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to do with himn; and were it not for the forks of the neighbouring peasants. They also differ boar-spears that make it impossible to press forward themselves in the same camp; and M. Vo upon them, the huntsman who gives the creature his marked, that the shaiks, that is, the rich, a death wound, would seldom escape falling a sacri- attendants, were always taller and more fice to his revenge for it. The modern way of boar- than the common class. He has seen some hunting is generally to despatch the creature by all above five feet five and six inches high; th the huntsmen striking him at once : but the ancient general they do not (he says) exceed five Roman way was for a person on foot, armed with a inches. This difference can only be attril spear to keep the creature at bay; and in this case their food, with which the former are suppli the boar would run of himself upon the spear to abundantly than the latter : and the effects come at the huntsman, and push forward till the are equally evident in the Arabian and I spear pierced him through.
camels ; for these latter, dwelling in countr Hunting the wild boar, at the present time, is by in forage, are become a species more rob no means a common amusement. The king of Na- fleshy than the former. It may likewise be a ples, still encourages the breeding of those animals that the lower class of Bedouins live in a in his royal hunting grounds, for the purposes of the habitual wretchedness and famine. It will chase ; in some parts of Africa also, and in the almost incredible to us, but it is an undoubt. East Indies, this dangerous sport is still followed. that the quantity of food usually consumed
The cut on the opposite page, is from a picture by greatest part of them does not exceed six o Horace Vernet: it represents a scene which occur- day. This abstinence is most remarkable red near Algiers, since it has been occupied as a the tribes of the Najd and the Hedjaz. Six French colony. The principal individual is Jous- dates soaked in melted butter, a little sweet souf Bey, a man whose devotion to the French, and curds, serve a man a whole day; and he whose influence over the Turks, are well known. himself happy when he can add a small qua
coarse flour, or a little ball of rice. Meat is ed for the greatest festivals : and they neve
kid but for a marriage or a funeral. A few LIVING COSTUMES.
and generous shaiks alone can kill young
and eat baked rice with their victuals. In The Bedouin Arabs in general, are small, mea- dearth, the vulgar, always half famished, do ger, and tawny; more so, however, in the heart of dain the most wretched kinds of food ; and the desert than on the frontiers of the cultivated coun-custs, rats, lizards, and serpents, broiled on try; but they are always of a darker hue than the Hence are they such plunderers of the ci
lands and robbers on the high-roads : hence also stated price, in money or in flocks Without this their delicate constitution and their diminutive and satisfaction, there is neither peace nor truce, nor meager bodies, which are rather active than vigor- alliances, between them, nor sometimes even be
It may be worth while to remark, that their tween whole tribes: “there is blood between us,” say evacuations of every kind, even perspiration, are ex- they on every occasion ; and this expression is an tremely small; their blood is so destitute of serosity insurmountable barrier. Such accidents being nethat nothing but the greatest heat can preserve its cessarily numerous in a long course of time, the fluidity. This, however, does not prevent them greater part of the tribes have ancient quarrels, and from being tolerably healthy in other respects ; for live in an habitual state of war · which, added to maladies are less frequent among them than among their way of life, renders the Bedouins a military the inhabitants of the cultivated country.
people, though they have made no great progress in The Bedouin Arabs, are divided into tribes, which war as an art. constitute so many distinct nations. Each of these Their camps are formed in a kind of irregular cirtribes appropriates to itself a traet of land forming its cle, composed of a single row of tents, with greater domain ; in this they do not differ from cultivating or less intervals. These tents, made of goat or camnations, except that their territory requires a greater el's hair, are black or brown, in which they differ extent, in order to furnish subsistence for their herds from those the of Turkmen, which are white. They throughout the year. Each tribe is collected in one are stretched on three or four pickets, only five or or more camps, which are dispersed through the six feet high, which gives them a very flat appearcountry, and which make a successive progress ance ; at a distance one of these camps seems only over the whole, in proportion as it is exhausted by like a number of black spots ; but the piercing eye the cattle ; hence it is, that within a great extent a of the Bedouin is not to be deceived. Each tent few spots only are inhabited, which vary from one inhabited by a family is divided by a curtain into day to another; but as the entire space is necessary two apartments, one of which is appropriated to the for the annual subsistence of the tribe, whoever en
The empty space within the large circle croaches on it is deemed a violater of property ; serves to fold their cattle every evening. They this is with them the law of nations. If therefore, never have any entrenchments; their only advanced a tribe, or any of its subjects, enter upon a foreign guards and patrols are dogs; their horses remain territory, they are treated as enemies and robbers, faddled and ready to mount on the first alarm ; but and a war breaks out. Now, as all the tribes have as there is neither order nor regularity, these camps, affinities with each other by alliances of blood or always easy to surprise, afford no defence in case conventions, leagues are formed, which render these of an attack ; accidents, therefore, very frequently wars more or less general. The manner of proceed- happen, and cattle are carried off every day : a ing on such occasions, is very simple. The offence species of marauding war in which the Arabs are made known, they mount their horses and seek the very experienced. enemy; when they meet, they enter into a parley, The tribes which live in the vicinity of the Turks and the matter is frequently made up; if not, they are still more accustomed to attacks and alarms;
for attack either in small bodies, or man to man. They these strangers, arrogating to themselves, in right of encounter each other at full speed with fixed lances, conquest, the property of the whole country, treat which they sometimes dart, notwithstanding their the Arabs as rebel vassals, or as turbulent and danlength, at the flying enemy : the victory is rarely gerous enemies. On this principle, they never cease contested; it is decided by the first shock, and the to wage secret or open war against them. Somevanquished take to flight full gallop over the naked times they contest with them a territory which they plain of the desert. Night generally favours their had let them, and at others demand a tribute which escape from the conqueror. The tribe which has they never agreed to pay. Should a family of shaiks lost the battle, strikes its tents, removes to a distance be divided by interest or ambition, they alternately by forced marches, and seeks an asylum among its succour each party, and conclude by the destruction allies. The enemy, satisfied with their success, of both. Frequently, too, they poison or assassinate drive their herds farther on, and the fugitives soon those chiefs whose courage or abilities they dread, after return to their former situation. But the slaugh- though hey should even be their allies. The Arabs, ter made in those engagements frequently sows the on their side, regarding the Turks as usurpers and seeds of hatred which perpetuate these dissensions. treacherous enemies, watch every opportunity to do The interest of the common safety has for ages es- them injury. Unfortunately, their vengeance falls tablished a law among them, which decrees that the oftener on the innocent than the guilty. The harsblood of every man who is slain, must be avenged less peasant generally suffers for the offences of the by that of his murderer. This vengeance is called soldier. On the slightest alarm, the Arabs cut their Tar, or retaliation; and the right of exacting it de-harvests, carry off their flocks, and intercept their volves on the nearest of kin to the deceased. So communication and commerce. The peasants call nice are the Arabs on this point of honour, that if them thieves, and with reason; but the Bedouins any one neglects to seek his retaliation he is dis- claim the right of war, and perhaps they also are not graced for ever. He therefore watches every op- in the wrong. However this may be, these depreportunity of revenge ; if his enemy perishes from dations occasion a misunderstanding between the any other cause, still he is not satisfied, and his Bedouins and the inhabitants of the cultivated counvengeance is directed against the nearest relation. try, which renders them mutual enemies. These animosities are transmitted as an inheritance from father to children, and never cease.. but by the By united effort, the theorist and the practical extinction of one of the families, unless they agree man may accomplish much, which neither could to sacrifice the criminal, or purchase the blood for a effect alone.
line a, b, c, indicates the direction in which
son looks, it will be seen therefore that as s THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH.
ceeds, her hull will appear to sink gradua In giving to our readers the following general the water, and as the distance increases he view of astronomy, we are aware that but little to- gradually lose more and more of her, till he wards a perfect elucidation of that sublime science ney will have entirely disappeared, as can be done in so very small a space as is allowed shown at c. This will occur were the funne us; yet are we persuaded that, after an attentive six feet four inches high, and the ship ten mil perusal of our remarks, the reader will be impressed the observer. It will be observed again tha with some tolerable knowledge of the grand features losing sight of the steamer at с, the spectato of this noble study, and his mind prepared for the diately ascend the tower in the rear, he will reception of the more profound branches.
bled to look over the rounded protuberance By the study of astronomy, we learn to believe water, which before impeded his sight, and that the earth on which we live is one of a count- same vessel for ten miles farther. less host of similar worlds, with which the Almighty From accurate data on this apparent der hand has bespotted the heavens of infinity that are of a steamer at sea, and a little knowledge vaulted over us. The perception of man is indeed nometry, it would appear that the ship was limited, but in proportion as the power of opticks is upon the arc of a circle, whose diameter was developed, so is the greatness of the Creator, and eight thousand miles; a fact which has been the number of worlds he has made, nobly brought to dantly proved by many of the bold navigato view. With the naked eye we can see only about have sailed from England in a westerly di a thousand stars, nor in both hemispheres are there and after navigating three hundred and sixtyd to be seen more than three thousand one hundred of longitude, have returned in an easterly one and twenty-eight. Of these, there are about twenty much to prove the sphericity of the globe : w of the first magnitude, seventy-six of the second, now refer to the attraction of gravitation. two hundred and twenty-three of the third, five hun- All substances are made up of minute parts dred and ten of the fourth, six hundred and ninety- philosophers call atoms, and each possesses five of the fifth, and sixteen hundred and four of the tractive power in proportion to the quantity sixth. Hence it will be observed that, in point of ter, or number of atoms of which it is com number, they increase in proportion to their magni- Hence any large substance suspended in tude or distance, since the number of stars of the will attract or draw towards it all small subs tenth magnitude seen in Sir John Herschel's tele- or particles that may be floating near it, and scope may be said, comparatively speaking, to be will do equally on all its sides; and by the infinite. Of the milky-way, there passes over the rule, a large body floating on the water wi field of his forty-feet reflector the immense number sensibly attract small ones to it. So the eart of 116,000 stars in a quarter of an hour. That we ing the greatest degree of ponderosity or may give some idea of space, it may be well to ob- attracts, or powerfully draws to its surface a serve, that in the 66 Philosophical Transactions," wards its centre all bodies upon it, and at a it is said that Dr. Bradley found the distance of distance from its surface. This property is the nearest of the fixed stars, (Sirius,) to be 7,- the attraction of gravitation. 600,000,000,000 miles. Now it is taken as data The degree of weight of a substance of an among high astronomical authorities, that a star of arises entirely from the earth's attractive pr the second magnitude is twice as distant as one of
The accompany the first, that one of a third magnitude is three times
agram represen as far, and so on to the tenth magnitude, of which
earth with a h Sir John Herschel states, “the light, though travel
kind of well cu ling at the rate of twelve millions of miles in a min
sufficient depth a ute, has been nearly two millions of years arriving
below the centre to the earth.” Hence then we are led to suppose
will explain the that the world we inhabit can be but a mere atom
of the attraction in this grand scale of creation ; and as it must ap
itation. Thus, pear to all that the first and most consistent study in
iron ball were d astronomy must be the earth—our resting-place, we
from a balloon shall at once proceed to describe its properties, be
above the surface ginning with its shape or figure.
earth, immediate [Gravitation)
this well, the mo the ball downward would be expedited in pro as it arrived near the earth's surface. Direct passing the orifice of the well at a, beforemen on its way to the centre, the power of att would begin to slacken ; and when the ball at b, its descent would be but slow, arising fr counter-attraction of the matter above it, so a much to decrease its sensible weight. At
when the ball, after being deprived of all s. The above sketch represents a steam-vessel, going weight by the strong attractive power of the from the shore out to sea, with a figure standing on above it, has laboured to the centre of the ea the beach watching it as it recedes. As the straight | cannot possibly fall furthcr or pass from its
the constant gravitating force of nearly four thousandgers were awakened by the wild minstrelsey of a sermiles of aqueous, and terraqueous matter pressing enading-party, who had quietly entered the lodge for on all sides. Hence the tendency of all matter is this purpose. By the glimmering of the lodge fire to the common centre, and the terms upward and the outlines of their persons were dimly delineated downward are explained by lines radiating from the as they formed a circle near the door ; and they recentre of the earth : from the earth's surface to the tired after performing one or two pieces, composed. centre is downward, while from the centre to the it is presumed, by old Thunder the drummer. The surface, is upward. It is by this law of attraction agent had been told that fuel and all the materials that ships, trees, houses, men, &c., stand firmly on were prepared for the sacrifice; and when the chiefs any part of the terraqueous globe, as in the case of and braves of the nation met him next day in counourselves, and our antipodes, or those whose feet cil, faint hopes were entertained of success. No are to our feet; nor shall we, or will they, move argument or persuasion, however, was omitted to from this line of attraction, but by an impetus having obtain the release of the captive. At the opening of more force than the power which attracts the ship the council, Captain Kennerly informed the chiefs or man, &c. to the earth's surface. Instances of that they were now to consider Mr. Dougherty as these opposing powers we often find in wind, as on their father, or agent, and desired them to listen to the sails of a ship, or against a tree, and in the mus- him. Mr. Dougherty's talk was long and animated. cular action we often see exhibited in the frame of He reminded them of several promises which the
Pawnees had made to the whites, to discontinue the practice of burning their captives; he recalled their attention to the solemn assurances given by the Knife
chief and his son to Manuel Lisa, all now dead, that THE PAWNEE SACRIFICE.
this horrid practice should never be resumed by The following particulars in relation to an ancient their nation. This was an address to their supersticustom, still existing to some extent in the Pawnee tious fears, for the Pawnees believe that the spirits nation, and a sketch of transactions witnessed there of departed chiefs and warriours hover over them, and may contain matter of interest to some of our read- observe their actions. It was likewise urged in
council, in general terms, that by acceding to the Information had been communicated to Mr. propositions of the agent, the tribe would make the Dougherty, acting agent of Indian affairs at Council most effectual advances in the good opinion and Bluffs, by Major Pilcher, that the Pawnee Loups friendship of the whites, whom it was believed they were making preparation to sacrifice to the “Great would not willingly offend. It was observed, soon Star” a Paducah woman, who had been captured by after opening the council, that the principal men of a war party about two months previous. Mr. Font- the tribe were disposed to release the captive ; and enelle, engaged in the Indian trade, had remonstra- the first and second chiefs had, the evening before, ted with the chiefs against their barbarous purpose, signified their anxiety to effect this object. Those without having changed it; and Mr. Papin, the res- in opposition to this humano measure were such as ident trader, made an effort to apprize the agent had enjoyed least intercourse th the whites. The of their intentions. All that had been hitherto effect- women and children were clamorous for the sacried only amounted to delay of the execution for a few fice; the former, that t’iey might enjoy a savage days, until the agent could signify his wishes; and in mental repast—the latter were only anxious to see the meantime, the victim was kept in the medicine- the show. In this they evince the same bad taste lodge, in charge of the high-priest, to fatten for the observable among their white brethren, on occasions sacrifice. It had been the intention of Mr. Dough- of similar spectacles. As the authority of the chief erty, as soon as advised of the above facts, to send his depends on his personal popularity, the agent had protest against this cruelty, and solicit of the Paw- reason to fear his red friends could not effect their nee chiefs the release of the captive; but to a prop- object; particularly when it was recollected that red osition from Captain G. H. Kennerly, agent for the women have greater influence in state affairs, than Sioux, that they should both visit the Pawnees in we are disposed to allow those who have fairer preperson and attempt a rescue, he assented. The com- tensions. manding officer at the post having mounted a small There was a warriour conspicuous in council, as escort, the agents, accompanied by several officers well on account of his standing in the nation, as his attached to the garrison, set forward. On the fifth tawdry costume. His name was Bad Moccasin. day after their departure they reached the old Grand This red gentleman wore a gold-laced scarlet coai, Pawnee village, where they were told that the .cap- a necklace of white-bear talons ; and he stood an tive would be executed the next day, and that many upright man, in a green leggin and a crimson one, of the Grand Pawnees had gone up to the Loup the advocate for mercy, the friend of Christians. He village to witness it. Having despatched a runner was not a bad representative of the cavaliers of the to advise them of the approach of the party, they reign of Charles I. He had visited the metropolis proceeded and reached the Loups that evening. On of the union; and, in language as bold as it was eloentering the town they were met by the principal quent, he urged the release of the captive. · By his chief, who provided for their accommodation the most intercourse with white men, he said, he was convinspacious lodge in his village, which was found ced of the impropriety of the sacrifice. He had ta"swept and garnished.” The party supped at an ken his great father at Washington by tlie hand, and early hour with “mine host,” and by special invita- pledged himself to oppose these barbarous rites. A tion five times afterward with as many red gentlemen, young brave, likewise, told his countrymen that he who gave them excellent fare. Their civilities did knew it was the opinion of Pawnees that these sacnot end here. About one o'clock at night, the stran- rifices would ensure them prosperity at the hards of
the Master of life. But, said he, let us distrust our council; and the presents were distributed i
We must die ; they must die ; and the Mas- the village could address her in the Paducah lan
. Through this odd collection of supernatural trifles, resembli medicine he affected to hold communion with the witching mixture of Shakspeare's weird Deity. After resuming his seat, he proceeded to which is an hereditary property in the Big As state in substance as follows: “I had believed the ily. When the big medicine-man deems it ad Master of Life would be very angry if we withheld to procure a subject for sacrifice, he comm the promised sacrifice ; but I find that I can so ar- medicine to the care of a san at the hea range the medicine, or, in other words, our spiritual war-party, as he is about to open a campaig and temporal relations with him, as to secure, with commands him to appropriate one or more out the burnt-offering, general prosperity--plenty of captives he may make to the Big Star, or plan buffalo, and abundance of corn.” After a few sol- nus. When the prisoner is brought in, he is emn flourishes and several supernatural attitudes, over to this high priest of Beelzebub, who ce old Medicine departed. When no longer embarras- him in the medicine-lodge, where every possi sed by the ill-omened eyeballs of the prophet, the ertion is made to fatten the victim for the sa chiess proceeded to collect the sentiments of the Meantime, the medicine-men relieve each o several clans or families, who had attended the the duty of guarding the subject, and in chant