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the arrival of Braddock in the evening, as the hour their homes, as is usual with them after a great and avhich was to deliver him from the power of the In- decisive battle. Young Smith was demanded of the dians. In the afternoon, however, an Indian runner French by the tribe to whom he belonged, and was arrived with far different intelligence. The battle immediately surrendered into their hands. had not yet ended when he left the field; but he The party embarked in canoes, and ascended the announced that the English had been surrounded, Allegany river, as far as a small Indian town about and were shot down in heaps by an invisible enemy; forty miles above fort Du Quesne. There they that instead of flying at once or rushing upon their abandoned their canoes, and striking into the woods, concealed foe, they appeared completely bewildered, travelled in a western direction, until they arrived at huddled together in the centre of the ring, and be a considerable Indian town, in what is now the state fore sun-down there would not be a man of them of Ohio. This village was called Tullihas—and alive. This intelligence fell like a thunderbolt upon was situated upon the western branch of the MusSmith, who now saw himself irretrievably in the kingum. During the whole of this period, Smith power of the savages, and could look forward to no- suffered much anxiety, from the uncertainty of his thing but torture or endless captivity. He waited future fate, but at this town all doubt was removed. anxiously for further intelligence, still hoping that the On the morning of his arrival, the principal members fortune of the day might change. But about sun- of the tribe gathered around him-and one old man set, he heard at a distance the well-known scalp with deep gravity, began to pluck out his hair by the halloo, followed by wild, quick, joyful shrieks, and roots, while the others looked on in silence, smoking accompanied by long-continued firing. This too their pipes with great deliberation. Smith did not surely announced the fate of the day. About dusk, understand the design of this singular ceremony, the party returned to the fort, driving before them but submitted very patiently to the man's labours, twelve British regulars, stripped naked and with who performed the operation of “picking” him with their faces painted black! an evidence that the un- great dexterity, dipping his fingers in the ashes ochappy wretches were devoted to death. Next came casionally, in order to take a better hold. In a very the Indians displaying their bloody scalps, of which few moments Smith's head was bald, with the exthey had immense numbers, and dressed in the scar- ception of a single long tuft upon the centre of his Let coats, sashes, and military hats of the officers crown, called the "
This was carefully and soldiers. Behind all came a train of baggage- plaited in such a manner, as to stand upright, and horses, laden with piles of scalps, canteens, and all was ornamented with several silver brooches. His the accoutrements of British soldiers. The savages ears and nose were then bored with equal gravity, appeared frantick with joy, and when Smith beheld and ornamented with ear-rings and nose-jewels. them entering the fort, dancing, yelling, brandishing He was then ordered to strip—which being done, their red tomahawks, and waiving their scalps in his naked body was painted in various fantastick the air, while the great guns of the fort replied to colours, and a breech-cloth fastened around his loins. the incessant discharge of rifles without, he says, A belt of wampum was then placed around his neck, that it looked as if the lower regions had given a and silver bands around his right arm. To all this holiday, and turned loose its inhabitants upon the Smith submitted with much anxiety, being totally upper world. The most melancholy spectacle was ignorant of their customs, and dreading lest, like the the band of prisoners. They appeared dejected British prisoners, he had been stripped and painted and anxious. Poor fellows! They had but a few for the stake, His alarm was increased, when an months before left London, at the command of their old chief arose, took him by the arm, and leading superiours, and we may easily imagine their feel him out into the open air, gave three shrill whoops, ings, at the strange and dreadful spectacle around and was instantly surrounded by every inhabitant of them. The yells of delight and congratulation were the village-warriours, women and children. The scarcely over, when those of vengeance began. chief then addressed the crowd in a long speech, The devoted prisoners-British regulars—were led still holding Smith by the hand. When he had out from the fort to the banks of the Allegany, and ceased speaking, he led Smith forward, and deliverto the eternal disgrace of the French commandant, ed him into the hands of three young Indian girls, were there burnt to death one after another, with who grappling him without ceremony, towed him off the most awful tortures. Smith stood upon the bat- to the river which ran at the foot of the hill, dragged ilements and witnessed the shocking spectacle. him in the water up to his breast, and all three sudThe prisoner was tied to a stake with his hands denly clapping their hands upon his head, attempted raised above his head, stripped naked, and surround- to put him under. Utterly desperate at the idea of ed by Indians. They would touch him with redhot being drowned by these young ladies, Smith made irons, and stick his body full of pine splinters and a manful resistance--the squaws persevered and a set them on fire-drowning the shrieks of the vic- prodigious splashing in the water took place, amidst tim in the yells of delight with which they danced loud peals of laughter from the shore. At length, around him. His companions in the meantime one of the squaws became alarmed at the furious stood in a group near the stake, and had a foretaste struggles of the young white man, and cried out of what was in reserve for each of them. As fast earnestly several times, “ No hurt you! no hurt you!" as one prisoner died under his tortures, another Upon this agreeable intelligence, Smith's resistance filled his place, until the whole perished. All this ceased, and these gentle creatures plunged him untook place so near the fort, that every scream of the der the water, and scrubbed him from head to foot victims must have rung in the ears of the French with equal zeal and perseverance, As soon as they commandant!
were satisfied, they led him ashore, and presented Two or three days after this shocking spectacle, him to the chief-shivering with cold, and dripping most of the Indian tribes dispersed and returned to with water. The Indians then dressed him in a
ruffled shirt, leggins, and moccasins, variously orna- to be considered as properly land animals, and not mented, seated him upon a bear-skin, and gave him aquatick ones. Many of them can swim, and do a pipe, tomahawk, tobacco, pouch, flint and steel. take to the water; and some of the larger of these, The chiefs then took their seats by his side, and which are of considerable size, though small in smoked for several minutes in deep silence, when comparison with full-grown crocodiles, prey upon the eldest delivered a speech, through an interpreter, small animals in shady places by the sides of the in the following words: “My son, you are now water, and occasionally upon fishes ; yet they have one of us. Hereafter, you have nothing to fear. not the strength nor the ferocity of the crocodiles. By an ancient custom, you have been adopted in the The distinguishing characters of the lizards are : room of a brave man, who has fallen ; and every the tongue slender, extensile, and forming two filadrop of white blood has been washed from your ments or branches at the point; as in various kinds veins. We are now your brothers, and are bound by of serpents, they all move with rapidity, though in our law to love you, to defend you, and to avenge this respect there are considerable differences beyour injuries, as much as if you were born in our tween them ; they have five toes on each of their aribe.” He was then introduced to the members of feet, three to their bases of unequal length, more che family into which he had been adopted, and was especially on the hind, feet, and all furnished with received by the whole of them with great demon- claws. Their bodies are lengthened ; and their strations of regard. In the evening, he received an scales on the belly and tail are ranged in transverse invitation to a great feast—and was there presented bands. The tympanum is on the same level with with a wooden bowl and spoon, and directed to fill the head, or only a little raised; a production of the the former from a huge ketile of boiled corn and skin, in which there is an opening, which acts as a hashed venison. The evening concluded with a sphincter, protects the eye by acting something in war-dance, and on the next morning, the warriours the manner of a third eyelid. The false ribs do of the tribe assembled, and leaving one or two hunt- not extend entirely round the body so as to form a ers, to provide for their families in their absence, complete circle. The opening of the ear is oval, the rest marched off for the frontiers of Virginia. and very conspicuous; but there is not an elevated
crest either on the head or along the back. The tail is, at least, as long as the body. It is of a cylindrical form, and composed of jointed rings, and without upper crests. The feet are all nearly of
equal length; and under each thigh there is a range NATURAL HISTORY.
of small porous scaly tubercles. There are five distinct toes on each foot,' terminated by crooked
claws. A good many of the species are found in LIZARDS.-LACERTA.
woody situations, where they seek their food among
the foliage, or in the underwood. This food conThe lizard family is the second family into which sists chiefly of insects. Others inhabit ruinous Cuvier divides his second order of reptiles, Sauria, buildings; and they are even met with near the haband following immediately the crocodiles, which itations of man, subsisting partly on insects and some of the larger species resemble a good deal in partly on vegetables. A few others are found fretheir appearance, though they are very different in quenting marshes, ponds, or lakes, where they prey their habits.
on the small animals which inhabit them. The liżLizards are found chiefly in the warmer parts of ards are, generally speaking, active, lively reptiles, the globe ; and though many of them frequent marshy and, all circumstances considered, may be reckoned places, and the margins of the waters, they are all the least repulsive of all the saurian tribes. They
are perfectly innocent in their manners; and not a short time. Lizards are monogamous, and always few of them are of an agreeable form, and beauti- I found in pairs; they are strictly land animals in fully coloured, constituting pleasing objects in the their haunts, and never by any chance take to the scenery of tropical countries. This is especially water. They are found in most warm and dry counthe case with many of the smaller ones, which re- tries, and in many parts of those which are temside in dry places, and resort to the trees, among perate. In the latter they hibernate; and it is poswhich their motions are often so rapid that they bear sible that in all countries they pass some considerno inconsiderable resemblance to finely-coloured able portion of the year in a dormant state. When birds.
excited by the heat of the sun they are exceedingly Though the true lizards have not the ferocious active, and have all the energies of life remarkably disposition of the crocodiles, and few or none of strong about them ; but they can subsist for a very them give out those poisonous, or otherwise offen- long time without any food. It is also probable that sive secretions which are given out by some other they live for many years; and indeed long life is a saurians, yet there are sometimes prejudices against very general attribute of those animals which enjoy them merely on account of their form, though others a seasonal repose in the course of the year. It is are highly esteemed in consequence of real or sup- easy to see why this should be the case; for the posed services which they render to mankind by awakening from this repose bears some resemblance destroying animals more offensive than themselves. to a regeneration of the animal into young life.
The lizards, properly so called, are natives of the Perhaps lizards are more susceptible to changes of eastern continent, and as many of them are interest- the atmosphere than any other vertebrated animals ; ing, we shall give a brief enumeration of their gen- and therefore they may be taken as good indications eral characters and the means by which they can be of the characters of climates. They all live upon distinguished from those other saurians with which insects, and such small prey; and none of them posthey have been so frequently confounded. The sesses any poisonous quality, or shows any disposition tongue differs little from that of the rest of the fam- to attack a warm-blooded animal, or, generally speakily; but the palate is furnished with two rows of ing, a reptile ; but many of them when attacked de teeth. A transverse band of brced scales forms a fend themselves with great resolution, and bite much collar on the under part of the neck; while the part more keenly than one would be apt to suppose. It of the neck above and also the belly, or breast im- is indeed doubtful whether some of the larger spemediately below this collar, is covered with small cies do not prey on the smaller, and also upon the scales. The body is lengthened, and never furnished more minute of the serpent tribes. They are abunwith wings or flying membranes of any description. dant in some of the warmer parts of Europe. We The feet have five toes on each, armed with claws, shall notice one or two of the species. and grasping toward the centre, so as to take a firm The Great Green Lizard. This is one of the hold of even a slight projection ; but they are never most gayly-coloured of the whole family, and it is so formed as to oppose each other in grasping. The also the largest of all the true lizards. It occurs in bones of the upper part of the head project over the all those parts of Europe which abut upon the Medorbits of the eyes and temples, so as to form a sortiterranean, and have the climate and the soil warw. of canopy, which is either covered with large scales, It is not found in the central parts of France, though or consists of one entire plate of scaly matter. The it often is in the warm and sandy plains of Langueeyes are like those of the rest of the family; and doc, where it pursues its trade of insect-catching under each thigh there is a row of little rough scaly with great assiduity during the summer months. projections containing pores, The scales on the i The fact of its hybernating does not confine it so belly are placed in transverse rows; and those on closely to tropical latitudes as many other animals the back have slight keels; but they do not overlap which are less sensitive to cold; for it is met with each other so as to be imbricated like the tiles on a in some places far to the north, or otherwise having roof. The tail is composed of a great number of the winter very severe. Linnæus enumerates it articulated joints ; and it is round, and without any among the animals of Sweden, and Captain Cook crest. This tail is exceedingly brittle, and a portion found it in Kamtschatka, where the winter is exof it can be separated by almost the slightest touch ; ceedingly cold, though the summer, both there and but it has the property of reproduction in a very in Sweden, is very hot. It is doubtful, however,
whether there may not be several species confound and their summer in joint activity. The eggs are ed in the older descriptions; as spotted, streaked, round, about a third of an inch in diameter; and and gray lizards have been sometimes confounded though it is not understood that any incubation is under the general name of agile or nimble lizards, practised by either parent, yet both are attentive to which is a property common to them all. It is the young, seeking food for thein, carrying them out rather a bold animal; and it is sometimes said to to the sun when it is clear and warm, and removing swallow mice and other small animals. When at-them to shelter when it is dark and cold. These tacked it defends itself with great resolution ; if its attentions are continued until the young have acswiftness is not sufficient for enabling it to escape quired sufficient strength'to enable them to provide the danger, it will snap and bite readily at a stick; for themselves; and whenever this takes place, and when a dog attempts to seize it, it will bound they are expelled from the paternal abode, and sent upward, and fasten on the nose of the dog during to seek habitations of their own. They have not its descent. In many places it is supposed to be long, however, to continue this operation during the poisonous ; and in not a few it is looked upon as en- first year of their lives; for the time of hybernating dowed with supernatural powers of mischief. It is comes on soon after they come to maturity. however perfectly innocent both as to the poison Such is a slight outline of the natural history, and to the league with the powers of darkness, and and a brief notice of some of the leading species carries on all its operations by mechanical action, of what may, perhaps, be regarded as the most inand in the light of the sun. The species and va- teresting of all the families which compose
the class rieties (for the one is not clearly distinguished from of reptiles. the other) are however very many; and the manners The Lacerta Scincus, the first one shown in our of all are so much alike, that we must pass them article, is a species of lizard found in Arabia, Nubia, over. There is, however, one of which some notice and Abyssinia. It is remarkable for the readiness may be given, inasmuch as it occurs more abundant- with which it forces its way into the sand when purly in Europe than any of the others. This is sued, a proof of its strength and activity, which
The Nimble Lizard. This species is exceeding- seem to be intimated in the Hebrew name Coach, ly numerous in France, Austria, and other parts of force and prowess. There is another species of the Continent, in some of which its flesh is in much scincus, the Sc. Cyprius, which is of a very large request as an article of food ; and was once pre- size, and abounds in the Levant; it is green, with scribed on account of supposed medicinal qualities, smooth scales. This was perhaps included under which of course it does not possess. It is so the common term Coach. abundant in the neighbourhood of the Austrian cap- The Lacerta Gecko, the one on the opposite page, ital, that Laurenti recommends it as food for the is a species of lizard found in countries bordering poor, and says that during the season of its appear on the Mediterranean; it is of a reddish gray ance, it would furnish by no means a scanty supply. spotted with brown. It is thought at Cairo to poison It is usually termed the gray lizard of the walls, be- the victuals over which it passes, and especially salt cause it is seen very much upon dry walls in gar- provisions, of which it is very fond. It has a voice dens during the summer months. In length it varies resembling somewhat that of a frog, which is intifrom five to six inches. The scales on the upper mated by the Hebrew name, importing a sigh or a part are of small size and six-sided; the neck is groan. nearly of the same thickness as the body; and the The Stellio Spinipes, as seen in the engraving tail tapers to a point. This is a very lively and at below, has a swollen body; it is entirely of a beauthe same time a most inoffensive animal, and there tiful green, with small spines upon its thighs, and is something not unpleasant in the account given of upon the ridge of the tail. It is found in the deserts its domestick economy. The couple remain for a about Egypt. long time together, passing their winter in one sleep, The Lacerta Stellio, a beautiful little lizard of
Arabia, is noted for bowing its head, insomuch that part of the neck are streaked with the same colour, the followers of Mohammed kill it, because they say passing into lighter on the breast. The rest of the it mimicks them in the mode of repeating their under part is dull white, passing into pale gray on prayers. It is about a foot in length, and of an the vent and tail. The coverts are pale brown, and olive colour shaded with black.
the quills darker; sometimes relieved with a paler teint on the margins of the feathers, but never possessing any of the rich and warm brown's of the land eagles. Three feathers in the middle of the tail are brown, and all the others have white bars
on their inner webs. The outer tail-feathers, and THE OSPREY, OR FISH-HAWK.
first quills of the wings, have their webs very nar
row and exceedingly stiff, so that they cannot be This is the proper fishing-eagle of the European ruffled but with the greatest difficulty. The under shores, and also the fishing-hawk of America, which sides of the wings, and the whole of their marginal is so well described by Wilson. It has also been parts, as also the plumage on the under parts of the described as a buzzard, and named the bald buzzard, body, are remarkably close and compact, and do not from the white upon the head. It is smaller than suffer the least injury by being immersed in water. the eagles which are called so par
excellence. The thighs are feathered down to the articulations The length of the osprey is about two feet, and of the tarsi ; their colour is pure white; but the the extent of its wings not less than five feet and a feathers bear more resemblance to the hair of aquathalf, so that it is better winged in proportion than ick animals, than to the feathers of ordinary birds. even the most powerful of the falcons, and may rank The young birds have their colours more broken among the most aërial of all the birds of prey. The than the old ones; and in very mature age the beak of this bird is powerfully formed, very much colours may be stated as being uniform brown on all bent at the tip, furnished with a rudiment of a tooth, the upper part except the head, and white on the and of that dark colour which is always an indica- under part. tion of strength in this order of birds. The tarsi The following is Wilson's very graphick descripare, like those of the true 'eagles, very short and tion of this bird as it appears on the American wastrong, but, instead of being feathered as in these, ters, where, from the deep embayment of the shores, they are covered with reticulated scales, and thus and the vast extent of broad. waters, it is a highly bear some resemblance to those of the wading birds. interesting bird : The claws are very large, more especially that on “ The fish-hawk is migratory, arriving on the the outer tỏe, which is reversible. They are, how- coasts of New York and New Jersey, about the ever, without any ridges or grooves on iheir under twenty-second of September. Heavy equinoctial sides, and thus they are clutching claws, and not storms may vary these periods of arrival and detearing ones.
parture a few days, but long observation has ascerThe cere, the tarsi, and the toes of the osprey, tained that they are kept with remarkable regularity. are grayish blue, the under parts of the toes “On the arrival of these birds in the northern parts being abundantly furnished with pads or tubercles. of the United States, in March, they sometimes find The irides are yellow. The prevailing colour on the bays and ponds frozen, and experience a diffithe upper part is blackish brown, with the exception culty in procuring fish for many days. Yet there is of the hind part of the head, and part of the neck, no instance on record of their attacking birds, or inwhich is whitish. A streak of deep brown passes feriour land-animals, with intent to feed on them; down each side of the neck; and the chin and forelthough their great strength of flight, as well as of