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FACULTY.

WASHINGTON MEDICAL COLLEGE. place where good nurses, medical attendance, and

every convenience contributing to their comfort wiil “ The College buildings are constructed in a style be provided. It is believed that this peculiar feaof architecture which will vie with the proudest col- ture will render this Institution very popular with legiate edifices. They are situated on the southeast strangers who may take apartments here, and who corner of Market and Hampstead Hill streets, on the can have the attendance of any physician they prefer, most elevaled ground within the limits of Baltimore, and will be free to receive their friends and visiters and command a magnificent view of the Patapsco, las unrestrained as in their own homes. No insecof the city and the surrounding country. The build- tious diseases are admitted within the wards of this ings will range one hundred and ninety-tive feet on hospital." Hainpstead Hill st., and consist in part of a circular centre building, forty feet in diameter, having four stories at unequal height, for the convenience of James H. Miller, M. D., Professor of Anatomy Lecture halls, Laboratory, Dissecting rooms, Muse- and Physiology. um, Library. This part of the edifice is flanked at Samuel K. Jennings, M. D., Professor of Materia four corresponding equi-distant points by turrets, six Medica, Therapénticks, änd Legal Medicine. stories high, castellated with obelisk roofs, and dec- Wm. W. Handy, M. D., Professor of Obstetricks orated with Gothick windows and doors. The two and Diseases of Women and Children. wings (the eastern already finished and occupied) John C. S. Monker, M. D., Professor of Institutes are each sixty feet by forty, being five stories in and Practice of Medicine. neight. The apartments are numerous, spacious Edward Foreman, M. D., Professor of Chymistry and losty, affording ample room for a classification John R. W. Dunbar, M. D., Professor of Surgery of the patients, and, when completed, will contain and Surgical Anatomy. between three and four hundred beds. The apart. Washington R. Handy, M. D., Demonstrator of ments appropriated to house students will accommo- Analomy. date forty or fifty individuals, and are most agreeable and inviting to young gentlemen who may prefer to reside in the College edifice. There are also apart

James H Miller, President. ments specially designed for strangers who may be

John C. S. Monkur, Treasurer. taken ill in our city, and who prefer being retired

Edward Foreman, Secretary. from the noise and confusion of a hotel, and wish a

Samuel K. Jennings, Dean.

OFFICERS OF THE COLLEGE.

ITS INTRODUCTION INTO THE UNITED STATES.

WOOD ENGRAVING.

plate engraver, of Hartford, Conn.; who at the same time, painted signs, and occasionally executed a

wood cut,in what his apprentice calls “the old typeWe purpose giving some account of the invention, metal style.” The beautiful effects produced on history, and introduction into this country, of the admiration and ambition of Mr. Mason; and in 1808

mood by Dr. Anderson, of New York, excited the different arts connected with book-making'; such as he made his first essays in wood engraving on ornawood-engraving, type-founding, stereotyping, paper- ments for foy-books. Want of proper tools and want making, printing, book-binding, &c., &c.

of experience impeded his efforts, and stimulated his In our last number we gave a general history of ingenuity to supply deficiencies in both. His sucthe art of wood-engraving, taken from Dunlap's “Arts Learning that there was no engraver on wood in the

cess determined him to persist in wood engraving. of Design," and there credited to the pen of A. Ma- city of Philadelphia, he proceeded thither as soon as son, Esq., of New York. The following sketches he was out of his apprenticeship, (1810) and was are from the same work, and we believe, from the well received and amply employed.

During the last war with Great Britain, Mr. Mason same pen :

entered into other employments, and relinquished his Dr. Anderson, who may be justly termed the Be- wood engraving to his pupil, Mr. George Gilbert. wick of America, and the father of the art in this Of the introduction of wood engraving into Boston country, was born in April, 1775, three days after the credit is due to Mr. Abel Bowen, who began the the battle of Lexington, near Peck slip in New York. practice of the art there in 1812, and has continued After his school days were passed, his father placed the pursuit successfully; he has had several pupils him with Dr. Young to study the practice of medi- of ability, who now that the art is becoming more cine ; but he had from infancy devoted his play hours generally understood, receive every encouragement to drawing, and having attempted engraving, he was in their professional practice. 80 fascinated by his success that he determined, as soon as he could, to "throw physick to the dogs," and become professionally an engraver. He did so.

Dr. Anderson, (for his medical tiile sticks to him to this hour,) after trying various experiments, and

FARMERS' DEPARTMENT. making himself somewhat proficient in the art, gained an introduction to the celebrated John Roberts,

MANURES. and was received by him as a pupil. He worked as long as he could with Roberts, for the purpose of Marl forms a very valuable manure, if it be of a improving himself in drawing, and working with the proper kind for the land to which it is applied. It graver, but the irregularity of the eccentrick Scotch-is of three kinds-viz. calcareous, argillaceous, and man, and his intemperance, forced him to give up sandy. Calcareous marl consists of from thirtythe advantages he might have derived from his in- three to eighty parts of chalk, or calcareous earth, struction.

and from sixty-seven to twenty parts of clay in the In the year 1794, as a professed engraver, Dr. hundred. It is generally of a yellowish white, or Anderson was engaged by Wm. Durell, bookseller, yellowish brown, but in some places it is of a brown and one of our early publishers, to engrave cuts for or reddish cast. That which contains shells is most an edition of "'The Lookingglass," the original engra- valued and is called shell-marl. It effervesces with vings for which were cut by Bewick on wood. This acids; when pulverized it feels dry between the led to the employment which distinguishes Anderson fingers, and if inmersed in water it readily crumbles as our first engraver on that material. He worked to pieces, but does not form a viscid mass. It is through half the book on type-metal and copper, and commonly discovered a few feet beneath the surface then commenced his essays on wood without other of the soil, and on the sides of hills, or the banks instruction than that derived from studying Bewick's of rivers flowing through calcareous countries. cuts, which he was to copy. For this new art he Argillaceous marl contains from sixty-eight to had to invent and make tools. Perseverance, indus- eighty parts in the hundred of clay, and from thirtytry, and ingenuity overcame all difficulties, and he two to twenty of chalk. It is of a gray, bluish established himself as an engraver in wood. Soon brown, or reddish brown colour. It is harder and after his first attempts, he cut a cameo for Swords' more unctuous than the last species, and if exposed edition of Darwin.

to the air or moisture it does not moulder so quickly. He persevered in the practice, and exhibited the It effervesces with the mineral acids, but not with highest ability, though for many years he received vinegar. Silicious or sandy marl contains a greater but little encouragement; but like his great English proportion of sand than of chalk or clay. It is of contemporary, being an enthusiast in the art, he kept a brownish gray or lead-colour, and is in general steadily and perseveringly on his course, and has friable and Maky, though it sometimes occurs in hard the similar satisfaction of having witnessed the prog- lumps. Heavy clay soils are most benefited by ress of wood engraving to its present state of gene- calcareous marl; the sandy, gravelly, and light ral adoption. It is highly gratifying to know that loamy soils by argillaceous marl ; silicious mari this amiable and talented veteran is still in full prac-Tinay be applied to the same kind of soil as the caltice, and in the enjoyinent of excellent health. careous, where the calcareous cannot be obtained.

Much of the utility of marling depends upon the Wm. Mason, was one of our early engravers on marl being intimately combined with the soil. This wood. He was apprenticed to Abner Reid, copper-I dressing should therefore be given in summer, when

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the marl is light, dry, and easily crumbled, and the pits there, extraordinary care is taken to rail them marl suffered to lie on the surface during the en- in, to prevent the fatal accidents which might othersuing winter, as the alteri tion of frost and rain will wise happen. tend to complete its pulve, zation.

In marling, it is particularly necessary to find the The farmers in Staffordshire, England, reckon the true proportion which the land requires, and better soft blue marl, which is most commonly found under to err in laying on loo little than too much, because clay, or low black ground, at the depth of seven or more may be added at pleasure ; whereas, by overeight feet, the best for arable land, and the gray sort doing it, the first year's crop often fails, because the the best for pasture. That which is of a brownish body of the marl has not been sufficiently opened colour, with blue veins in it, and little lumps of chalk and, in that case, it will sometimes be two or three or limestone, generally lying under stiff clays, and years before the ground comes to a proper temper very hard to dig, is most esteemed in Cheshire. The best directions that can be given to the farmer The marl which is usually found at the depth of in the application of this manure to light soils is to about two feet, or a yard, on the sides of hills, and lay on the quantity which will give the degree of in wet boggy grounds which have a light sand in cohesion wanted in those soils. A general rule them, is very fat and close, and reckoned the stron- cannot be laid down in this respect, because the gest of all marls, for which reason it is particularly quantity of marl requisite to effect the desired end good for sandy lands. This is commonly called must be different, in proportion to the degree of peat-marl, or delving.marl. The paper-marl

, as it lightness of the soil. is sometimes called, frequently lies near coals, and Pliny speaks of marl as a species of improvement flakes like leaves or pieces of brown paper, than known to the Greeks, but more peculiar to Britain which it is of a somewhat lighter colour. That and Gaul. He calls it the fat of the earth, and comwhich some writers call clay-marl, because it looks pares it 10 the glands in the human body. As this like clay, is very fat, and sometimes mixed with manure, so far as we can find, was not used, and chalk-stones. Steel-marl breaks of itself into square probably not to be found, in Italy, it shows how atcubical bits. These two last kinds generally lie ientive the Romans were to agriculture, wherever under sand or clay, sometimes about a yard deep they carried their victorious arms; since, notwithunder the former, but often much deeper under the standing the continual alarms they lived in from the laiter.

natives here and in Gaul, they found time 10 disStone, slate, or flag marl, which is a kind of soft cover and perfect a means of improving land particstone or rather slate, of a bluish colour, is generally ularly suited to the soil and climate, and, of all allowed to be the best. It easily dissolves with others, the cheapest and most lasting. frost or rain, is found near rivers and on the sides of Gypsum, or the stone from which plaster of Paris hills, and is a very lasting manure.

is prepared, has been used with great advantage in In many parts of most counties in England marl this country. In the United States it is extensively discovers itself to the most negligent eye, particu- used with the greatest success. It is ground by a larly on the sides of broken hills, or deep hollow mill and sifted, and is then scattered on the land in roads. Many rivers are bordered with a vast treas, the proportion of eighi or nine bushels to an acre, ure, which is plundered by every food. Boggy at any season of the year. It accelerates the putrelands frequently cover it; and, in them, it seldom faction of vegetable and animal matter, and is well lies above three feet deep. It is somewhat lower adapted to increase the crops of grass, sainifuin, under stiff clays, and marshy level grounds. The and clover. lowest parts of most sandy lands abound with it, Clay greatly improves a sandy loose soil, and the sometimes at the depth of three feet, and sometimes greater the proportion of silex in the sand the more at seven, nine, or more.

advantageous it will be. In estimating the expense Nothing is more common than to find the ditches of it, the durable nature of the change it produces which enclose a field dug so deep that they have must be attended to; a good claying will be efpenetrated six or seven inches into a bed of marl, ficient for almost half a century. The usual quanwithout the farmer's taking any notice of it, though tiny laid on is from ten to twelve loads per acre. the extraordinary shooting and increase of the grass Burnt clay, reduced to powder, has the opposite which is put forth by the marl thrown up on the properties of clay itself, and improves cold, wet, sides of the bank might discover it to the most in- stiff clayey soils. experienced eye. Where the marl is thus accident- For clayey soils, moorish tracts, and stiff loams, ally disclosed, it not only turfs the sides and tops of sand forms a useful dressing. Sea-sand is the best, the banks, and thereby secures them against all in the clays and loams will often take from sorty to fifty juries of the weather, but makes the grass grow so loads per acre; but moor-land will require two or long and thick that, when beaten down by winds, it three times that quantity. hangs as if it thatched the earth which nourished it, Coal-ashes form a useful manure for lands of the and carries off the rain, 'without letting any great description requiring burnt clay. 'They may likequantity penetrate through it.

wise be employed as a top dressing for clover, on Marí is very common in Ireland, where it seldom dry, chalky lands, over which they ought to be scatlies above a foot or two below the surface of the tered in the months of March and April, in the prosoil, luckily for that country, which is extremely portion of from fifty to sixty bushels per acre. They boggy. But in France, though they have marl in may also be applied in like manner to grass lands. many places, they are often obliged to dig for it very Soot remarkably increases the produce of soils deep, particularly in the province of Artois, where abounding with vegetable matter; it prevents the It generally lies eighty or ninety feet beneath the growth of moss; and from its warnıth makes an exsurface. On account of the great depth of the marl-cellent addition to cold, moist, and clayey meadows

renown.

and pastures. The quantity used varies from fifteen

LITERARY REVIEW. to twenty-five and even forty bushels per acre. It should be strewed on the land in calm weather during winter, so that the subsequent rains may The National Port ait Gallery of Distinguished wash it into the soil, as in spring the heat it would Americans. Con icted by JAMES HERRING, New produce might be a check upon vegetation. It is York, and JAMES B. LONGACRE, Philadelphia. frequently employed as a top dressing for grain and

New York, vols. 1, 2, and 3. Iinperial octavo : grass, and has been found extremely useful in destroying the wire-worm and other insects which do

with engraved portraits. great injury to grain. It is sometimes a condition in leases that no more

The accessions constantly made to the Biographsoot shall be used on the farm than is produced upon cal department of American Knowledge, may justit; and, as a reason for this, an opinion has pre- ly be pronounced among the important contributions vai'ed that soot, though it greatly increases the quan- which enrich and adorn the literary career of our tity of produce during the first year after its application, yet it exhausts the land, which is afterward countrymen at the present day. The firmest supin a worse condition than if it had not been em- porters of sound instruction seem to be deeply alive ployed. The conditions of leases are often irration to the value of the subject : viewing it in its several al and injurious both to farmer and land-owner: it relationships, as calculated, in an effective manner, to deserves inquiry whether this is well founded.

Saline manures in general combine readily with convey the prominent facts and circumstances, which other substances, and produce decompositions which enable the student of our colonial and revolutionary are extremely useful in agriculture ; but it is more history the better to comprehend the origin and necessary than with other kinds of manure to guard progress of our Republick, in its career of empire, against using them in excess, particularly when they and in its march toward intellectual greatness and contain a powerful acid principle, as in the first substance mentioned below. Manures of this kind are

Aware, moreover, that the annals of legischiefly useful when the soil contains much vegetable lation, philosophy, and of the arts, the expositions of or animal matter.

the leading and vital truths which grace and mag. Salt, as a manure, is singularly beneficial, if used wify theology and the other liberal professions, may in sinall quantity. The fattening of cattle upon marshes has been practised time out of mind, and severally be embraced in Biographical memoirs, and it is to the salt contained in those lands that a very

be discussed in the most attractive and intelligible considerable part of the effect must be attributed. manner, to the plainest understanding; the strongest Sall is of great use for raising turnips, and also for inducements are unquestionably held out, to encourcorn, of which it causes the straw to be strong, and

age

the best pens and the most competent intellects the grain thin-hulled and heavy. It sweetens bad pastures ; improves and increases the herbage ; while to augment, by this means, the stores of this essenit destroys noxious insects. The quantity of salt tial branch of human investigation. Besides which, which has been recommended is from twelve to six- in selecting for contemplation and improvement the teen bushels per acre; but on the authority of a characters of those chiess of the human family, who, gentleman, who had made through a course of years by their genius and talents, have rendered thema great number of experiments on the use of salt as a manure, and who communicated the result of them selves illustrious, and placed their country under lastto the late Mr. Parkes, the ingenious author of the ing obligations by their services in her behalf, we Chymical Catechism, one bushel per acre is all that cherish the most ennobling feelings our nature is can be used with safety: a greater quantity would susceptible of, and awaken a curiosity in the best of render the land steril for two or three years afterward. This is consonant with the fact that a small causes, greater than is enjoyed perhaps by any other quantity of salt hastens putrefaction, while a large literary department. We accordingly within the quantity effectually prevents it; for the salt does not past twenty years, have been favoured with several act so much by its being imbibed by the plant, as by works on General Biography, appropriated as beits property of attracting moisture from the atmo. sphere, promoting the decomposition of other sub-coming memorials of the lives of native Americans, stances, and causing them to afford the nutriment besides no inconsiderable number of distinct volumes required.

confined to individual characters of acknowledged

excellence and approved services : among the forLickorice.-The common lickorice grows wild in mer class of biographies we may fairly mention the he south of Europe, and is cultivated in many pla- productions of Allen, Rogers, and Knapp: Dr. Elces, even in this country, for the sake of the root, which is much used in pharmacy, and forms a con- liott's New England Biography is of an earlier date. siderable article of commerce. More than two hun. Among the latter the more commanding volumes of dred tuns of the extract are manufactured annually Marshall's Washington, Johnson's life of General in Spain, a considerable portion of which is sent to Greene, Tudor's life of Otis, President Quincy's London. It is often administered medicinally, in life of his father, Colden's account of Robert Ful. coughs and pulmonary affections, and the aqueous infusion is a refreshing beverage. A deep, light, ton, Sparks's life of the intrepid traveller Ledyard, the and sandy soil is best adapted to its culturo. life of Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, by his

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grandson, Hosack's Memoirs of De Witt Clinton, cold, and apathick exposition which betrays every Dwight's ample volume on President Edwards, thing but a proper concurrence of feelings in behalf Davis's life of Col. Burr, Tucker's life of Jefferson, of the special subject of his memoir. In a work &c., &c. To these alsn deserve to be added the like that now before us minuteness of detail and copious work by Sanderson and others, containing copiousness of illustration are not to be expected : the memoirs of the signers of the Declaration of numbers claim consideration, and the difficulty of Independence; and the Library of American Biog- assigning the proportion which each ought to bear raphy, now publishing at Boston by Jared Sparks, a to the whole is perhaps the most embarrassing cir performance which challenges our approbation equal. cumstance which the biographer is compelled to ly by the choice of its subjects as by the able, im- yield to. But notwithstanding the difficulty of an partial, and authentick manner in which the memoirs occasionally too brief notice and at other times of are drawn up. Many other works of a biographi- a disproportionate space when compared with the cal character, but of an earlier date might here also nature of the materials which the various writers of be enumerated, were we disposed to summon the these memoirs had at command, their legitimate attention of the reading publick to the acquisition of province will nevertheless be found to have been a minute acquaintance with American patriots and fairly adhered to, when we assert, that a sound comphilosophers, who in their day and generation dis- prehension of the subject, the exercise of a sober played the attributes of greatness, and whose lives judgement, and a clear record of relevant facts comwere a blessing to their country.

municated in language easy, perspicuous, and maOf auto-biographies we have several ; but one of tured by good sense, constitute the prominent excelmerit, surpassing all others of its kind, the popular lences of by far the greater number of the articles and universally read account of the self-taught of this Portrait Gallery. This may be deemed high Franklin. If our information be correct, no book of praise in behalf of a work of so multifarious a naany age or in any language is more generally pe- ture and the production of so many pens : a careful rused either by the youth of America or of Europe ; perusal of its pages has however led to this conand few have contributed to render the study of bi-viction of the merits of this arduous undertaking; ography more captivating than the simple memoir of and if perchance the exact admeasurement of the that most exalted patriot and rational man. With intellectual worth and acts of every individual now these cursory observations on a portion at least of recorded may be deemed to be here and there not our present stock of works of this nature, we hasten so fully preserved, the more solid excellence of to offer a few observations on the publication placed entire freedom from all sectarian and anti-patriotick at the head of this critical notice.

prepossessions recommend these notices to the The first number of the National Portrait Gallery hearty approbation of every advocate of political of Distinguished Americans was recognised as a freedom and religious toleration. Nor is the narraspecimen of a work of great consideration, demand- tive in these pages encumbered by useless disquiing for the faithful accomplishment of the under- sition or infested by recitals to pamper a perverted taking talents of a high order, fortified by varied or depraved curiosity. In every sketch, facts form and extensive knowledge ; and the appropriation of the groundwork of illustration, and the authenticity pecuniary resources to no ordinary amount. The of the materials bear the strongest proofs, that no inbenefactors of our land present themselves to philo- considerable effort has been made to obtain them, sophical contemplation, vested with such diversity of and to present the respective subjects to the world, merits according as they may have advanced the that he who reads, may have the best of motives to glory of the nation on the broad theatre of publick emulate the examples set before him. affairs, or, in an equally laudatory way have promoted As coming within the scope of our intentions we some important object of human pursuit, that, in order shall briefly advert to the articles which aggregately successfully to discharge the office of personal his- make up the present volumes. The first volume is torian with proper discrimination, it becomes an im- very properly introduced to notice with an account perative task, to delineate with fidelity and with a of him who in the memorable language of Congress master hand the distinctive features of those whose was “first in war, first in peace, and first in the panegyrick we are invited to pronounce: to seize hearts of his countrymen,” the venerated Washingwith accuracy those prominent traits of individuality ton : this sketch is properly more ample than any which properly mark their respective characters; other of the biographical notices in the Gallery: it is and, while their talents and example are objects of a a fit memorial of the chieftain of the revolutionnation's plaudits, that the writer, moreover, dis- ary contest and the founder of the American repubcharge his elevated trust equally free of all hyper- lick: nor is the second memoir -- the life of the bole and conceit on the one hand, and that came, general's wife, Mrs. Martha Washington, without the

Vol. V.-35

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