Page images

great rapidity, and at an astonishingly cheap rate. The Chinese have never attempted the use of moveable types; all their books, illustrative or descriptive, being printed from wooden blocks, cut in the manner described ; and this mode is to them far more economical, owing to the low price of workmanship of every kind.

Their method of printing is simple, and peculiar to themselves. The block must be in a firm and level position, being first tightly fixed in a larger piece of wood to give it stability; in front of this the paper is placed, cut to the proper size. The ink (which is merely a reduction without oil of that known as Indian ink) being distributed on a smooth piece of board, the workman takes a moderately stiff brush, which he dips into it, and rubs the block carefully therewith. The paper is next laid over, and rubbed with a second brush, which is soft, and shaped like an oblong cushion; the paper not beingo sized, a gentle pressure is sufficient, which may be repeated or regulated, as occasion may offer. A third brush very stiff, is used for cleaning the blocks. These brushes are curiously made of the fine fibres of the palm or cocoanut-trees. A set of these printing materials, supposed to be the only specimens in Europe, may be seen in the museum of the English East India Company. In the manner de

scribed, without the aid of any press, have all imPLANE-TREE.

pressions been taken in China, from the earliest

periods to the present day. Their paper being so There seems to be no doubt that the plane-tree is very thin, is printed on one side only, and each leaf the Armon of Scripture, since the Arabic, Greek, in their books is folded in binding, and the edges Syrian, and Vulgate versions all agree in so consider-turned inward, and stitched with silk. There is ing it. The Platanus orientalis was a very favour-much neat and curious execution about some of their ite tree among the ancients, as the classical reader cuts, but they seldom go beyond outlines, and are well knows. The term Platanus, is from a Greek altogether deficient in the true principles of draw. word signifying "broad," and applies to the diffu- ing. sive shade of this delightful tree, which was in fact Much disputation has arisen as to the period when the quality that recommended it to the attachment engraving was first practised in Europe. The earof Eastern nations. The Hebrew appellation Armon liest specimen of which there is any record is said comes from a root which signifies to be stripped, and to have been executed, on wood, at Ravenna, in agrees very well with the plane, when the bark spon- | 1285. In the next, or fourteenth century, the protaneously peels off, and leaves the trunk apparently ductions of the art were chiefly playing-cards and bare. The chestnut has a wide spreading top, but figures of saints. It was practised, first in the Veits bark, though curiously cleft into oblong cells, netian States, and afterward in Germany and the does not peel off, as in the plane and birch. Low Countries, to a great extent. The impressions

appear to have been taken by a hand-roller, the press not being known until the following century, in the early part of which larger subjects, of a devotional

kind, with inscriptions, were engraved. Several of WOOD ENGRAVING.

these curious prints are still extant; amongst them, [Dunlap's Arts of Design.]

in the possession of Earl Spencer, is the celebrated

one of St. Christopher bearing the infant Jesus, reAs engraving and printing unquestionably had markable as being the earliest print to which is astheir origin in China, it will be proper to give a signed a certain date, viz. 1423. The success of sketch of the peculiar modes practised in that em- these gave rise to a more extensive application of pire. The design is made on a thin, transparent the art. Scriptural designs of many figures were paper, and pasted with the face downward on the cut with descriptive texts on each block; they were block; it is then engraved by cutting through the printed on one side only of the paper, and two of the paper into the wood, leaving standing only those prints were frequently pasted together to form one portions of the surface which appear black in the leaf, with a picture on each side : entire sets were drawing. Their tools are similar in many respects subsequently bound up, and thus were formed the to those of other block-cutters, ancient and modern, block books so well known to antiquaries. The consisting of a knife for outlining, with gouges, Apocalypse of St. John, probably the first of these chisels, &c. of various shapes, for clearing away the works, was published about the year 1420; one of wood. They use them with much celerity, espe- the identical blocks cut for it still exists in the library cially the knise, which they guide with both hands; of Earl Spencer. The latest and most noted of this facility enables them to furnish their blocks with them, the “ Speculum Humanæ Salvationis," ap.

VOL. 1.-27


peared in 1440, and being partly printed from move- during the process of cutting; and it is usually cor-
able wooden types, became the connecting medium ered with paper, which is removed by degrees as
that gradually introduced the invaluable art of typog required. It will be apparent also, how much de-
raphy, which, facilitating the production of books, pends upon the skill of the engraver, when it is con-
was the means of greatly increasing the demand for sidered, that with every line cut by the tool, a por-
wood-cuts, for primers, prayer-books, &c. In 1457, tion of the effect of his original is removed, and his
Faust produced his Psalter, printed with metal types, recollective powers and taste must be in constant
and initials in colours from blocks. Typography exercise, to preserve the points of the design ; and
was introduced into England in 1474, but was ex- the block must be wholly engraved before any im-
ecuted in a ruder manner than on the continent ; i pression can be taken. The copper-engraver, on
and till 1493, wood-cuts every where consisted of the contrary, is enabled to take progressive proofs
little more than outline. In that year, a great im- of his work, and has his original drawing unim-
"provennent was perceptible, and attempts were made paired, constantly before him. The latter has also

at cross-hatching. This was carried to a much another important advantage, in what is termed tint-
higher perfection by Albert Durer, an eminent ing; inasmuch as all his skies and flat back-grounds
painter, who published several large works of high can be cut on the plate itself by mechanical means;
talent, and who engraved on copper as well as wood. and his various tints are thereby produced with every
The sixteenth century produced Holbein, and many required delicacy. The wood-engraver can have
other able wood-engravers, in several parts of conti- no such facility; all depends upon the steadiness of
nental Europe. In the seventeenth century the art the eye and hand, properly to effect the object, by
visibly declined, owing 10 the superiour cultivation cutting line after line individually, without any auxil-
of copper-engraving, and by the year 1700, it had iary assistance whatever.
sunk to a very depressed state. With the exception These brief explanations may show the principles
of the French family of Papillon, its annals afford on which all wood-engravings are effected. Thus,
ne name of distinction, till 1768, when Bewick, who whether the design relate to landscape, the human
had ile genius of a painter, appeared. His works figure, or any other subject, it must be composed of
are well known, and effected, by their excellence, an infinite number and variety of projecting portions
the restoration of an almost lost. art. Other artists of wood, produced by those delineations which, in
have since introduced a richer and more varied style the judgement of the engraver, are best calculated
of workmanship, which has led to the adoption of to convey, when printed, the desired effect.
the art to so wide an extent as must ever prevent The ancient inode of working was on the side of
its again sinking into neglect.

the grain, the wood being cut the longitudinal way
The theory and practice of this art are in prin- of the tree; this method continued, for all wood-cuts,
ciple the reverse of engraving on copper; in the till about the year 1725, when the present method
latter the lines to be printed are sunk or cut in the was commenced in England, of cutting the tree
plate ; these being filled with ink, are by means of transversely, or across. This plan, presenting the
a rolling-press transferred in effect to the paper. In end of the grain, admits, from its greater tenacity,
wood-engraving, on the contrary, the parts that are of a finer kind of workmanship, and the application
to appear must be raised, or rather left untouched, or the description of tools before named. 'The
and hence it is frequently termed relief-engraving block-cutters for paper-hangings, &c. have their
In printing, the surface is only charged with ink, wood prepared in the same way as the old masters,
and the impression is taken as from types. The and of course use similar tools; the chief of which
copper-engraver rarely uses more than three tools is a knife, shaped somewhat like a lancet, with
of the kind called burins, or gravers. The artist on which the line must be cut on both sides, and the
wood requires according to circumstances, from ten superfluous wood must be removed by gouges, chisels,
to fifteen or eighteen, called gravers, tools for tinting &c. of various shapes, as derived originally from
and sculptures, the latter are used for cutting out the the Chinese. When we consider tha
- broader parts which are to be left white. - The ear- all the finished works of the ancients were produced,
; lier artists cut on various kinds of wood, such as the it attaches a very great degree of merit to them ; it

apple, pear, &c.: these being termed soft woods, being evidently a more tedious process than the
* are now only in request for calico-printing, and other modern ; since, if a line be cut with a knife, it must
manufacturing purposes; for as the style of work be met by another line, before any wood can be
improved, they were abandoned, and box was tried taken out; whereas, in the present mode, the graver,
on account of its superiour texture and compactness, as it cuts the incision, removes the wood at the in-
which have caused it to be the only kind used for stant of operation.
every subject that can be properly termed a work of The value of wood-engraving is becoming daily
art. The surface of the wood to be engraved is more and more apparent in both hemispheres, by
carefully planed, scraped, &c. so as to render it as the demands on the talents of those who practise it.
smooth as possible, in order to receive the drawing Its prominent points and beauties will hereby, by
which must be put on the block itself, previously to degrees, become more universally understood; but
commencing the engraving. The artist in its ex- for this a thorough reformation in printing is neces-
ecution, has to arrange the strength and direction of sary. Considering the innumerable works contin-
the lines required for the various parts and distan- ually issued, illustrated with wood-cuts, the publick
ces, so that the printed impression, though composed have, with very few exceptions, but little chance of
of different series of interlineations, may present duly estimating its merits ; since, in the greater
the same character in effect as the original drawing. number of these books, the engravings are printed

Much care is requisite, on the part of the engra- in so heedless a manner, as scarcely to deserve, by ver, to prevent a delicate design from being rubbed their appearance, the name of embellishments.

in this way



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



FARMERS' DEPARTMENT. which allows them this sweet free range, and which,

saves the poor beautiful creatures from all harm.

Here are the woods too. As I rode through their THE GREATEST FARM IN, ENGLAND.

long winding lanes to-day on horseback, the air was The correspondent of the Boston Transcript, filled with the perfume of forest flowers, and with furnishes the following interesting account of the the chirping and fluttering of birds. The yellowManor of Mr. Coke, in Norfolk-recently elevated hammer whirred away on his gay speckled wings, as to the Peerage by Queen Victoria.

we trotted up to him; the shining blue-jay glanced HOLKAM HALL, Norfolk, June, 1837. This place “ like a javelin by;" and " the wood-pecker tapped is renowned throughout England at least, as the at the hollow beech-tree.” seat, and especially as the farm, of old Mr. Coke, The remoter lawns are spotted with little flocks of the father of the farmers of Norfolk ; and I am hap- sheep, of which over three thousand are kept on the py, therefore, to have enjoyed an excellent opportu- place, of the famous South Devon breed. One meets nity of seeing the estate. I shall not probably find also in the pastures these fine sleek, bright looking, in Great Britain a better specimen either of the style Devon cattle, browzing in herds. There are more of life or of a “good old country gentleman” of this than three hundred of them including an immense realm, and of the ancient school, or of the manage- dairy, besides Scotch cattle. Beyond the lawns, ment of a first rate practical proprietor's estate. Let one gets at once into the cultivation, and a ring of me begin by giving you some idea of the latter; this, skirted and sheltered here and there with ave. premising that this is the same Mr. Coke' who mov- nues and copses of trees, encircles the whole estate. ed, in the House of Commons, the discontinuance of I rode along the edge of a field of one hundred and the American war of '75, and who, having carried it thirty acres of barley in one place. In another were in that great and excited body by a majority of one, sixty acres of wheat; and there were two fields of was himself, at the suggestion of his friend Mr. Fox, peas, of twenty-five and twenty-seven acres. 'The appointed at the head of a committee to take up an arable land is divided about equally between these address to His Majesty George III, in pursuance of grains, turnips, and grass, which four crops, somethe vote.

This he did in his farmer's dress, with times having grass for two seasons, constitutes the his whítė topp'd boots and frock os, for that was the routine of the succession of tillage on the same costume. Every American must respect the old ground. There are in cultivation at prescrit about man for this achievement, and they will not like four hundred and thirty acres of wheat and barley him less to know that every day at his table, during each, and in fine condition. The head farmer told that barbarous war, he was accustomed, as he often me that thirty bushels an acre is rather an indifferent declares now, to drink the health of Gen. Washing: crop, and that forty and fifty are more “the right ton, as the greatest man in existence. This liberal thing." It must be borne in mind, when I say this, spirit has always distinguished Mr. Coke, and he that Holkam has been completely made over by Mr. began his career in Parliament with the war itself, Coke. When he succeeded to the estaie, it was but and remained in it near sixty years. Were he still a mere desert. There were no trees here even, and a member, which his age eighty-two now prevents, he it was hardly believed the land would let them grow. ' would by many years be the “Father of the House." Mr. Coke says the rabbits were the only creatures

Well! Now for the estate ; and first, merely as a who could live on it, and they were starving! Now farmer's. The land here is about three thousand five what a triumph is this ! Go with me to-day into hundred acres ; nearly the whole of it is enclosed by this village of Holkam, which all belongs virtually a neat, high, brick wall extending about a circuit of to the estate, and lives by it in one way or another. ten miles. This comprises the plantations of wood, Here are five hundred persons, probably, besides and a beautiful “ lake," as they call it, both of which those sent off, well provided for elsewhere. Their are wholly artificial. The latter is the finest artifi- cottages are a curiosity of rural neatness and concial water that ever saw, and quite deceived me. fort. Little gardens surround them, and flowers Nothing could appear more originally rural than its hang out of the windows and climb over the doorborders which are completely overshadowed with ways. Some one hundred and fifty persons are emforests, and as wild altogether as if I had discovered ployed on the farm alone. Then in the gardens, them and the lake itself in the depth of some solitude the light acres of which are surrounded with a wall of Michigan. All these woods have been planted. fourteen hundred yards long and fourteen feet high, The estate is plentifully sprinkled over with various are perhaps forty more; in the brickyard twenty, in species of trees, in copses, in acres of forest, and in the blacksmith's shop ten; and some wheel-wrights; avenues; and all is artificial work, and yet that art and game-keepers, I dare say; and a little army of so perfect that the warmest lover of nature cannot servants, of course, for in the mansion, when the desire more.

Instead of a mere park, in one body, family are here, twenty females alone are employed. it is as one wants it-every where an ornament and The women do some work also on the farm; such a shelter-over hill and dale--but nowhere in ex- as weeding the grain, which, as well as the peas, cess, or yet in the way of the farmer. Immediately and in fact all the crops, is drilled. I saw twenty around the mansion, (of which hereafter,) indeed, women in one field, weeding. Beyond that, and are only gardens, walks, and a wide extent of velvet outside of the walls of the regular estate, we came lawns on every side ; but even these latter are mark- to a "little bit of a plantation, of only six hundred ed with their owner's scheme of the practical. It more. Here they were hard at work. In one field, is not only the pheasant I see shuffling about here where wrnips were sowing, all the processes went in these cool shades. It is not alone the graceful on at once. There were twenty men and boys deer that browze and bound along these soft lawns. spreading manure, out of five or six carts, drawn by These are a charm to the cyc, and I like the taste hree horses each ; (of which there are a hundred on

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

MAGAZINE, the place,) five or six ploughs, drawn by two, who can prepare the ground, plant, and cultivate five acres ploughed" without a driver ; ihen two cast iron round of beets in a season, and the product would doubtrolls, by two; three or four harrows, by one; two less yield many tons of saccharine matter." drill machines, self sowing, by two; and then the harrow again brought up the rear... I ought to speak of the almshouse for the old, and the schools for the

A PRODUCTIVE PEACH FARM. young, and of the farming system more in detail, but Mr. Jacob Ridgeway has a farm near Delaware there is no room. I will only add that young farm- city, in this county, on which he commenced planters come here from all quarters to learn the science. ing a peach orchard in the year 1831. In the seven I saw four of them riding over the grounds this morn-years which have elapsed since he commenced the ing, who are under the care of the manager. The plantation, Mr. Ridgeway has planted one hundred whole place is considered a model of both the sci- and forty acres-one hundred trees to the acre. The ence and the art of farming.

produce of the present year is estimated at one hundred baskets per acre, or fourteen thousand baskets

of peaches. The peaches, of which he presented SUGAR BEET.

us some specimens, are of the finest kind, large and A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette furnish- of delicious flavour. Two schooners are constantly es the following interesting facts, collected by ob- employed in transporting the fruit to the Philadelphia servation in relation to the cultivation of Beet. and New York markets, where, we understand, it

“When on a visit to the farm of our enterprising meets with ready sale at three, four, and five dollars citizen, Lot Pugh, thirty-two miles north of our per basket. It is estimated that his peach crop

will city, I saw white Sugar Beets, raised from seed im- yield a profit during the present year of twenty thouported from France, which measured thirty inches in sand dollars.

Delaware Paper. circumference, and weighed, after being removed from the ground and divested of foreign substances, twenty-two pounds. Although the specimen which TO PREVENT HORSES BEING TEASED WITH FLIES. was measured and weighed, was taken from a field Take two or three small handfuls of walnut leaves, of several acres, still it probably was not the largest upon which pour two or three quarts of cold soft for the greater part of the crop appeared to be of water, let it infuse one night, and pour the whole equal magnitude. A Mangel Wurtzel from the same the next morning into a kettle, and let it boil for a grounds and raised from imported seed also, meas- quarter of an hour, when cold it will be ready for ured twenty-five inches in circumference, and weigh- use. Nothing more is required than to moisten a ed sixteen pounds and a half. It must be observed sponge with the liquor, and before the horse goes that as these beets were removed from the earth on out of the stable let those parts which are most irrithe twenty-third of August, they had not attained table be smeared over with the liquor, viz., between their full growth. Indeed, it is probable that many and upon the ears, the neck, the flank, &c. _Not of the former may measure three feet in circumfer- only the lady or gentleman who rides out for pleasence, and the latter two and a half, when they are ure, will derive benefit from the walnut leaves thus fully grown.

prepared, but the coachman, the wagoner, and all The manager of the farm, informed me that he others who use horses during the hot months. raised fifty tons, actual weight, of beets to the acre, last year, and that his crop is much better the present season. He also said that it required but little

THE SILK BUSINESS. more labour to raise fifty tons of beets than fifty bush- France is considered a silk growing country, yet els of corn, while the former was quite as good for she does not grow sufficient for her own manuhorses, much better for cattle, and rather better for factures and it is said annually imports raw silk to stock hogs. He also asserted that sucking calves the amount of six millions of dollars. preferred beets, when properly prepared, to milk. England, owing to the humidity of her climate, Indeed, I could almost select from among fifty-six cannot raise the worms to advantage, and for her head of fine Durham cattle, those that had been fed, numerous manufactories is obliged annually to imduring the last season on beets. They were not port the raw material from other countries to the only fatter but smoother, and better grown than those amount of seventeen millions of dollars. It is stated that had been kept on other food.

that we import annually of raw silk to the amount of Although cattle and hogs will eat beets in a raw about ten millions of dollars, and of the manufactured state, still they are much better when boiled. The over sixteen millions. apparatus and fixtures used by Mr. Pugh for boiling, Unless the United States pushes the culture of or rather steaming food for three hundred hogs, and the mulberry and raising of cocoons beyond any forty or fifty cows, with other slock, cost about one thing now in operation, many long years must interhundred and fisty dollars, and consumes a quarter of vene before we can supply the demand of our own a cord of wood per day.

markets. Inhabiting, as we do, one of the best cliAmong the Durham cattle on the farm of Mr. Pugh, mates in the world for manufacturing silk of the best I observed some very fine young males, and among quality, instead of paying ten millions of dollars anthem, Lebanon, an animal of superiour growth and nually to other nations for the raw material, we ought figure.

to export two or three times that amount. Mr. P. has not attempted to make sugar from his It is said our import of silk stuffs exceeds our beets, but if its manufacture is profitable any where export of bread stuffs--why is this? Only because from this article, it would certainly be so here, for we do not appreciate and improve the means we no soil can produce a better growth. Two hands have. Let our intelligent farmers be convinced that





the silk business is profitable, and then we can hope. The property, dignity, and comfort of a farmer that every exertion will be made to extend the culti- will be found, if any where, in his house, out-houses, ration of the mulberry and raising of cocoons. farm, garden, cattle, tools, and the education of his

It is a matter of regret, that any one should view children. the subject as a wild project, and say, that although

First, Education. The common district schools, it may be a good business for a few


if found lucrative, every body will engage in it, and glut the New England receive their education, are kept gen

where a large portion of the children of farmers in market. We wish the subject could be so represented to our fellow citizens, as to impress them with the erally by men in the winter, and by women in the

The men's schools, in the town of Stockimportance of examining the subject on the broad scale of greater national importance than any agri- is probably about the average of other towns in New

bridge, average about four months in the year, which cultural subject ever yet pursued.

But if doubts and fears shall remain, we only ask England, and this is all the instruction that many them to commence the culture of the mulberry on a

sons gel from male instructers, till they are

about sixteen limited scale for a few years, not to interfere with the schools altogether, for the farm, for trades, or



age, when they generally leave any other agricultural pursuit

. Let the experiment business of some kind or other. In some parts of be made upon some of our almost barren and useless the country, private schools are now growing up, portions of poor, dry, stony, and gravelly soil.

It may be asked, if the silk business can be made which being supported by subscription, are very sumore profitable than any crop, why not take the best periour to the common district schools, and are atand richest land ?-a fair question indeed, but such tended by the children of the more intelligent class

of farmers. land is not best for the Chinese mulberry, and it kept in small, cold, and inconvenient buildings,

The common schools are generally would be desirable to have every patch of poor, where thirty, forty and sometimes a much larger waste, dry land devoted to some useful purpose.

number, are huddled together, and taught by one Northampton Courier.

master, The masters are often young men, many POTATOES.

of them yet students in the colleges, not more than Lime has been used by some of our farmers in eighteen or twenty years of age. The average wa

in these schools are about twelve or fourteen raising potatoes. They find it beneficial, not only dollars a month, besides board, &c., which is a little to the potato crop, but to the succeeding crops. Its effects are visible for several years. The manner

more than farmers' hired men get, and less than me.

chanicks receive. These masters are too young of applying it is, to put a spoonful in a hill after the potatoes are dropped, and cover the lime and pota- and this, then, is one of the most melancholy marks

and inexperienced to be qualified for their tasks; toes together. Not only is the quantity of the crop of the poverty of large numbers of American farmers ; increased, but the quality is improved by it. Potatoes have become, to a considerable extent,

that their children are wretchedly educated. an artice of export, and may be reckoned one of the Farmers' houses and out-houses.--The old houses most profitable crops on farms situated near naviga- of the northern states having generally been built of ble waters. The South will always depend on us wood are many of them greatly out of repair, and for their supply, if we send them a good article. comfortless. Éven in the richer parts of the state Should the state do any thing to facilitate transporta of New York, which have not been settled more than tion by canals and railroads, a general benefit will forty or fifty years, there are many houses and outbe felt among the farmers for the sale of this article. houses in a shameful state of decay, from mere neg

They may be raised at a very cheap rate on stub-lect and want of economy. While so many of the ble land. Á little lime to assist in decomposing the wives and daughters of the farmers, are running to stubble, is all the manure that is necessary to ensure the stores for fashionable gewgaws and prefer fine a good crop, and by planting in straight drills, most ribbons, 10 fine farms, the principle of affection for, of the labour may be performed by a horse. Land and pride in the paternal estate, remains uncherishmay be prepared in this manner for a second crop of ed among us and this is the reason why many wheat. The lime applied to the potatoes is suffi- farmers after having so long neglected their farms, cient for the wheat, without another application. and buildings" are obliged finally to sell them for halt

Maine Farmer.

the price they ought to bring, and then move to the new states in a beggarly condition. In too many

of the farmers' barns, stables and out-houses, there CAUSES OF POVERTY IN THE UNITED STATES.

are the same unhappy marks of the poverty of the

owner-few, or no contrivances by shelter and other(Sedgwick's Publick and Private Economy.)

wise to save manure, or economize in any way, all of Poverty of farmers in the United States! The which cost money ; and this is the farmer's excuse reader will smile at the very mention of the name of _" that he is too poor to afford such labour-saving poverty among our farmers, after seeing how supe- improvements.” It is the opinion of some farmers riour their condition is, to that of the cultivators of at the north, that the produce of their towns might the earth in any other portions of it. Let be re- be doubled in ten years, by the proper use of plaster membered, than, that the inquiry here is, not about of Paris, and clover-seed; of many it might be great comparative poverty, båt real poverty. And what ly increased ; but they say that they are too poor to is meant by real poverty among the fariners? This afford the first cost of plaster, which is here, if is meant: that many, and most of them, are desti- ground, ten or eleven dollars the ton. This shows tute of solid comforts and enjoyments, which they the use of property, of capital, of having something might and ought to have.

on hand that can be laid out for the purpose of ma

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »