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feet and claws, would seem to render this no difficult (piled to the height of four or five feet, and from two matter. But they no sooner arrive, than they wage to three feet in breadth ; these were intermixed with war on the bald eagles, as against a horde of rob-corn-stalks, sea-weed, pieces of wet turf in large bers and banditti; sometimes succeeding, by force quantities, mullein-stalks, and lined with dry seaof numbers and perseverance, in driving them from grass ; the whole forming a mass very observable at their haunts, but seldom or never attacking them in half a mile's distance, and large enough to fill a cart, single combat.

and form ño inconsiderable load for a horse. These "The first appearance of the fish-hawk in spring, materials are so well put together, as often to adhere, is welcomed by the fishermen, as the happy signal in large fragments, after being blown down by the of the approach of those vast shoals of herring, wind. About the first.of May, the female fish-hawk shad, &c. that regularly arrive on our coasts, and begins to lay her eggs, which are commonly three enter our rivers in such prodigious multitudes. Two in number, sometimes only two, and rarely four. of a trade, it is said, seldom agree; the adage, how. They are somewhat larger than those of the comever, will not hold good in the present case, for such mon hen, and nearly of the same shape. The is the respect paid the fish-hawk, not only by this ground colour varies, in different eggs, from a redclass of men, but generally by the whole neighbour- dish cream, to nearly a white, splashed and daubed hood where it resides, that a person who should at- all over with dark Spanish brown, as if done by art. tempt to shoot one of them, would stand a fair chance During the time the female is sitting, the male freof being insulted. This prepossession in favour of quently supplies her with fish; though she occasionthe fish-hawk is honourable to their feelings. They ally takes a short circuit to sea herself

, but quickly associate with its first appearance, ideas of plenty, returns again. The attention of the male, on such and all the gayety of business; they see it active occasions, is regulated by the circumstances of the and industrious like themselves ; inoffensive to the case. A pair of these birds on the south side of productions of their farms; building with confi- Great Egg Harbour river, and near its mouth, were dence, and without the least disposition to conceal- noted for several years. The female, having but ment, in the middle of their fields, and along their one leg, was regularly furnished, while sitting, with fences; and returning, year after year, regularly to fish in such abundance, that she seldom left the its former abode.

nest, and never to seek for food. This kindness " The nest of the fish-hawk is usually built on the was continued both before and after incubation. op of a dead or decaying tree, sometimes not more Some animals who claim the name and rationality of than fifteen, often upward of fifty, feet from the man, might blush at the recital of this fact." ground. It has been remarked by the people of the seacoasts, that the most thriving tree will die in a

THE SPARROW-HAWK. few years after being taken possession of by the fish-hawk. This is attributed to the fish-oil, and to This is a bird of many names; it is the little falthe excrements of the bird; but is more probably con, the St. Domingo falcon, the New York merlin, occasioned by the large heap of wet salt materials the American merlin. The female is eleven inches of which the nest is usually composed. In my late long, and twenty-three inches from tip to tip of the excursions to the seashore, I ascended to several of expanded wings; the cere and legs yellow; bill blue, these nests, that had been built in from year to year, tipped with black ; space round the eye greenish and found them constructed as follows :—External- blue; iris deep dusky; head bluish ash; crown ly, large sticks, from half an inch to an inch and a rufous ; seven spots of black on a white ground surhalf in diameter, and two or three feet in length, ) round the head; whole upper parts reddish bay,

Vol. V.32

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transversely streaked with black; primary and sec- | aim. One day, I observed a bird of this species ondary quills black, spotted on their inner vanes perched on the highest top of a large poplar on the with brownish white; whole lower parts yellowish skirts of the wood, and was in the act of raising the white, marked with longitudinal streaks of brown, gun to my eye, when he swept down with the rapidexcept the chin, vent, and femoral feathers, which ity of an arrow into thicket of briers about thirty are white; claws black. The male sparrow-hawk yards off, where I shot him dead, and, on coming measures about ten inches, and is about twenty-one up, found a small field-sparrow quivering in his grasp. inches in the stretch of the wings; the whole upper Both our aims had been taken at the same instant, parts of the head are of a fine slate blue, the shafts and, unfortunately for him, both were fatal. It is of the plumage being black, the crown excepted, particularly fond of watching along hedge-rows and which is marked with a bright reddish spot; the in orchards, where small birds usually resort.

When slate tapers to a point on each side of the neck; grasshoppers are plenty, they form a considerable seven black spots surround the head, as in the fe- part of its food.” Wilson adds a very characterismale, on a reddish white ground, which also borders tick instance of the delicacy of taste of this falcon each sloping side of the blue; line over and under in respect to its food :-" Though small snakes, the eye and chin, white; femoral and vent-feathers mice, lizards, &c.,” says he, “be favourite morsels yellowish white; the rest of the lower parts of the with this active bird, yet we are not to suppose it same teint, each feather being streaked down the altogether destitute of delicacy in feeding. It will centre with a long black drop, those on the breast seldom or never eat of anything that it has not itself slender, on the sides larger; upper part of the back killed, and even that, if not (as epicures would term and scapulars deep reddish bay, marked with ten it) in good eating order, is sometimes rejected. A transverse waves of black; whole wing-coverts, and very respectable friend, through the medium of Mr. ends of the secondaries, black, tipped with white, Bartram, informs me, that one morning he observed and spotted on their inner vanes with the same; one of the hawks dart down on the ground, and lower part of the back, the rump, and the tail-cov- seize a mouse, which he carried to a fence-post, erts, plain bright bay ; tail rounded, the two exte- where, after examining it for some time, he left it, riour feathers white, their inner vanes beautifully and, a little while after, pounced upon another spotted with black; the next bright bay, with a mouse, which he instantly carried off to his nest, in broad band of black near its end, and tipped for half the hollow of a tree hard by. The gentleman, an inch with yellowish white; part of its lower ex- anxious to know why the hawk had rejected the first teriour edge white, spotted with black, and its oppo- mouse, went up to it, and found it to be almost covsite interiour edge touched with white; the whole ered with lice, and greatly emaciated!

Here was of the others are very deep bay, with a single broad not only delicacy of taste, but sound and prudent band of black near the end, and tipped with yellow- reasoning. If I carry this to my nest, thought he, ish white; cere and legs yellow; orbits the same; it will fill it with vermin, and hardly be worth eating. bill light blue ; iris of the eye dark, almost black; The blue-jays have a particular antipathy to this claws blue black.

bird, and frequently insult it by following and imThis species is not confined to the United States, itating its notes so exactly, as to deceive even those and indeed it is a native of the warm countries well acquainted with both. In return for all this rather than the cold ones, being more abundant in abuse, the hawk contents himself with now and then the southern states than in the northern, 'and being feasting on the plumpest of his persecutors, who especially numerous in St. Domingo or Hayti, and are, therefore, in perpetual dread of him; and yet, not unknown on the continent of South America. through some strange infatuation, or from fear that, In all probability, indeed, its colours and character if they lose sight of him, he may attack them unmay vary in different parts of the vast range of lat- awares, the sparrow-hawk no sooner appears than itude over which it extends, so that it is possible the alarm is given, and the whole force of jays folthat several of those species about the same size, low." This tendency, which small birds have, to which have been named as occurring in different crowd round and annoy their more powerful enemies, parts of the American continent, are nothing more is a curious point in natural history, and one the than climatal varieties of this one; and as it is one rationale of which is not very easily understood ; the of the few foreign species of which the characters more so, that it does not hold in the case of the very are tolerably well known, we shall quote from Wil- powerful birds of prey. Nobody, we presume, has son a short passage descriptive of its manners :- seen a flock of birds, either great or small, following

" It flies rather irregularly, occasionally suspend- and annoying the golden eagle, the jerfalcon, or even ing itself in the air, hovering over a particular spot the peregrine. It is true that these prey less frefor a minute or two, and then shooting off in another quently upon little birds than the smaller hawks; direction. It perches on the top of a dead tree or and herefore they do not stand so directly in the pole, in the middle of a field or meadow, and, as it character of enemies; but still, as was observed by alights, shuts its long wings so suddenly, that they Wilson, and is reported by American naturalists genseem instantly to disappear. It sits here in an erally, the ospreys crowd round and annoy the whitealmost perpendicular position, sometimes for an hour headed eagle. The grand object seems to be, so to

, at a time, frequently jerking its tail, and reconnoi- distract the attention of the enemy, as that he shall tring the ground below, in every direction, for mice, not be able to single out any one individual as his lizards, &c. It approaches the farmhouse, partic- victim, but wear himself out in a crowd, the memularly in the morning, skulking about the farmyard bers of which are all equally attractive. This point, for mice or young chickens. It frequently plunges if duly worked out, might help to explain the curious into a thicket after small birds, as if at random, but subject of fascination, which some animals appear always with a particular, and generally with a fatal, Ito possess over their prey.



POPULAR MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS. with such a frail covering as would make the strong

man tremble for his own health, were he to be equalWET FEET.

ly daring. What a crowd of painful recollections are con- At a season like the present it would seem to be jured up in the mind of a physician, of any age and a matter of gratulation, that shoes and boots can experience, by the words wet feet. The child which everywhere be obtained of such materials as to prehad been playing about in the morning in all its infan- serve the feet dry and warm. Leather of various tile loveliness and vivacity, is seized at night with croud kinds, firm, or pliable and soft, is at the shortest from wet feet, and in a day or two is a corpse. The warning made to assume every variety of shape and youthful form of female beauty, which a few months figure, called for by convenience or fashion. But before gladdened the eyes of every beholder, is wa- we mistake-fashion, that despotick destroyer of sting in slow, remediless decay. What was the ori- comfort, and too often a sworn foe to health, will not gin of her malady? Wet feet. Let us hope that allow the feet of a lady fair to be incased in leather. the exposure was incurred in a visit of mercy to a She must wear forsooth, cloth shoes with a thin helpless widow or distressed orphan. Whence come leather sole, and even this latter is barely conceded. the lingering disease, the pain and suffering of that A covering for the feet never originally intended to fond mother? Still the same response : getting her be seen beyond the chamber or parlour, is that now feet wet, while providing suitable winter's clothing adopted for street parade and travel; and they whose for her children-as if tenderness for her offspring cheeks we would not that the winds of heaven should justified her dispensing with all the rules of prudence visit too roughly, brave in prunello the extremes of for herse!f. Thus we might continue the melan- cold and moisture, and offer themselves as willing choly list of diseases, at best harassing and alarming, victims to all the sufferings of the shivering ague, often fatal, to which the heedlessness of youth, the catarrh, and pains rheumatick. Tell them of a wiser pride of manhood, or the avarice of old age, are vol- course ; argue with some on their duties, as mothers untarily and causelessly exposed by a neglect of one and as wives, to preserve their health—with others, lesson of everyday-experience.

as daughters of beauty who are risking by approachIt needs no medical lore nor laboured reasoning to ing disease the loss of their loveliness, and they will show the great influence which impressions on the reply, that they cannot wear those horrid large shoes feet exert over the rest of the body at large. The —that leather does not fit so nicely on the feet, and real martyrdom produced by tickling them, and the that India-rubber shoes are frightful. They do not cruel punishment of the bastinado, are sensible evi- reflect that beauty consists in the fitness and harmodences of their exquisite delicacy of feeling. Of ny of things, and that we cannot associate it with this fact we have more pleasurable experience in the the ideas of suffering and disease. The light draglow diffused through the whole system, when, pery so gracefully and elegantly arranged as to exchilled and shivering, we hold them for a while tohibit without obtruding her figure, is worthy of all the fire ; or when, during the prevalence of the dog- admiration in a Grecian nymph under a Grecian sky, star, we immerse them in cold water to allay the and when its wearer is warmed by a southern sun. heat which is then coursing through our veins. Are The muslin robe of one of our beauties of the ballthe internal organs of the body a prey to wasting in- room, is tasteful and appropriate, where lights and flammation, as in the hectick fever of consumption, musick are additions to the scene—but could we there is a sensation of burning heat in the feet. Is preserve our admiration for the Grecian nymph or the body feeble and the stomach unable to perform the modern belle, if in these costumes they were its digestive functions, these parts are habitually seen walking the streets mid sleet and wind? Pity cold. In both health and disease there is a constant they would assuredly command—but will a female sympathy between the feet and the different organs be content with the offering which any beggar is of the body. Whatever be the weak part, it suffers sure of receiving? We have gazed on the finest with unfailing certainty from the impressions of cold productions of the chisel and the pencil—we have and moisture on the feet. No matter whether the studied beauty with the admiration of a lover, and tendency be to sick headache, or sore throat, hoarse- the purposes of an artist, and we do assure our feness and cough-pain of the stomach, or rheumatism, male readers that however much we may admire a or gout—severally and all they will be brought on small and finely turned foot when seen tripping by getting the feet wet, or at times even by these through the mazes of the dance, we cannot look upparts being long chilled, from standing on cold on it with a pleased eye, unprotected by suitable ground or pavement. And who, it might be asked, covering in a winter's day. This covering is not are the chief victims to such exposures ? Not the prunello or that most flimsy stuff satirically called traveller caught in the storm, or the man of business, everlasting. nor even the day-labourer, who cannot always watch But how, conceding all the beauty claimed by its

appearance of the clouds and pick their steps admirers to an exhibition of small feet, in neat tight with an especial avoidance of a muddy soil, or wet shoes, can we receive this as a substitute for clear streets— no !-we must look for the largest num- complexion, brilliant lustre of the eye, and the mild ber of sufferers among the rich, the fair, and the smile of content, all lost by repeated attacks of a lovely of the land—those who need only walk cold, or the coming on of dyspepsy and sick headabroad when invited by the fair blue sky and shi- ache, the consequences of wet and cold feet. ning sun—or who, if pleasure cal's at other seasons, Custom, it is alleged by some, renders persons have all the means of protection against the elemen- thus exposed less liable to suffer. But the custom tal changes, which wealth can command of ingenui- of occasionally walking out in thin cloth shoes, ty and labour. They it is who neglect suitable pro- which are inadequate covering for the feet, is a very tection for their feet, and brave the snow and rain I different thing from the habit of constant exposure




of these parts to cold and moisture. If the sandal A sleeping apartment, in which a large fire has were habitually worn, and the foot in a great meas- been kept up for several hours previous to the periure exposed to the air, custom, might then be ad- od of retiring to rest, may to many, at the first view, duced as an argument against increased precautions. present an appearance of the most perfect comfortIt is idle to talk of females accustoming themselves it is, however, at the same time, a means of very to having their feet chilled, damp, or wet an hour or effectually enervating the system-creating an intwo in the streets during the day, when for the re-creased susceptibility to the influence of cold, and mainder of this period they take the greatest pains to thus opening the way to the attack of some of the have them dry and warm, by toasting them, perhaps most serious diseases, especially of the chest. Hapfor hours, before a large fire.

py may they esteem themselves whose means forbid an indulgence in this species of luxury.

A person accustomed to undress in a room with

out fire, and to seek repose in a cold bed, will not SLEEPING APARTMENTS.

experience the least inconvenience, even in the se“It must not be forgotten,” remarks Hufeland, verest weather. The natural heat of his body will “that we spend a considerable portion of our lives in very speedily render him even more comfortably the bed-chamber, and consequently that its healthi- warm, than the individual who sleeps in a heated ness or unhealthiness, cannot fail of having a very apartment, and in a bed thus artificially warmed, important influence upon our physical well-being." and who will be extremely liable to a sensation of

Every one, in fact, who is actuated by a due re- chillness as soon as the artificial heat is dissipated. gard for his health and real comfort, will consider But this is not all—the constitution of the former an equal degree of attention necessary in regard to will be rendered more robust, and far less suscep the size, situation, temperature and cleanliness of the tible to the influence of atmospherical vicissitudes, room he occupies during the hours of repose, as of than that of the latter. his parlour, drawing-room, or any other apartment ; All must be aware, that in the coldest weather, a and yet how often do we find families crowded at fire in the bed-chamber can only be necessary during night into obscure and confined chambers, of dimen- the periods occupied in dressing and undressing. sions scarcely more ample than those of an old fash- When the individual is in bed it is not only altogethioned closet, while perhaps, in most instances, the er useless, but to a certain extent injurious. It best rooms in the house will be set aside for the sole might be supposed, however, that bad effects would purpose of ostentatious display.

result from rising out of a warm bed, of a morning, It is all important that the largest and most lofty in a cold chamber. We are assured, however, that room, upon the second floor, be appropriated for the if the business of dressing be performed with rapidsleeping apartment, and that it be freely ventilated, ity, and brisk exercise be taken previously to enterduring the daytime, at all seasons, when the weath- ing a warm apartment, they who would pursue this er is not rainy, or otherwise very humid. There are plan would render themselves less dependant for few houses, the rooms of which are so situated as to comfort upon external warmth—a circumstance of render the latter impracticable; and the influence of (very great importance as a means of guarding against the practice upon the health of the inmates is too im- colds, coughs, and consumptions. portant to permit its being neglected from any slight We would advise those who are so excessively

delicate as to be incapable of passing a few minutes A bed-chamber should be divested of all unneces- morning and evening, in a cold room, to seek some sary furniture, and, unless of considerable size, more genial climate—to such our winter cannot fail should never contain more than one bed. There to be a season of constant suffering, if not of actual cannot be a more pernicious custom, than that pur- danger. sued in many families, of causing the children, more A practice equally imprudent with that of occupyespecially, to sleep in small apartments, with two or ing a heated bed-chamber, during cold weather, is three beds crowded into the same room.

the one very commonly pursued, of attempting to reIt is scarcely necessary to observe, that cleanli- duce the temperature of this apartment, in summer, ness, in the most extensive signification of the term, by leaving the windows open at night. Many peris, if possible even more necessary, in reference to sons have experienced serious and irreparable in the bed-chamber, than to almost any other apartment. jury to their health, by being in this manner subject.

The practice of sleeping in an apartment which is ed, while asleep, to a current of cold air from with. occupied during the day is extremely improper. out. Perfect cleanliness and a sufficiently free ventilation

While a free admission of air is permitted throughcannot, under such circumstances, be preserved, es- out the day, the direct rays of the meridian sun, bepecially during cold weather; hence, the atmosphere ing, however, at the same time as much as possible becomes constantly more and more vitiated, and al- excluded, the windows of the bed-chamber should together unfitted for respiration.

be invariably closed after night. While too great a degree of caution cannot be Darkness and quiet being important requisites for observed to avoid sleeping in damp rooms, beds, or natural, tranquil and refreshing repose, no noise or clothing, the temperature of the bed-chamber should, light of any kind is to be permitted in a sleeping if possible, never be augmented, under the ordinary apartment, excepting the latter should be rendered circumstances of health, by artificial means. As this absolutely necessary by sickness or other infirmity. apartment is to be reserved solely for repose, a firé Even when from habit, entire darkness has become is never necessary, excepting, perhaps, during un- unnecessary for sound and undisturbed sleep, the commonly severe weather; and even then the tem- burning of candles or of lamps during the night, tends perature ought not to exceed fifty degrees.

to contaminate the air of the chamber, and in this




manner produces occasional mischief. This, it is

THE HUMAN BODY-No. VI. true, may be, in a great measure, obviated by pla- From the whole, then, we see that the human cing the light upon the hearth within the chimney. body is a congeries of organs; that those organs are

Journal of Health.

constructed of a few simple tissues ; and that all its parts, numerous, diversified, and complex as they

are, are composed of but three primary forms of aniA FRAGMENT OF LINEN.

mal matter variously modified and combined.

But though by the analysis of its component parts,

this machine, so complex in its construction, and so
Would they swept cleaner! Here's a littering
Of linen left behind-a vile reproach
To all neat housewifery. Right glad am I
No nice old lady, trained in those good days
Of pudding-making, and of sampler-work,
And speckless sanctity of household care,
Had happened in to spy thee. She, no doubt,
Keen looking, through her spectacles, would say,
This comes of reading books :" or some spruce beau,
Essenced and lily handed, had he chanced
To scan thy slight superfícies, 'twould be,
" This comes of writing poetry :" Well, well!
Come forth, offender-hast thou aught to say?.
Canst thou, by merry thought, or quaint conceit,
Repay the risk that I have run for thee?
Begin at Alpha, and resolve thyself
Into thine elements—tke verdant stalk
And bright blue flower of flax, which 'erst outspread
That goodly land where mighty Moses stretch'd
His rod miraculous. I see thy bloom
Soft stealing o'er our blest New England vales-
But lo! the sturdy farmer with his fail
Breakest thy bones unpitying-and his wife,
With kerchief'd head and eyes brimful of dust,
Thy slender nerves with hatchet tooth divides,

I hear of musick, and behold !
The ruddy damsel singeth at her wheel,
While by her side the rustick lover sits,
And as he listeneth, secretly doth count
The bunch of skeins, which hanging on the wall
Increaseth day by day. Perchance his thought
(For men have deeper minds than women, sure!)
Îs calculating what a thrifty wife
That fair cheek'd girl will make, and how his shelves

{Muscles of the back and shoulders; showing their symmetrical Will bow beneath a weight of golden cheese

disposition.] Made by her ample hand, while many a keg And pot of butter to the market borne

wonderfully endowed, may be reduced to this state Shall, transmigrated, flourish on his back, A new thanksgiving coat!

of simplicity; and although this analytical view of Fain would I ask

it be highly useful in enabling us to form a clear Mine own New England, for thine ancient wheel, By sofa and piano quite displaced ;

conception of the nature of its composition; yet it is Why hast thou banish'd from thy parlour hearths

only by considering its individual parts such as they Thy deep hygeian harp, whose magick ruled

actually are, and by studying their situation, connexDyspepsy, as the minstrel-shepherd's skill Exorcised Saul's ennui ?

ion, structure, and action, that we can understand it. There was no need

as a whole, and apply our knowledge of it to any In those old times of trim calisthenicks,

practical use. And there was less of gadding, and far more Of home-born, heart-felt comfort, rooted strong

Viewing then the human body as a complicated In industry, and bearing precious fruit

whole, as a congeries of organs made up of various Which wealth could never purchase.

combinations of simple tissues, it may be observed,

But come back, Thou shred of linen! I did let thee drop

in reference to its external configuration, that it is In my harangue, as wiser ones have lost

rounded. This rounded form is principally owing The thread of their discourse. What was thy lot When the rough battery of the loom had stretch'd

to the large proportion of fluids which enter into its And knit thy sinews, and the chymist sun

composition. The roundness of the face, limbs, and Thy brown complexion bleach’d? Methinks I trace entire surface of the child, is in striking contrast to Some idiosyncrasy that marks thee out A defunct pillowcase. Perchance the guest

the unequal and irregular surface of the old man, To the best chamber usher'd, did admire

whose humours are comparatively very much smallThe snowy whiteness of thy freshen'd youth,

er in quantity. Stirring thy vanity, or some sweet babe Pour its pure dream of innocence on thee.

of the human body exceeds its breadth Say, hast thou listened to the moan of pain

and thickness ; the degree of the excess varying at When there were none to comfort, or shrank back

different periods of life, and according to the pecuFrom the dire tossings of the proud man's brow, Or gathered from young beauty's restless sigh

liar constitution of the individual. In the extremiAn untold tale of love?

ties, the bones, muscles, vessels, and nerves, are esBut why so

mute! Wilt tell no secrets-ha? Well

, then go down

pecially distinguished by their length. With all thy close-lock'd hoard of curious lore;

The form of the human body is symmetrical, that In mystery and majesty go down

is, it is capable of being divided into two lateral and Into the paper-mill, and from its jaws Stainless and smooth emerge. Happy shall be

corresponding halves. Suppose a median line to Such renovation, if on thy fair page

pass from the vertex of the head through the centre Wisdom and truth their hallowed lineaments

of the spinal column ; if the body be well formed, it Stamp for posterity. So shall thine end Be better than thy birth, and worthier bard

will be divided by this line into two exactly equal Thine apotheosis immortalize.

and corresponding portions. This symmetrical dis


The le

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