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ceasingly at his side infernal lullabies or anthems On the following morning, when the whites wer: of the damned. When the victim is brought out for ready to depart, five of the principal men of the execution, he is placed between two stakes resem-tribe, the first chief excepted, presented themselves bling May-poles, surmounted with a black flag. as in readiness to accompany the agent to the fort, The hands and feet are extended and made fast to and conduct the captive thither. The woman was these poles, and a small fire is kindled near the feet led out, and while the travellers were mounting, sheof the subject, in which irons are heated and applied was put into a saddle, but not until a knife was to his breast and groins. This torture is continued drawn to coerce her, by the brave who was charged until the sufferer is beginning to sink under it, when with this service. She was apprehensive that misthe spy or vidette of a war-party (previously organiz- chief was intended, and when in the saddle she reed for this ceremony) is seen approaching with the fused to take the guidance of her horse. The same same light-footed caution that is observed in actual warriour who lifted her to her seat led the horse, as
After enacting this mockery, he reports to the the party set forward. They had not cleared the chief of the war party that he has discovered the en- lodges, when an Indian from the covered entrance emy; that he is in an exposed position, and off his of one of them sprang forward, and met the whites guard. Under these circumstances an immediate with a bow strung and arrows in hand. The brave, attack is determined on, and the valorous war-party who led the horse, without an instant's hesitation, rush forward to the place of sacrifice, and despatch closed with himn and wrested the arms from his the yictim with a shower of arrows. After this, the grasp. In a moment, this mischievous fellow was fire is increased until the fat exudes freely from the succeeded by another from a like concealment, who, roasting subject. At this stage of the ceremony, the as he presented his diabolical visage to the clear women of the nation, who are corn-planters, press light of day, let fly an arrow that passed through the around the pile and oil their hoes, and, holding them robe and under dress of the captive, and penetrated up, implore abundant harvest. The arrows of the so far into her side as to inflict a mortal wound, braves, having been ingloriously dipped, as already While she was slowly sinking from her horse, the described, in the blood of the enemy, are fitted for brave who had led him applied his bow to the naked the exigences of a great buffalo-hunt.
shoulders of the murderer, in a style that Solomon In the evening after the council, it was rumoured himself, the ancient advocate for the use of the rod, in the village that a young brave had determined to would have approved. Thus began that mêlêe in kill the captive, and that he was loitering at the door which two political or religious parties, red men and of the lodge with his bow and arrows for that pur- a few whites, philanthropick aspirants, were likely pose. The chiefs, however, still assured the agent to sustain an unequal conflict. It was known to all that the affair was settled, and that she should de- the gentlemen present who were acquainted with part with him next day unmolested; and the son of the Indian character, that if blood had been shed Big Axe, the second chief, had given all his horses, among themselves, they, under the momentary exfirearms, and every article of his personal property, citement, would have sought to inflict vengeance on except his bows and arrows, to satisfy the people of the whites present. Thus, when the sedition arose, the nation. In this transaction he evinced his great- it was deemed a safe and just mode of winding up ness of soul ; and his firmness of purpose never ap- this unhappy affair by separating the conflicting parpeared to desert him but once, and then only for a ties. Accordingly, when a distinguished brave,
When his scarlet lace coat was spread whom they called the Big Sergeant, had tried the out, he cast an imploring look around him; but the force of his war-club across the naked shoulders of pang of separation was momentary—and he drew that warriour who first attempted the murder of the himself up, and, as his buffalo robe fell down from captive, and was about to repeat his blow, Captain his breast, he smote it with his clinched hand as he Kennerly interposed a ready and a strong arm, and exclaimed, “ Am I not a chief!" There may exist prevented his friend Big Sergeant from laying a somewhere a white philanthropist who would have head full of bumps open to craniological inspection.
had he given less. The captive still Mr. Dougherty, who had lingered at the door of the remained in custody of the chief to whom she had lodge to allow some of his red people to take leave been surrendered by the big medicine-man, and was of their father, was summoned to the scene of action this night guarded in the lodge by the young brave by the wailings of an old squaw, whose mock melwho had captured her.
ody howl was recognised by him as the echo of He sat at the entrance of the little recess where she mischief. He came in time to detach the murderer slept, with a naked sabre in his hand, apparently in- from a deadly conflict which he was entering upon dulging in as much self-respect as “a son of the with old Antoine, the head chief of the nation. moon, father of the stars, and chief of the brass-hilt- Doctor Gale was likewise active in quelling the ined sword.” “Let him come,” said he, supplying surrection. Mr. Papin, the resident trader, was words suited to the action, as he drew the polished present, and he, as well as Mr. Dougherty, addressed blade across the palm of his mahogany hand, " if he the braves in their own language; and the latter reis tired of life, and he shall find that the brave who peated to the chiefs what he had told them in counmade a captive can protect her.” The village was, cil, that he was satisfied with their conduct, and did during this night, as silent as the tenements of the not wish them to effect his views at the expense of dead. Not a song was raised, nor did a cheerful a single drop of Pawnee blood. While the tranlounger drop in, to evince his interest in the stran- quillity of the village was thus partially settled, the gers. But the chiefs, and a few files of red soldiers, slain captive had been borne off amid the cowardly (a kind of police officers,) sat with war-clubs in rest buffetings of those who ill deserved the name of around the lodge-fire, exchanging ideas below the men, although qualified with the term uncivilized. breath, and at the finger-ends,
When nothing further remained for them to do in
the villag , the disappointed philanthropists rode | her heroes have been recorded. Actions slowly out of it. As they proceeded homeward, heroick as those of Miltiades, Epaminondo they saw the body of the murdered captive dragged number of other great patriots in this class forward to the head of a ravine that crossed their try, may have been performed elsewhere trace, and a little out of their route, where it was having been
recorded by such writers as Th thrown down. To this point a column of about two Xenophon, Plutarch, and others of equal ta hundred warriours, garnished with women and chil. eloquence, have either failed to interest de dren, marched, that each might dip a war-club, or have fallen into total oblivion. some other weapon, in the blood of the slain, or Sallust has well observed, that to re “strike" a fallen enemy, an achievement esteemed actions of others is more difficult than to peculiarly valorous in a red man. It may proper those actions themselves; not only beca here to remark, that the captive was still in custody hard to acquire a correct knowledge of eve of the Pawnee chiefs when she was slain. Thus the motives which induced them, but bec the whites were spared the mortification of witnes- grandeur of the actions recorded, must be sing her death when under their protection.
by the nobleness of the style in which the The party was about two miles from the village, of them is handed down to posterity ; ang when they were overtaken by the Big Sergeant. has this been done in such perfection as in He was on foot, and only armed with a bow and Among these states, Athens held a pro
He signified his intention to accompany eminence. It is true she was rivalled in the agent to the fort, and he was immediately mount- renown by Lacedemon, and obliged occasid ed. He rode as gracefully, and in fewer rags than bow before that haughty republick ; but a Circassian prince would have unfurled, and he en-greatness, in the pursuit of literature, in the countered the toils of the march with untiring forti- cies of refinement, in the knowledge and t tude, particularly at trencher-hours, insomuch as to tice of the fine arts-in short, in every tł locate a feast and a famine in the same camp. He rude bravery, she as much excelled that riv returned to his nation laden with presents.
as the splendour of the meridian sun excels This visit to the Pawnee nation has resulted in beams of the silver moon. the conviction that the moral condition of the In- It is much to be questioned whether Gree dians has been very little improved by the paternal not owe the whole of her renown to Ath care of the government of this republick, and by Corinth. From these two refined cities, wh the pious exertions of societies instituted for the asperities of military pursuits were softene purpose. That they generally esteem the whites a and polished by the gentle arts of peace, er superiour order of beings, appears in all our inter- those rays of brightness and of glory whi course with them.
tially illuminated the other states of Greece. The principal chief of the Pawnee Loups was ing Lacedemon out of the question, where proud to wear the fatigue-jacket of a private sol- painting, architecture, poetry, nor music dier. Beau Red Coat, or Bad Moccasin, acquired held in any estimation, the rest of the c additional distinction and influence by appearing in Greece were of secondary importance, an his scarlet and lace, the cast trappings of a musi- left little or nothing by which they may be cian; but the braves of the nation, who were best guished. Athens still exists, though merely acquainted with white men, were disposed to abolish ow of what she once was. Fragments of he their ancient religious rites in deference to the ly temples still give a grand, though faint idea opinions of their visiters. It is, however, to be la- ancient splendour, and of the perfection to mented that red men advance so tardily toward civ- she carried architecture and sculpture. Y. ilization. An opinion is gaining ground among friends and enemies seem to combine to has those who take the trouble to think on the subject, extinction of every relick of her ancient glor that to improve materially the condition of Indians, From the Parthenon, or temple of Minerv they must be first governed, then civilized, and after- by Pericles of white marble, and in the c ward Christianized.
style of architecture, many of the colossal There is in the Indian character something to ap- tures that adorned the Acropolis are now wit) prove, much to condemn. No one can regard their walls of the British museum ; and the edific intellectual endowments with indifference-many has been almost demolished by the hostile view them with deep interest.
on the city, during the late struggle for freedo ried on by the Greeks against the Turks ; by its having been wrested from their iron han
now erected into an independent kingdom, it is ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS.
hoped that it may ere long shine with a sple GREECE, celebrated for the beauty of its climate, that shall eclipse its former glory. Athens i the fruitfulness of its soil, and, in ancient times, for to have been built by Cecrops, who brought a the valour of its sons, their love of liberty, and their out of Egypt, and settled in Greece. Fre proficiency in philosophy, poetry, and eloquence, founder it was at first called Cecropia, and by was divided into a number of petty states, inconsid- of eminence, “ Polis,” or “ The City.” In the erable as it respected the extent of their dominion, of Ericthonius, its name was changed to Athe but of great importance in the page of history, both honour of the goddess Minerva, who was t for the bravery of their soldiers, and the learning of troness of the city under the name of Athena. their philosophers.
Athens was originally built on a lofty emir It is probable that Greece owes much of its never in the midst of a spacious and fertile plain dying fame to the manner in which the actions of situation was chosen, partly for the sake of se
against piratical attacks, or sudden invasion, partly theon,” or “ Temple of the Gods," a most noble to prevent its being suddenly inundated—a fate structure, supported by one hundred and twenty much dreaded in the early ages. In process of marble pillars, and having over its great gate, two time, the number of inhabitants being too great for horses sculptured by Praxiteles. In this temple this small space, great part of the plain was covered was the famous statue of Minerva, of ivory and with buildings, which were denominated the Lower gold, the work of Phidias. City, as was the ancient part, the ACROPOLIS, or Up- The schools of philosophy and athletick exer
cises, called gymnasia, were numerous. Among The ACROPOLIS was once rich in stately build- the most celebrated were the Lyceum, where Arisings; the principal were the Parthenon, already TOTLE taught; and as he generally delivered his noticed, which had it no other enemies than time instructions to his disciples walking, they were called and the elements, would probably have been in per- Peripateticks. The Academy, so called from one fect preservation to this day; but, alas ! Athens fell Academus, was the school where Plato disseminaunder the power of the Turks; and that barbarous ted the principles of his philosophy. It was a garpeople are said to have burnt many of the most pre- den adorned with stately walks and rows of trees; cious statues and elegant columns into lime-and and so sacred was it considered, that it was forbidthe temple of Neptune and Minerva. In the for- den even to laugh there, that all appearance of levity mer was the fountain said to have sprung up at the might be excluded. stroke of Neptune's trident; and in the latter, the Athens was rendered a convenient port by three olive which she produced, and the palladium which harbours ; namely, the Piræus, Munychia, and Phafell from heaven in the reign of Ericthonius. lerum. Of these, the first was the most spacious
The Lower city was likewise adorned with many and was divided into three large basins, called Can magnificent buildings ; among the principal of which tharos, Aphrodrium, and Zea. As this harbour was were the
Temple of Theseus," built by Conon ; at the mouth of the Cephisus, three miles from the the “ Temple of Olympian Jupiter,” and “The Pan- city, it was connected with it by two strong walls, defended by towers. The harbour was capacious republican simplicity which had contributed so much enough to contain four hundred ships of the largest to the extension of her power. To such a pitch size used in that day.
had this arisen in the time of the emperour JustinThe history of Athens affords a just specimen ofian, that, by an edict, he suppressed the philosophi the advantages and disadvantages of a democratick cal meetings of the Academy. form of government. It gave rise to great states- To minds imbued with the learning and eloquence men and warriours, to moral philosophers and ora- of Greece, a visit to Athens is particularly interest: tors of unrivalled eloquence; for as all power ema-ing. At a distance it displays a magnificence nearly nated from the people, it was essentially necessary equal to that of its most flourishing state, the ruinto cultivate sedulously those arts and that knowl- ous condition of its ancient structures not being then edge, by which their minds could be governed, and discernible. The Acropolis rises to the view with their passions influenced.
the most impressive grandeur, and the prodigious
The gazelle or antelope forms a connecting speLong after Athens had ceased to be a free state, cies between the goat and the deer kinds ; someand had become a part of the Roman dominions, it what resembling the former internally, and the latter continued to be the seat of learning and refinement. externally, excepting its horns, which are annulated
Its schools, founded by Socrates and Plato, still or ringed round, with longitudinal depressions run flourished, though with diminished vigour ; and the ning from the bottom to the point. Athenians, while they had lost their military re
Of all the animals in the world, the gazelle is nown, still retained that polish which rendered them said to have the most beautiful eye, extremely brilthe most refined nation in the world. Yet, with all liant, and yet so meek that all the eastern poets this refinement, the generality of the people are said compare the eyes of their mistresses to those of this to have been impious, vicious, and cruel.
animal. The disciple mentioned in Acts ix. 36, 40, While, therefore, Athens maintained its reputa- who was raised to life at Joppa, was called Tabitha, tion for learning and politeness, and was the most which by interpretation signifies Dorcas or the garenowned place for education of the Roman youth, zelle, from the beauty of her eyes; and this is still it is not to be wondered at, that, as they imbibed a common comparison in the East, “ Aine el Czauseful knowledge, they likewise acquired many zel,” or, “ You have the eyes of the gazelle," is the vices, and habituated themselves to practices which, on their return to Rome, contributed to injure the horns, (which have a core in them, and they never cast them,)
* The gazelle agrees with the goat in the texture of the morals of their fellow-citizens and to destroy that and with the deer in the elegance of their form and swiftness.
greatest compliment that can be paid to a fine wo
USEFUL ARTS. The gazelle is most beautifully formed, and bounds with surprising agility; they are so fleet that
ROPE-MAKING. grayhounds, though reckoned excellent, cannot come The art we are now about to describe is one of . up to them without the aid of the falcon. The usual great antiquity, and is pracıised in almost every part method of taking the gazelle is by hunting it with of the world.' With the earliest dawn of civilization the falcon or the ounce, a species of leopard, which we find men combining the larger grasses and the takes its prey, not by its fleelness, but by the great intestines of animals to form flexible bands for fishness of its springs; but should he fail in his first sing, and other domestick purposes ; but it is in the essay the game escapes; but it is sometimes taken application of vegetable fibres to the manufacture of by the following expedient:-A tame gazelle, brought cable ropes that we must look for the perfection of up for that purpose, is taught to join those of its kind the art. whenever it perceives them. When the hunter, Ropes are still made of every substance that is therefore, discovers a herd of these animals togeth- sufficiently fibrous, flexible, and tenacious. The er, he fixes a noose round the horns of the tame Chinese and other orientals even make them of the one, in such a manner that if the rest butt it, they ligneous parts of several plants, such as certain bamare entangled, and thus prepared he sends his ga- boos and reeds, the stems of the aloes, the fibrous zelle among the rest.
covering of the cocoanut, the filaments of the couton 'The tame one no sooner approaches, but the pod, and the leaves of some grasses. But the barks mnales of the herd instantly sally forth to oppose of plants are most productive of fibrous matter fit for him, and in butting with their horns are caught in this manufacture. Those of the linden tree, of the the noose.
Finding himself taken in the snare, ter willow, the bramble, and the nettle, are frequenily rour lends him additional strength and activity, and used : but hemp and flax are of all others the best; he makes the most vigorous exertions to disentangle and of these the hemp is preferred and employed in bimself, and escape before the hunter can come up all cordage exceeding the size of a line, and even in wilde duur. Its effort under these circumstances is many of this denomination. proposed for imitation to the person who has rashly Hemp has two properties which make it peculiarbecome surety for his neighbour.
ly valuable. These are great strength and the “ Deliver thyself as an antelope or gazelle from length and fineness of the fibres. The best in Euthe hand of the hunter, and as a bird from the snare rope comes to us through Riga, to which port it is of the fowler"—(Proverbs vi. 5.)—that is, “ Thou brought from very distant places southward. It is hast imprudently placed thyself in perilous circum- known by the name of Riga rein (that is, clean) stances; suffer no delay in making an effort for thy hemp. Its fibre is not the longest (at least in the release."
dressed state in which we get it) of all others, but it is the finest, most flexible, and strongest. The next to this is supposed to be the Petersburgh braak
hemp. Chucking is a name given to a hemp that LINES, BY MRS, FRANCES ANNE BUTLER.
comes from various places, long in the fibre, but I'll tell thee why this weary world me seemeth
coarse and harsh, and its strength is inferiour to But as the visions light of one who dreameth,
hemps which one would think weaker. Its texture Which pass like clouds, leaving no trace behind :
is such that it does not admit splitting in the ordinWhy this strange Life, so full of sin and folly, In me awakeneth no melancholy,
ary way. It is therefore kept in its coarse form, Nor casteth shade or sadness o'er mind.
and used for inferiour cordage. It is, however, a 'Tis not, that with an undiscerning éye, I see the pageant wild go dancing by,
good and strong hemp, but will not make fine work. Mistaking that which falsest is, for true;
Hardly any art can be carried on without the as. 'Tis not that pleasure hath entwined me,
sistance of the rope-maker. Cordage makes the 'Tis not that sorrow hath enshrined me I bear no badge of roses, ';r of rue.
very sinews and muscles of a ship; and every imBut in the inmost chambers of my soul
provement which can be made in its preparation, There is another world, a blessed home, D'er which no living power holdeth control,
either in respect to strength or pliability, must be of Anigh to which ill things do never come.
immense service to the mariner and to the commerce There shineth the glad sun-light of sweet thought,
and the defence of our country. With Hope and Faith holding communion high, Over a fragrant land, with flow'rs wrought,
The principal aim of the rope-maker is to unite Where gush the living springs of poesy.
the strength of a great number of fibres. This would There speak the voices that I love to hear,
be done in the completest manner by laying the There smile the glances that I love to see; There live the forms of those my sou holds dear,
fibres parallel to each other, and fastening the bunFor ever in that secret world with me.
dle at the two ends : but this would be of very limThey who have walk'd with me along life's way, And sever'd been by Fortune's adverse tide;
ited use, because the fibres are short. They must Who ne'er again, thro' Time's uncertain day,
therefore be combined together in such a manner In weal or wo may wander by my side;
that the strength of a fibre shall not be able to draw These all dwell here: nor these, whom life alone Divideth from me, but the dead-the dead,
it out from among the rest of the bundle. This is Those happy ones, who to their rest are gone,
done by twisting or twining them together, which Whose foot-prints from the earth have vanished. Hicre dwell they all ;—and here, within this world, causes them mutually to compress each other. When * Like ligiit within a summer sun-cloud furl'd,
the fibres are so disposed in a long skein that their My spirit dwells :-therefore, this evil life,
ends succeed each other. along its length, without With all its gilded snares, and fair deceivings, Its wealth, its want, its pleasures and its grievings, many of them meeting in one place, and this skein Nor frights nor frets me, by its idle strife.
is twisted round and round, we may cause them to O thou who readest, for thy courtesy, Whoe'er thou art, I wish the same to thee!
compress each other to any degree we please, and Knickerboeker.
the friction on a fibre which we attempt to pull out