings was at first regulated. The period-cust has been a plague to the meridional provinces ical years of abundance or scarcity ‘of locusts may of Spain, from time immemorial. In an old Spanish be thus accommod for: when the beetles lay their document is the following question : “Which is the eggs, the next year only hatches them into grubs, animal that resembles most all other animals ?” The which are small, and unable to eat any of the locust answer is: “The locust; because he has the horns eggs; consequently, the year after, great quantities of a stag; the eyes of a cow; the forehead of a of these devourers are produced. In the second horse ; ihe leg of a crane; the neck of a snake; year the grubs increase in strength, and are able to and the wings of a dove." eat their destined food ; from which operation the The locust, Gryllus migratorias, belongs to the succeeding year atlords only what may be called a same family as the cricket and grasshopper. It is moderate number of locusts, neither remarkably fine about two inches and a half in length, and is for the nor in great abundance. In the third year, the most part green with dark spots. The mandibles grubs being at their full growth and strength, they or jaws are black, and the wing coverts are of a ihen devour a prodigious number of eggs, after which bright brown spotted with black. It has an elevated they pass through the chrysalis state, and become ridge or crest upon the thorax, or that portion of the beetles; the consequence of which is, that in the body to which the legs and wings are aitached. The third year there is a vast number of beetles and a locusts seen in the engraving, are said to be unlike smaller number of locusts; after this, the latter grad- any that were seen before or after, in size and numually increase in number, until they are devoured bers. There is another species found in Egypt, Baragain. Thus, in the general scale of beings, no one bary, and the south of Europe, the Gryllus Aegyptis created for itself alone; but there is a dependance ius, which is somewhat larger than the migratorius. in every link of the great universal chain, and every The voracity with which the Gryllus migratorius being it consists of, up to man, at least, is of service eats up every thing that is green and tender has to some other! In order to this, it is necessary that rendered a visit from a swarm of these creatures one the species be not wholly destroyed; but that many of the most terrible judgements that can overtake an more young ones should be produced than ever come leastern nation.”