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USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. two pounds of the fine sand ; mix and place them on
a clean mortar board, to the height of six inches, LIME AND SAND CEMENT.
with a flat surface, wet with the lime water, and al
low all that the sand in this condition cannot retain, The best methods of preparing calcareous ce to flow off the board. ments, have been investigated by Dr. Higgins, with To the wetted sand, add fourteen pounds of the great ability. He has advanced the most satisfacto- purified lime, in several successive portions, mixing ry proofs, founded upon analysis, that the Romans, and beating them well together. Then add twelve whose mortar or cement, after a lapse of two thou- pounds of bone ashes in successive portions, mixing sand years, instead of being decayed, has become all together, and the sooner the cement thus formed as hard as the stones it binds together, possessed no is used, the better it will be. As this cement is uncommon secret, which we are unable to discover. shorter than mortar or common stucco, and dries Sharp sand, free from clay, salts, calcareous, gypse-sooner, it ought to be worked expeditiously, in all ous, or other grains less hard and durable than cases. The materials used along with it in buildquartz, is better than any other. When a coarse ing, or the ground on which it is laid in stuccoing, and fine sand, corresponding in the size of their should be well wetted with lime water at the instant grains to the coarse and fine sand hereafter de- of laying it on; and when the cement requires moistscribed, cannot be easily obtained in its native state, ening, lime water should always be used. the following method of sorting and cleansing it The proportions above given, are intended for a must be resorted to.
cement suited to exposed situations, where it is neLet the sand be sifted in streaming clear water, cessary to guard against the effects of hot weather, through a sieve which will allow all grains, not ex- or rain. In general, half the quantity of bone ashes ceeding one sixteenth of an inch, to pass through, will be sufficient; and although the cement in this and let the stream of water be so regulated as to latter case will not harden deeply so soon, it will wash away
very fine parts of the sand, the clay, be ultimately stronger, provided the weather be faand every other matter lighter than sand. The vorable. coarse rubbish left on the sieve must be rejected. This cement should never be applied to walls beThe sand which subsides in the receptacle must fore they have become perfectly dry, otherwise the then be further cleansed and sorted into two parcels, damps or gases, that should escape by exposure to by the use of a sieve, which allows no grains to the atmosphere, are held in the wall
, or on the surpass but what are less than one thirteenth of an inch face behind the cement, which being converted by in diameter. That part which passes through the frost into ice, separates the cement from the wall; sieve we shall call fine sand; the remaining portion, but if prepared and applied as above directed, it may coarse sand.
These separate portions should be be used for all outside purposes on brick or stone dried in the sun, or by a fire.
work, or upon lath wood, having first a strong prick.' That sort of lime must be chosen, which heats up coat of lime and hair, without any danger of its the most in slacking, and slacks the quickest when cracking, or of being injured by frost. When the duly watered ; which is the freshest made, and has work is required to be frescoed, or coloured, to imbeen the closest kept.
itate stone, it should be done in the following manPut fourteen pounds of the lime chosen according ner. Take of the lime water before described, and to these important rules into a brass wire sieve, still add five ounces of copperas to every gallon, with a finer than the last mentioned. Slack the lime, by much of the powdered lime as will make a ti: alternately plunging it into, and raising it out of a whitewash: this may be teinted of any desiraliu butt of soft water ; reject all the matter which does colour, by adding ochre, umber, blue black, red lead, not pass easily through the sieve, and use fresh por- or other colour, to give the desired teint, and applied tions of lime in a similar manner, until as many to the cement, as soon as it is laid on. ounces of lime have passed through the sieve as
Builder's Price Book. there are quarts of water in a butt. This is the lime water that contributes so materially to the ex
Peach Trees.-Mr. William Phillips, of Penncellence of the stucco. As soon as a sufficient por- sylvania, has derived great benefit from the application of lime has been imparted to it, it should be tion of air-slaked, old effeted lime, to peach" trees, closely covered, until it becomes clear, and then the effects of which, according to his own account, drawn off by plug holes placed at different heights, have been very great. He puts about a peck of as the lime subsides, without breaking the crust form- lime to each tree: he thinks it useful as a preserva
We ed on the surface. The more free the water is from tive against the insects so fatal to these trees. saline matter, the better will the liquor be. Lime have then two applications recommended, unleached water must be kept in airtight vessels till the mo- ashes and lime, and from our own experience are, ment it is used.
able to recommend both. We are not sure which Slack fifty-eight pounds of lime, chosen as above has the preference. The lime and ashes should directed, by gradually sprinkling on it the lime wa- both be dug every spring. A friend suggests that ter. Sift the slacked part of the lime immediatlely he killed his young peach trees by lime ; caution is through the last mentioned fine brass wire sieve; needed in the application. the lime which passes must be used instantly, or kept in airtight vessels, and the rest rejected. This Defaced Coins.--To read an inscription on a sil. finer, richer part of the lime, may be called purified ver coin, which, by much wear, has become wholly lime.
obliterated, put the poker in the fire, when red hot, The materials of the cement being thus prepared, place the coin upon it, and the inscription will plain take fifty-six pounds of the coarse sand, and forty- I ly appear of a greenish hue.
“The same writer gives us a summary of the economical uses of geology
“The applications of geology,' says he, fare numerous : It Researches in Theoretical Geology. By H. T. DE LA guides the miner in his search after, and in the working of minerBeche, f. R. 8., V. P, G. S., &c., &c. With a Preface and Notes by Prof. Edward Hitchcock, of Amherst College ; 336 als: It shows the architect in what mountains he may find build
ing slones, marble, slate, limestone, sand and purzolana. It pages, 12 mo. New York: F. J. Huntington, & Co.
shows the agriculturist what soils are proper for this or that culWe cannot give our readers a better idea of the volume before ture ; the rocks proper for marl, and the points where he may us, probably, than by making some extracts froin the preface of search, with some chance of success, for springs to irrigate his Prof. Hitchcock, who has been the means of bringing out this fields
. It directs the polter and the brick maker how to find readwork in its American dress. Of the author, of his own notes, ily the argillaceous beds which they may employ, and the manuand of the importance of Geology, Prof. Hitchcock thus speaks : facturer of porcelain to those beds of beautiful kaolin, which are
“Those who are at all familiar with the present state of geo- now wrought in so great perfection. logical science in Europe, will recognize in the author of this trea- “ The intellectual and religious utilities of this science are set tise, one of the most distinguished names in that bright list of ob- forth by M Rozet with considerable force. scrvers in Great Britain, who are bringing to light such wonders “The study of the earth's interiour,' says he, 'may conduct in the rocky strata of our globe, as forcibly to arrest the attention us, if not to a solution of the great problem of creation, at least of every intelligent man. They will recollect him as the author to a knowledge of some of the laws by which it was governed of the Geological Manual,' one of the best elementary works at different epochs. It has cast much light on this point. It on that subject which has appeared : also of a work entitled shows us that organick beings became more and more perfect “Sections and Views illustrative of Geological Phenomena,' and from the commencement of life on the earth, to the time of man's of another with the title How to observe ;' besides numerous appearance. It shows us, that during the long interval séparapapers in the Journals and Transactions of learned societies. ting man from the first animal, the universe was agitated by sucThe present work, however, I apprehend, is scarcely known in cessive revolutions; but that since that time the equilibrium has this country ; as I have in vain searched our bookstores to find become perfectly established, so as to permit man to spread tranit. But having obtained the loan of Prof. Silliman's copy, he quilly over the globe. At this day every thing tends to perfect has kindly consented to have it used for re-publication. And he stability, which appears to promise to the existing order of things allows me to say, that he approves and recommends the work.
an eternal duration.' It will be made a text book for the Geological Class in Amherst
“In this last sentence [says Prof. Hicthcock,] the writer I College. And I cannot but believe that it will prove an accept | suppose, refers only to what geology teaches, without revelatica. able present to the rapidly incrcasing number of intelligent indi-But apart from revelation, this opinion would not be considered viduals in our country, who are giving attention to geology. For correct by a majority of the oldest geologists. I content myself it seems to me, as a whole, to contain the most satisfactory the- with quoting only the views of M. Elic de Beaumont, a distinoretick views of geological phenomena to be found in any work guished geologist and fellow-countryman of M. Rozet. This extant. One cannot read a chapter without perceiving that the writer, in his work on the elevation of mountain chains, after author is a thorough master of his subject, and has thought much having traced no less than twelve systems of elevation in Europe and accurately upon its theory: Even where we do not agree which happened at different epochs, and any one of which might with him, his arguments are stated so candidly and fairly, that it have been sufficient to sweep the greater part of the earth of its is no easy matter to find fault with them.
inhabitants, proceeds to inquire, whether we are to look for any “ The notes which I have added, are in very few cases in similar events in time to come : and he concludes by saying, tended to controvert the opinions of the author. But for the • Whatever succession of terms result from this memoir, it is most part, they contain facts respecting American Geology, that difficult to predict any modification which so changes the aspect may modify the conclusions drawn from European rocks ; or of the subject, as to lead us to suppose that the mineral crust of they consist of new facts which I have recently observed, and the globe has lost the property of successively ridging itself, in which I have thought might prove of interest or value to geolo- different directions, so that we can be sure that the period of gists. At the close I have added the opinions of several distin- tranquility in which we live will never be disturbed by the appearguished men, respecting the connection of Geology with reveal- ance of a new system of mountains, the effect of a new disloca ed religion ;-a subject which the author has not thought proper tion of the surface which we inhabit, and concerning which carthto touch.
quakes sufficiently admonish us that its foundations are not im“Within the last twenty years, a prodigous impulse has been moveable."" given to the study of geology throughout the civilized world. In We regret to say, that typographical errours are too common Europe it has attracted the attention of the intelligent of all class in this volume, for the comfort of the reader, or the credit of the es ; and in our own country it is beginning not only to bę popu- proof-reader. lar, but even fashionable. Rozet, a very recent writer on Geology extends this statement much farther. "In almost all countries of the earth,' says he, observers are occupied in collecting facts; the principal towns on the globe form collections and Familiar Lectures on Natural Philosophy, for the Use of open schools of geology; Geological Societies, on broad found- Schools. By Mrs. A. H. LINCOLN PHELPS, Author of “ Faations, are formed every where, and open a communication with miliar Lectures on Botany," Çehmistry,” etc. etc. New one another; and a great number of educated men, before stran. York : F. J. Huntington, & Co.-Is the title of another very gers to the science, have enrolled themselves under its banners. handsome volume from the same publishers. The fair authoress So deeply important are geological studies now seen to be, that is well known among those interested in education as the sister they have become really popular. In France we find courses on of Mrs. Emma Willlard, and for a long time principal of the geology in schools, from those of agriculture, to those embrac- | Troy Female Seminary. She could not do other than make a ing the profound sciences.'
l.good book, and one worthy the attention of teachers.
ADVENTURES OF COL. JAMES SMITH. tude of savages, painted in various colours, and
shouting with delight; but their demeanour was by The subject we have selected for the frontispiece no means as pacifick as that of the last party he had of our present number represents a scene in the ad- encountered. They rapidly formed in two long ventures of Col. James Smith, who was attached to switches, &c., called aloud upon him to run the
lines, and brandishing their hatchets, ramrods, the army of Braddock--aken prisoner by the Indians gauntlet. Never having heard of this Indian cereand adopted by one of the tribes. He escaped in mony before, he stood amazed for some time, not 1789 and removed to Kentucky, and was for many knowing what to do; but one of his captors ex
plained to him, that he was to run between the two years a resident of Bourbon county.
lines, and receive a blow from each Indian as he In the spring of the year 1755, James Smith, passed, concluding his explanation by exhorting him then a youth of eighteen, accompanied a party of to “run his best," as the faster he ran the sooner the three hundred men from the frontiers of Pennsyl- affair would be over. This truth was very plainvania, who advanced in front of Braddock's army, and young Smith entered upon his race with great for the purpose of opening a road over the mount- spirit. He was switched very handsomely along ain. When within a few miles of the Bedford the lines, for about three fourths of the distance, the springs, he was sent back to the rear, to hasten the stripes only acting as a spur to greater exertions, progress of some wagons loaded with provisions and and he had almost reached the opposite extremity of stores for the use of the road-cutters. Having de- the line, when a tall chief struck him a furious blow livered his orders, he was returning, in company with a club upon the back of the head, and instantly with another young man, when they were suddenly felled him to the ground. Recovering himself in a fired upon by a party of three Indians, from a cedar moment, he sprung to his feet and started forward thicket, which skirted the road. Smith's companion again, when a handful of sand was thrown in his was killed on the spot; and although he himself was eyes, which, in addition to the great pain, completely unhurt, yet his horse was so much frightened by the blinded him. He still attempted to grope his way Aash and report of the guns, as to become totally through ; but was again knocked down and beaten unmanageable, and, after a few
plunges, threw him with merciless severity. He soon became insensiwith violence to the ground. Before he could re- ble under such barbarous treatment, and recollected cover his feet, the Indians sprung upon him, and, nothing more, until he found himself in the hospital overpowering his resistance, secured him as a pris- of the fort, under the hands of a French surgeon,
One of them demanded, in broken English, beaten to a gelly, and unable to move a limb. Here whether 66 more white men were coming up;" and he was quickly visited by one of his captors—the upon his answering in the negative, he was seized same who had given him such good advice, when by each arm and compelled to run with great rapidity about to commence his race. He now inquired, over the mountain until night, when the small party with some interest, if he felt “ very sore.” Young encamped and cooked their
supper. An equal share Smith replied, that he had been bruised almost to of their scanty stock of provisions was given to the death, and asked what he had done to merit such prisoner, and in other respects, although strictly barbarity. The Indian replied, that he had done guarded, he was treated with great kindness. On nothing, but that it was the customary greeting of the evening of the next day, after a rapid walk of the Indians to their prisoners—that it was something fifty miles, through cedar thickets, and over very like the English “how d’ye do?" and that now ali rocky ground, they reached the western side of the ceremony would be laid aside, and he would be Laurel mountain, and beheld, at a little distance, the treated with kindness. Smith inquired if they had smoke of an Indian encampment. His captors now any news of General Braddock.
The Indian refired their guns, and raised the scalp halloo! This plied that their scouts saw him every day from the is a long yell for every scalp that has been taken, mountains—that he was advancing in close columns followed by a rapid succession of shrill, quick, through the woods(this he indicated by placing a piercing shrieks, somewhat resembling laughter in number of red sticks parallel to each other, and its most excited tones. They were answered from pressed closely together) and that the Indians the Indian camp below, by a discharge of rifles and would be able to shoot them down “like pigeons.” a long whoop, followed by shrill cries of joy, and all Smith rapidly recovered, and was soon able to thronged out to meet the party. Smith expected in- walk upon ihe battlements of the fort, with the aid stant death at their hands, as they crowded around of a stick. While engaged in this exercise, on the him; but to his surprise, no one offered him any morning of the 9 - he observed an unusual bustle violence. They belonged to another tribe, and en- in the fort. The Indians stood in crowds at the tertained the party in their camp with great hospital- great gate, armed and painted. Many barrels of ity, respecting the prisoner as the property of their powder, ball, flints, &c., were brought out to them, guests. On the following morning, Smith's captors from which each warriour helped himself to such continued their march, and on the evening of the articles as he required. They were soon joined by next day arrived at fort Du Quesne-now Pittsburgh. a small detachment of French regulars, when the When within half a mile of the fort, they again whole party marched off together. He had a full raised the scalp halloo, and fired their guns as be- view of them as they passed, and was confident fore. Instantly the whole garrison was in commo- that they could not exceed four hundred men. He tion. The cannon were fired--the drums were soon learned that it was detached against Braddock, beaten, and French and Indians ran out in great who was now within a few miles of the fort ; but numbers to meet the party, and partake of their from their great inferiority in numbers, he regarded triumph. Smith was again surrounded by a multi-their destruction as certain, and looked joyfully to