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ites. There were no paintings or decorations of, clambered up broken staircases and among the ruins any kind within the chamber ; but the rock out of of streets ; and, looking into one excavation, passed which it was hewn, like the whole stony rampart on to another and another, and made the whole that encircled the city, was of a peculiarity and circle of the desolate city. There, on the spot; beauty that I never saw elsewhere, being a dark everything had an interest which I cannot give in ground, with veins of white, blue, red, purple, and description ; and it the reader has followed me so sometimes scarlet and light orange, running through far, I have too much regard for him to drag bim it in rainbow streaks; and within the chambers, abont after me as I did Paul. I am warned of the where there had been no exposure to the action of consequences by what occurred with that excellent: the elements, the freshness and beauty of the colours and patient follower; for before the day was over in which these waving lines were drawn, gave an he was completely worn out with fatigue." effect hardly inferiour to that of the paintings in the tombs of the kings at Thebes. From its high and commanding position, and the unusual finish of the work, this house, if so it may be called, had no doubt been the residence of one who had strutted

RELIGION. lis hour of brief existence among the wealthy citizens of Petra. In front was a large table of rock,

The mariner, when tempest-driven, forming a sort of court for the excavated dwelling,

Upon a dark and stormy sea, where probably, year after year, in this beautiful

Lifts up his troubled eye to heaven, climate, the Edomite of old sat under the gathering

In hope thai there some guide may be. shades of evening, sometimes looking down upon the congregated thousands and the stirring scenes And if perchance some trembling star in the theatre beneath, or beyond upon the palaces Shine softly through the gloom of night, and dwellings in the area of the then populous city. He hails its radiance from afar Farther on, in the same range, though, in consé

Blessing its mild celestial light. quence of the steps of the streets being broken, we were obliged to go down and ascend again before Thus when o'er life's tumultuous surge we could reach it, was another temple, like the first,

We struggle on, through gloom and care, cut out of the solid rock, and, like the first too,

While storms of grief and anguish urge having for its principal ornament a large urn, shat

Our troubled spirits to despair : tered and bruised by musket-balls ; for the ignorant Arab, believing that gold is concealed in it, day

Oh then, in that benighted hour,

One guide hath God in mercy given, after day, as he passes by, levels at it his murderous gun, in the vain hope to break the vessel and scatter

Shining with mild, benignant power, a golden shower on the ground.

To light our weary souls to heaven. But it would be unprofitable to dwell upon details.

RELIGION !—'t is thy holy beam In the exceeding interest of the scene around me, I

That dissipates each cloud of gloom hurried from place to place, utterly insensible to

Brightens and cheers life's troubled dream, physical fatigue; and being entirely alone, and hav

And sheds a halo round the tomb. ing á full and undisturbed range of the ruins, 1


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having been discovered, he proceeded, in 1778, to ANIMAL MAGNETISM.

Paris. The great supporters of animal magnetism

have recently been Kieser in Jena, and Wolfart: in This fanciful science appears to have originated Berlin ; the former explains the phenomena by the with Mesmer and other German illuminés, who be- striking difference between life by day and life by lieved that the power of a common magnet might be night, both in the case of animals and vegetables ; made to act on the human frame. They also be- the latter adopts the mystical jargon of Mesmer. lieved that this power once imparted to a professor In 1820, the Prussian government caused a prize to might afierward be communicated to others without be offered for the best treatise on this subject, but it the agency of ferruginous bodies. So much of in- was subsequently withdrawn. terest has lately been excited by the attempts to re- We now proceed to an outline of the phenomena vive the long-exploded doctrines of animal magnet- of animal magnetism, as described in Mr. Kluge's ism that it may be advisable to present our readers work. The phenomena, in the case of the magwith a brief outline of its history, and the phenom- netizer and the magnetized, are as follows:ena said to be elicited. The principal means used 1. The Magnetizer.--He is generally capable of 10 produce the effects of animal magnetism are such producing a positive effect only so far as he posas touching and stroking with the hands, breathing sesses a higher degree of energy and vital power on a person, fixing the eyes upon him, &c.; the than the person magnetized. The man generally magnetized person must always be of a weaker con- effects more than the woman. If the magnetizer is stitution, and, if possible, of a different sex, from the weaker person, there either takes place no apthe magnetizer; and it is indispensable that he parent effect, or the effects are inveried, viz. the should be of a disposition to believe without doubt- positive effects are apparent in hiin, and the negaing. The phenomena themselves consist partly in tive in the person magnetized. If the magnetizer bodily sensations (for instance, chillness, heaviness, undertakes ihe manipulation of a susceptible subject, flying pains, oppressions, &c.,) partly in a diminished he always feels a glow, and the sensation of a activity of the external senses, partly in fainting, gentle flow from his palm, and particularly from the convulsions, sleep, with lively dreains, in which the points of his fingers. If he covers his hands with magnetized person is transported to higher spheres, silk gloves, or other electrick bodies, he has not this observes the internal organization of his own body, latter feeling, and his operation is fruitless ; but prophesies, gives medical prescriptions, receives in- linen or leather gloves do not prevent the effect. spired views of heaven, hell, purgatory, &c., reads After a successful operation, the magnetizer feels a scaled letters laid on his stomach, and, when awaken- general unpleasantness, a weakness in the digestive ed, is totally unconscious of what he has expe- system, and, in general, a loss of power, in proporrienced. At the same time, the soul becomes so tion to the susceptibility of the magnetized subject, elevated and refined that the magnetized individual and the duration or frequency of the operation. If has an instinctive perception of the presence of the the magnetizer, during the operation, is isolated with impure, and falls into fits at the approach of dis- the magnetized subject by electrical bodies, his loss believers in animal magnetism, and of all who in- of power is less, !ūt the effects which he produces vestigate it by the rules of ordinary reason.

Hence are stronger. it is necessary to keep skepticks at a distance, when 2. Phenomena in the person magnetized. The it is desired to witness the highest phenomena. phenomena produced in ihe subject by a positive

The inagnetized person shows a remarkable con operation are of a double kind; either they have nexion with, and dependance on, the magnetizer, reference to the general state of the body, are then tasting what he eats, smelling what he holds before not periodical, but last during the whole cure, and his nose, and no one else can bring him back from therefore may be considered as the general effects the magnetick state. In the sequel we shall give a of magnetism; or they have reference only to parbrief exposition of the phenomena, as stated by ticular activities of the organization. Of the former Kluge, who appears, in his Attempt at an Exhibition sort are, 1, a general awakening and strengthening of Animal Magnetism, 10 have given the fullest ac. of the vital powers in all parts of the body, withou count of them. A scientifick investigation of the considerable excitement, as well in the systems of influence which we are considering is hardly con- the nerves and muscles, the vascular and digestive sistent with the views entertained of it by its ad- system, as the organs of secretion ; 2, a mild exherents; for they maintain that mere reason cannot citement over the whole surface of the body, by approach nor conceive this great mystery ; it can be which every irregularity and local reaction is neurighily apprehended only by à believer. The whole tralized and the equilibrium restored; 3, a with. of the effects of animal magnetism seem to be as- drawing of the heightened vital power from the sufcribable to a heated imagination, to an excitement, fering organs to others ; 4, a diminution or total sup, half spiritual, half sensual

, and to a morbid sensi- pression of the excitement producing the morbid tiveness. The history of animal magnetism may be activity of the nerves. The magnetizer not only

. thus briefly detailed :- Anthony Mesmer, in 1772, should have a stronger body than the person attempted cures with the mineral magnet, and ex- magnetized, but also a perfectly healthy one. He cited some sensation in Vienna, but at length de- must have attained the maturity of his bodily powclared that not the magnet, but a mysterious power ers, but must still be within the age of active life; in his own person caused the effects ascribed to the the mind, too, must be sound and strong, in order 10 magnet, and that this power was related not only to master the affections and passions, to have a living the magnetick power, but to the attraction dispersed faith and a firm will, and thus to attain perfect conthroughout the universe. But, a fraud which he at-trol over this means of cure, as also over the patempted (the pretended restoration of sight to a girl) / tiont.

Vol. V.34

The phenomena of animal magnetism have been Hearing is likewise performed in this state by the divided into six degrees. Those of the first degree pit of the stomach, and the sense of smell becomes are generally the following: first, the feeling of a sometimes so acute as to distinguish the different instrong current from the head to the extremities, after gredients of compound scents. Objects which the which a higher degree of heat follows, easily ob- person does not regard in a healthy and natural servable by the thermometer, greater redness of the state have often, very sensible and even dangerous skin, with increased perspiration, and a feeling of effects on him when in a state of somnambulism. ease and comfort throughout the whole body. In The vicinity of a living being, whom the patient the second degree, the warmth increases, and ap- perceives at a distance of from ten to fifteen paces, pears to the patient to diffuse itself from the sto is generally very disagreeable to him. If persons mach, as if from a central point, over the whole whom he dislikes touch him, paleness and coldness body. The pulse becomes generally fuller and occur in the parts touched, and convulsions are genstronger, and the breathing easier and deeper. The erally the consequence. Among inanimate subpatient feels a heaviness in the eyelids and an irre-jects, metals have the most unpleasant effect. To sistible desire to close them. If he does close the magnet the somnambulist is still more sensitive them, they seem to him cemented by the strongest than toward other metals. Of everything which power, and, during the remainder of the magnetick has occurred to the patient during this period, what effects, it is impossible for him to open them. All he has perceived, thought, said, or done, he has, the other senses, however, remain active, and their when awaking, either no recollection or a very faint activity is often heightened. The patient knows one; but, if he is brought again into this state, he therefore everything which is done about him, though recollects everything very well. he is not always capable of speaking. At the close In the fifth degree, ihe patient attains, by his of the magnetick operation, he opens his eyes by heightened consciousness and the increased strength himself, or with the assistance of the magnetizer, of his general feelings, to that internal self-contemand feels generally strengthened and well. After plation by which he is able to investigate even the this, the patient observes, sometimes, a shining ap- minutest parts of his bodily structure. By virtue of pearance before his eyes, similar to repeated light- this accurate knowledge of his internal frame, the ning, a pricking in the points of the fingers and toes clairvoyant, as he is called in this state, not only dealternately, a heaviness and coldness in the extrein- termines very distinctly the seat and quality of his ities, unpleasant feelings about the region of the disease, but at the same time an instinct developes stomach, sickness, violent shuddering, wish to itself in him which makes him understand the means cough, &c.

necessary for his cure. Besides mentioning the The particular signs often accompanying the third remedies, the clairvoyant also indicates the kind of degree are, especially, swoons, convulsive trem- magnetizing necessary, and thus directs his own blings, real convulsions, cataleptick and even apo- cure. This deep insight is not limited to the clair. plectick fils. This stale generally begins with all voyant alone, but extends to persons brought into the signs of an approaching drowsiness. Repeated magnetick relations with him, whose sensations are yawning, stretching, heaviness of the eyelids, an- always communicated to him. Between the magnounce it. A deep sigh generally follows, after netizer and the clairvoyant this sympathy is the which the eyes close entirely, and a state begins strongest and most remarkable. Very often the similar to sleep, in which the patient seems to be feeling of disease in the magnetizer is not only comdeprived of all sensation and consciousness. In the municated to the patient, but the disease itself, fourth degree, the patient awakens, not from his which in some cases has continued after the patient sleep, but within himself, and regains his conscious was awakened. Affections of the soul also pass ness; he knows himself again, yet in a changed re- from the magnetizer to the clairvoyant. Sometimes lation to surrounding circumstances. The external this sympathy reaches such a height that it remains senses are either closed entirely, or their character even when the parties are distant from each other. is changed, and only the internal sense remains the This magnetick sympathy may be still more height

The somnambulist (as he is called in this ened, and then the clairvoyant has a clear insight state,) entirely awakened within himself, distin- into the internal physical state of persons in a magguishes with his eyes nothing but light and dark- netick connexion with him, just as he has of his ness, and not always even these, although, as is own; can determine their disease, its course and sometimes the case, the eyelids are open. The ball future phenomena, and prescribe the means of cure of the eye is either drawn up convulsively or stiff, accordingly. He insists that he perceives the disthe pupil widened and without sensation. Next, eased state of others precisely as his own, by thu the sense of feeling is metamorphosed into that of stomach. His language becomes more elevated seeing, so that the somnambulist can distinguish by than ordinary, and is marked by fire, spirit, and preit, not only the outlines of things, but also colours, cision. His perception is livelier and stronger, his with perfect precision. The region of the stomach thinking freer and deeper, and his judgment quicker becomes the central point of all sensation, and it is and more penetrating. He not only perceives the chiefly through this region that the sense of sight is present, and the influence of external relations, supplied. The somnambulist, therefore, can ascer- much more distinctly than before, but penetrates tain the time perfecily well by a watch, closely held also into the most distant period of past time. to the pit of the stomach. By repeated exercise, There is an obvious inclination of patients for the patient obtains this faculty in a higher degree, each other, if they are treated by the same magnetand what originally appeared to him indistinct be- Jizer, and particularly if they are in a state of somcomes very clear. Persons appear to him more dis- nambulism at the same time. The patient who has tinct than inanimate subjects.

attained internal clearness by the filth degree pen


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etrates, in the sixth degree, the darkness of exter- | tropical latitudes are found blowing towards the equanal things, and attains a higher view of the whole tor, either uniformly, or for regular and determinate of nature. With uncommon clearness he often dis- periods. We perceive here the principal cause of tinguishes the secrets of the past, what is distant those arid deserts, comprising alınost every variety and unknown in the presert, and the events of of geological formation, which occupy so large a coming time. If the patient is asked how he knows space in the otherwise most fruitful latitudes. all this, he generally answers that it is as if he were On examining the map of the world, it may be told of it by some other person, or that he feels it seen that this absence of rain is found chiefly in through the pit of the stomach. He is always fully countries lying between the 18th and 32d parallels convinced of the truth of what he thus acquires. of latitude, and situated upon the eastern side of the In respect to the choice of proper remedies, the great oceans or of the great circuits of wind which clairvoyant is less limited than before. In the for- are found to prevail in the temperate and lower latimer degree, it was necessary to put him into con- tudes. On ihe western shores of the Atlantic, in nexion with another person, by intermediate bodies; North and South America, where the aerial current but, in this degree, he can be in this relation with is passing from the equator towards the higher latiany distant person, if he knows him, or feels a lively tudes, we find on the other hand that there are adeinterest for him, or even if the magnetizer, or any quate supplies of rain. The same is generally true other person brought into connexion with the clair- of the western shores and islands of the Pacific voyant by actual touch, knows the distant person, ocean ; and the westerly monsoons being of the latand thinks intently of him. The view of the clair- ter character, generally afford copious rains, while voyant extends even into the future condition of the easterly monsoons, or regular tradewinds, which others. He attains to a higher, fuller life than he incline towards the equator, are equally remarkable had before. The body seems to be intimately amal- for their dryness, at least within the latitudes above gamated with the mind, to be blended into the most mentioned. harmonious union with it. The individual is re- In the atmospheric basin of the North Atlantic, moved from everything coarse and sensual, and we have the most striking exhibition of this effect in placed in a state of serene and elevated self-con- the great African desert of Sahara. Continuing our templation. The feeling of the greatest bodily survey eastwardly under the same parallels, we find comfort and purity of soul produces a serene peace also the great deserts of Lybia, Egypt, and Arabia, within him, which indicates itself by the noblest which for the most part are subject to the same feelings. In this state, which, according to the course of general winds; the blighting effects of clairvoyants, borders on heavenly felicity, they are which, fully, exemplify the position which is here incapable of irnpurity, and even the guilty fancy assumed. In the atmospheric basin of the South themselves virtuous.

Atlantic, we find also, in South Africa, an arid reSuch are the wonders of animal magnetism, of gion, extending across the same parallels of latitude, which our readers may believe much or little. The where a southerly wind is found to prevail, which attention which the subject has attracted in Europe in its progress towards the equator, becomes merged is our excuse for the length of this article. The in the southeast tradewinds. The same effects are footing which it has gained, and the effects which produced on the eastern shores of the Pacific ocean, it has produced, strikingly exemplify the power of where, upon the coasts of Chili, Bolivia, and Peru, imagination. It would require too much space to we have a like section of the general winds, which, describe all the various manipulations and other notwithstanding the near proximity of the Andes, operations by which the patient is placed in the causes the desert of Atacama, and a remarkable abmagnetick state.

sence of rain on other parts of the same coast. The same general effect is produced by the corresponding winds which prevail upon the western coast of North America, where, owing to the peculiar direc

tion of the sea-coast and mountain ranges, the arid METEOROLOGICAL SKETCHES: influence is extended, as in some parts of Asia, far

into the temperate latitudes. The phenomena attend

ing the general winds in the basin of the Indian (Continued from page 114.)

ocean, and New Holland, are of the same character.

It seems to follow, that the general sterility, or periOF DESERTS.

odical drought of the regions referred to, is not to be The atmosphere is capable of absorbing aqueous ascribed to the peculiar constitution or composition vapor in proportion to its temperature, and as a cur- of the natural surface, or to excessive heat, but must rent of air in passing from a colder to a warmer re- be attributed to the peculiar course and hygrometric gion necessarily increases in temperature, it thus condition of the general winds. acquires an increasing capacity for moisture, which

OF THE VARIATIONS OF THE BAROMETER. tends to prevent the formation of clouds and rain. This condition pertains not only to currents which The fluctuations in the height of the mercurial descend from high mountains and sweep over eleva- .column, have long excited attention, and the proxited plains, but is peculiar to a certain section or por- mate causes of these changes are deemed, by late tion of the great natural circuits of wind which are European writers, to be as yet unknown. These found in various regions, on both sides of the equa- fluctuations of the barometer appear to differ in their tor. The necessary consequence, is a scarcity of character and origin, and may be classed under the rain in this portion of the aerial current, or in those following heads :places where the winds from the temperate or extra- I. The regular semi-diurnal oscillation which in



the tropical latitudes is at its maximum from 9 to 10the temperate latitudes, by the great Asiatic elevaA. M.; and at its minimum about 3 P. M. In the tions, is forced to continue a sluggish course across temperate latitudes, the effect appears to be nearly the equator, into the N. W. monsoon. The effect the same ; but Professor Forbes has shown that in of this resistance in raising the barometer is such, very high latitudes the effect is reversed, the mini- that at Canton, in China, the mean height of the mum being at 10, and the maximum at 3 o'clock. barometer during four months of the N. E. monsoon, This oscillation appears to indicate a system of at- for a period of seven years, has been found to be mospheric tides, resulting from the rotation of the 30.20 inches. The mean height during four months earth and its relations to the solar system.

of the S. W. monsoon, owing probably to the tardy II. The more striking and irregular variations passage of the S. E. trade from which it is derived, which altend the presence and passage of storms of in its unnatural course across the equator, being, for wind, especially in the higher latitudes. This class the same period, only 29.86 inches. of fluctuations is believed to admit of an easy and IV. The oscillation of an extensive region of atsatisfactory explanation.

mosphere in the higher or temperate latitudes, causing It appears from a careful examination of the phe- a rise of the barometer of some days or even weeks' nomena of hurricanes and storms, as they occur in continuance; and a corresponding depression for like various regions, that the greatest depression of the periods at other seasons. These extensive oscillabarometer is' found within the body of the storm- tions may, perhaps, he reserred to the alternately that this depression constantly accompanies the storm predominating influence of gravitation toward the during its

progress from one region 1o another, not- poles, and the counter force of the centrifugal action withstanding the tendency of the air to move from of the earth's rotation towards the equator, aided all sides towards the point of least pressure--and probably, by some of the other causes to which alluthat the wind in these storms is found to blow in a sion has been made. lateral or circuitous direction, around the point of Although storms of wind, from the manner of their greatest depression, which is near the geographical development, usually produce rain in some portion centre of the storm. No when these facts are con- of the area which they occupy, yet the fall of the basidered, it becomes evident that the centrifugal ac-rometer, being chiefly dependant on mechanical caustion of the air in this powerful rotative movement, es, has no necessary connexion with the fall of rain. effectually opposes the gravitating tendency towards It appears from the observations of the Marquis Po. the point of least pressure, and thus maintains, me- leni, that in one thousand one hundred and seventychanically, the constant rarefaction which causes the five instances of the fall of rain, the barometer sunk depression of the mercury under the storm. Were only seven hundred and fifty-eight times, being six it possible to produce a movement of the wind from hundred and forty-five to one thousand. In the Uniall sides of a storm, in the direction of its centre, the ted States the most copious rains not unfrequently depression of the barometer would at once he termi- occur during an unusual elevation of the barometer: nated, and an accumulated pressure would immediately take place.

A demonstrative proof of our position is also found The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth in the barometrical depression which is so constant- about unto the north : it whirleth about continually ly exhibited in the permanent atmospheric eddy at and the wind returneth again according to his circuits. Čape Horn and the strait of Magalhaens, which is all the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not caused by the westerly winds that press upon the full ; unto the place from whence the rivers come, Cape and are disgorged into the Southern ocean thither they return again." around the southern termination of the Andes. Capt. This concise epitome of meteorology may be conP. P. King, who surveyed this region and who was sidered as one of the most comprehensive and accufurnished with the best instruments, adjusted to the rate that has ever been written.

R. standard of the Royal observatory, informs us that the mean height of the barometer was about 29.50 inches; and a register of the observations for seven

DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD. months from February to August, inclusive, at the observatory at Port Famine, in the strait, shows a In ancient times, the people of the East had sev. mean of 29.43 inches. This result is confirmed by eral methods of disposing of their dead friends. the observations of other officers ; and may serve, They sometimes deposited the body in a subterraalso, to show the error of Mr. Daniell's position, that nean sepulchre, built with brick, stones, and mortar, the mean pressure of the atmosphere during the year, and having niches in the sides, wherein the kindred at the level of the sea, is every where the same. corpses had each a place ;—or they enclosed

III. The constant or periodicul accumulation of the body in an urn or vase ;-or they laid it in a cofatmospheric pressure, which arises from natural obsta- fin, and the coffin in a grave, as we đo ;-or they cles, opposed to the course of the general or trade- washed it in pure water, clothed it in a perfumed winds ; and the corresponding depression of the ba- garment, and then burnt it on a funeral pile, carerometer, which results from the retardation of such winds fully collecting the ashes and whitened bones for by like obstacles or by an unnatural and forced route, burial :-or, after washing the lifeless form, and arin their progress towards the point of observation. raying it in a perfumed garment, as before, they im

The most remarkable variations of this character mersed it in a vessel of aquafortis ; and when it was are found under the eastern and western monsoons, entirely dissolved, they carried the liquid to some in Asia and the Indian and Pacific oceans. The solitary spot, and poured it on the earth. This lat. N. E. monsoon or regular tradewind, obstructed in ter method of performing the sepulchral rites was its natural course of deflection from the tropical to deemed the best of all



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