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praise of being an excellent and felicitous accom- Putnam has long rendered the character of this in paniment to the first article. The incidents in the trepid individual familiar with our juvenile associaaccount are of an uncommonly interesting nature tions and placed his qualities as a soldier and patriot and the domestick qualities, the eminent piety, and in a commanding view. The narrative in these the serene death of this exalted female, are given in pages is calculated to renew our best feelings in beterms such as cannot fail to create a lasting impres- half of his undaunted bravery and his almost marvelsion on the reader. We extract the closing para- lous adventures so familiar to our school-boy days. graph :
It is among the anomalies of our times, that he, of “ Our filial task is done. Few females have whom the British soldiery proverbially said, that he ever figured in the great drama of life, amid dared to lead, where any dared to follow, should, in a scenes so varied and imposing, with so few. faults late history purporting to be sober, have had his herand so many virtues as the subject of this brief me- oism aspersed with the charge of cowardice: the moir. Identified with the father of his country in the great events which led to the establishment of a
record here given is the more gratifying on this acnation's independence, Mrs. Washington necessarily count, and sets at nought such aspersion. A novel and partook much of his thoughts, his councils, and his interesting circumstance touching the generous bearviews. Often at his side in that awful period that ing of Putnam, at the battle of Bunker's Hill, is insert• tried men's souls,' her cheerfulness soothed his ed in this memoir, derived from a communication of anxieties, her firmness inspired confidence, while her devotional piety toward the Supreme Being the venerable Col. John Trumbull. enabled her to discern a ray of hope, amid the dark The life of Timothy Pickering, of Massachusetts, ness of a horizon clouded by despair. After a long and of the late Governour Shelby of Kentucky, are life abounding in vicissitudes, having a full measure full of interest and much novel information : and the of sorrows but with many and high enjoyments, the
one of the small band venerable Martha Washington descended to the subject of the next memoir, grave, cheered by the prospect of a blessed immor- of ancient worthies, who having devoted the prime tality and mourned by the millions of a mighty of life, to the service of their country, yet still live to empire."
witness and enjoy its prosperity and happiness," Col. The memoir of Charles Carrol of Carrolton, the Aaron Ogden of New Jersey, has on the present last survivor of that heroick band who pledged their occasion furnished, on his own responsibility, as a all to the glorious cause of their country's independ-witness of some very important scenes in the Revoence, is beautifully drawn up, and exhibits that chiv- lutionary war, an account of events varying essenalrick character, and disinterested patriot, in faithful tially from those which have heretofore been generand captivating colours : it is further enriched with ally received. The biography is valuable, but our many historical facts of interest.
We have next in limits prevent enlargement. What can a few pages succession Nathaniel Greene, the great captain of do in embracing the life of the late Chief Justice of the Revolution : numerous as are the biographical the United States, John Marshall, the founder and records, concerning this extraordinary soldier, none expositor of our constitutional law. The record of will find his ardour abated or his patriotism dimin- this great man, and exalted judge, is nevertheless, ished by the perusal of this brief but spirited sketch. comparatively of some extent, and so admirably The purity and integrity of Greene, his native en- drawn up as to furnish a satisfactory account of his ergy and genius in the art of war, his lion-hearted-stupendous labours in the several departments of his ness and unsurpassed judgement, are fit topicks for publick career : his revolutionary, his legislative, the sublimest contemplation of American youth, who his ministerial, and his judicial services, are each noseek to study the proudest events in their country's ticed : the writer of this sketch possesses a proper annals. The gallant Wayne, whose attack on Stony estimate of his subject, and has been able to portray Point is so well known, and whose Indian warfare the moral, intellectual and professional greatness of was characterized by daring enterprise, as well as by this purest of men, and first of lawyers. The life humanity, has here received the due tribute of grate of Washington by Judge Marshall is pronounced as ful patriotism: nor can less be said of the account of characterized “by fidelity, accuracy, impartiality, General Moultrie, who, to services to his country by dignity of narrative, and simplicity and purity of the sword, still further augmented our estimate of style.” The composition of this article is in a style his publick acts, by contributing toward the history of much force, and unusual animation. The short of the United States two volumes of Memoirs of the memoir of the late Judge Shippen of Pennsylvania, American Revolution, relating principally to events will be read with pleasure by the surviving admirers which occured in South Carolina, and derived from of that dignified worthy.
We wish it were more facts within his own knowledge. As authentick re-ample. Every citizen who fully appreciates the cords they will be appreciated as of indubitable au- great value of our United States Military school at thority. Col. Humphries's attractive life of Israel West Point will be satisfied with the story given of the late Col. Jonathan Williams, whose services | ary patriot, who has blended himself with the histowere of such vast importance in the early building ry of his country, and the able artist, to whose penup of that National Institution, and popular feeling cil this national work is largely indebted for the will dwell with satisfaction on the character here originals of many of its finest illustrations. The life portrayed of the late patriotick governour of New of another artist, to whom we are indebted for the York, Daniel D. Tompkins. Henry Clay, Andrew most accredited portrait of Washington, Gilbert Jackson, and Daniel Webster ; these three distin- Charles Stuart follows: it is full of captivating inguished magnates, who have so often and so vehement-cidents. The medical profession will find a comly been arrayed against each other by the zeal of memorative summary of the acts and services of Dr. their political friends, are here grouped in harmless Samuel L. Mitchill, long prominent in the annals of juxtaposition, and their merits appropriately discrim- science, and of Dr. Theodric Romeyne Beck, distininated; the lofty patriotism, the indomitable spirit, guished by his Elements of Medical Jurisprudence. and the profound thought, which suggest themselves The volume closes with Washington Irving, Cathto the American mind on the mention of these names, erine M. Sedgwick, and James Fenimore Cooper, wricannot but awaken the spirit of emulation in youth, ters who have successfully vindicated the genius of and the pride of patriotism in all. Who has not their country, in works of fiction, and their claims to been charmed with the letters of the British Spy ? its approbation by the purity of their lives : the biogWho has not lamented over the early fate of its ami-raphy of Irving is among the most happy specimens able and gifted author, William Wirt, rescued from of composition: of the life of Mr. Cooper, we can poverty and errour by friendly exhortation and by only complain of its brevity. the force of native talents and persevering applica- The mechanical execution of this work, both in tion asserting his title to the highest distinction in typography, and in engravings, is equally honourable the gift of his country: the life is worthy of perusal. to the state of the arts in America and the zealous Prominent occurrences in our naval and military munificence of the enterprising publishers. We annals are associated with the names of Lewis Cass, shall reserve space in a subsequent number for anothThomas McDonough, and Alexander McComb : and er notice of this National work. furnish materials for profitable reading. Joel Poinsett merited and has received a conspicuous place among our men of pursuits at once political and scicntifick, as also Stoddard S. Johnson, the eloquent senator of Louisiana whose career was but recently
INTERESTING TO SCULPTORS. arrested by the criminal carelessness of our steamboat navigation on the southern waters. Of Edward It is stated in the National Intelligencer, that Mr. Livingston of New York, distinguished as a lawyer, Featherstonaugh, United States geologist, has asceras an orator, as a diplomatist, and a codifier of crim- tained the existence of some important deposites of
white statuary marble, in the Cherokee country. inal jurisprudence, the notice is laudatory, and ex- He has followed an obscure ridge in the mountains tensive, but not more than what is just. Death has six miles, consisting entirely of that valuable subrecently summoned him from among us after a life stance, hitherto only seen in the United States, in of active and prolonged utility. Lewis M’Lean born thin beds, not exceeding a few inches. He reports in 1786 consequently belongs to a post-revolutionary Carrara in Italy, with which he is familiar. Marble
one of these deposites as equal to that of Massa period ; in him we recognise the able head of the of this kind has been hitherto brought, at a great treasury department; and the efficient secretary of expense, from Italy. The block for the statue of state. The adherents of the Episcopal form of Hamilton, destroyed by fire in the Exchange, if we Church government equally as those of ihe Calvinis- mistake not, was represented to have cost not less
than two thousand dollars. tick model in ecclesiastical polity, will attest the
Col. Sherburne of Washington city, who had impartiality of the publishers of the National Galle- been for some weeks past in the Cherokee nation, ry by the appearance in the same volume of exten- on business for government, has, we have been insive and instructive notices of Bishop White, and formed, contracted with the owner for the purchase Timothy Dwight, the former the father of the Epis- marble was discovered by the celebrated geologist
of the land on which this valuable and beautiful copal Church, the latter the author of the standard above named. It is thought to be inexhaustible and work on Calvinistick Theology ; both memoirs con- more valuable than any gold mine yet discovered in tain authoritative materials for the ecclesiastical the Cherokee nation, being of that cast as not only historian. The life of Joel Barlow, better known to to command a good price, but will be in very great his countrymen by his stern republican principles igable water, and there is a never-failing stream
demand. The quarry is within seven miles of navthan by his Columbiad, is followed by a most inter- within one hundred yards, that will carry one thouesting memoir of Col. John Trumbull, the revolution-sand saws if found necessary.
for the means of subsistence on the game which [Cincinnatti Chron.cle.)
may be taken as he proceeds. Of course he must It is known to our readers, that the jurisdiction of confine himself almost entirely to animal food, the United States extends over the Rocky mountains while he will find that to be scarce and of a bad to the Pacifick ocean: but it is not so well known quality. Mrs. Spaulding and Mrs. Whitman are bewhat are the natural features of the country. In lieved to be the first white women who have crossed the Missionary Herald for October, we find a very the Rocky mountains. But though subjected to graphick and interesting account, by Mr. Spaulding many hardships and privations, and some perils, the (a missionary) of a journey from Missouri to Colum- health of the whole party was decidedly improved bia river, and of the region west of the Rocky mount- by the journey. ains. And here, we would remark, that the Mis- “Mentioning the inconvenience experienced from sionary Herald acts as a journal of geographical dis- the want of bread and vegetable food, Mr. Spaulding covery; for, as it contains the latest and most ac- remarks :curate accounts from all the countries of the globe, “Our friends must think of us sitting on the some of which have been before unvisited, but, now burning sand with a cup of tea in one hand, and a travelled and closely observed by the missionaries piece of dry, mouldy, and sour buffalo meat in the of Christianity: It is a most valuable work of trav- other, and this for our breakfast, dinner, and
supper, els, from which all classes of people may derive in- for days and weeks together. As we drew near struction and amusement from the habits and man- Wallawalla, we heard of its beautiful cattle, its hogs, ners of different nations.
and other fruits of civilized life; and be assured, The territory of the United States on the Pacifick the anticipation of once more getting into my
hand extends from about latitude 42° to latitude 490, a potato or crust of bread, was nowise favourable about four hundred miles of coast. Within this to my sleep at night. But on reaching this desirable space empties the Columbia river, nearly all of haven of rest, we were so suddenly transported from which lies within the jurisdiction of the United our former wild mode of living to that of civilized States. This stream is about fifteen hundred miles life, and so kindly treated by Mr. P., clerk of the in length, having its head in the Rocky mountains. Hudson's bay Company, in charge of this establish. On its banks the Hudson bay Company have several ment, that we were made almost to forget what we ports, and the British are now the sole occupants. had been going through for days, and weeks, and If the people of the United States are so anxious to months past. It seemed like a dream. And even occupy Texas, which is not their own, why do they now I cannot realize that I have spent the last spring not occupy the mouth of Columbia, and its vicinity, and summer in passing the Rocky mountains; and which is their own? The inducements are really that I am really through the journey, and that my greater, though the journey is more difficult to eyes now actually behold the waters of the beautimake.
ful Columbia. The following extracts will show the route trav- 5" It was of the highest importance before we took elled by the missionaries, and the climate, and re- a single step to have an interview with the chief sources of the country around the mouth of the Co-factor of the company on the Columbia in charge at lumbia river:
fort Vancouver, for the purpose of presenting oui “ The communication from which the following letters from the United States Secretary of War, extracts are taken was written soon after Mr. Spauld- learning his feelings respecting our object to this ing and his associates, including Mrs. S. Doctor and country, and the prospect of supplies. Mr. P. very Mrs. Whitman, and W. H. Gray, left the frontiers kindly offered to fit up a boat and take us down. of the state of Missouri about the first of May, You may very naturally suppose, that our ladies 1836, in company with a company of gentlemen en- were not much fatigued at the end of their journey, gaged in the fur-trade. Their route, as did that of and that travelling had become almost second nature Mr. Parker the preceding year, generally lay near to us, from the fact, that, arriving at the fort Saturthe Missouri river, till they reached the Platte, day in the forenoon, in the afternoon we set about thence along that river to its fork, and thence along preparing for a trip of three hundred miles down the north fork, by the Black hills, to near its source, the terrible Columbia to this place. We left Wallathence to Green river, one of the head branches of walla the sixth of September, in a boat propelled by the western Colorado, thence to the waters of Bear six oarsmen. The usual time for a passage down is river, which empties itself into the great Salt lake, five days. We were detained by head winds, and and thence to the head waters of Louis's river, the did not arrive till the twelfth. Here we were again southern branch of the Columbia, on which, or on met with the warmest expressions of friendship by the streams which run into it, they pursued their Dr. M*Laughlin, who conducted us immediately to course to fort Wallawalla, one of ihe principal his house. After a brief interview he conducted us trading ports of the Hudson's bay Company, about to his gardens, and, be assured, we were not a little three hundred miles from the Pacifick ocean. surprised to see, west of the Rocky mountains,
“The mission family took with them a small where we expected to meet scarcely the first budwagon, which, however, they left behind them when dings of civilization, such perfection in horticulture. they had accomplished about half their journey. About five acres are laid out in order, and stored They preferred to travel on horseback, and nearly with almost every species of vegetables, fruits, and the whole distance of more than two thousand miles flowers ; and among them, figs, citrons, oranges, was passed in that manner. As the country is not lemons, pomegranates, cotton-plants, and all cominhabited, except by wandering bands of Indians, mon fruits found in the United States. Every thing when the supplies of provisions with which he produces well. For some days our time was divistarted shall be exhausted, the traveller must depend ded between visits on the farm, to the mills, herds,
the dairy, the stores, the ships in the port, the school, one horizontal, the other oblique. For one whole &c. It of course gave us great satisfaction to wit- day, while passing the Blue mountains, two days ness these fruits of civilization which we supposed from Wallawalla, we were upon cut stone, or stone our eyes had looked upon for the last time when we broken by some natural agency, and resembling very passed the frontier line of our own land. Dr. M. much continued heaps of such broken stone as is Laughlin's farm is the largest on the Columbia river, prepared for covering roads in the states. This and produced last year, four thousand five hundred day's travel injured the feet of our animals more bushels of wheat, four thousand bushels of peas, than the whole journey besides. In fact, we found one thousand seven hundred bushels of barley, one but little difficulty till we reached these mountains. thousand five hundred bushels of oats ; potatoes not Most of our animals made the whole journey without gathered, corn but little. His horned cattle are being shod. We drove a wagon to Snake fort, and seven hundred and fifty, swine four hundred, with could have driven it through, but for the fatigue of our from two to three hundred horses. He has also a animals. We expect to get it at some future time. saw-mill and a flour-mill.'
“ The whole face of the country, from Fort Wil“ Mr. Spaulding mentions, that nearly all the chief liam, at the foot of the Black hills, till within six or factors, traders, and clerks, at Vancouver, are mem- seven days travel of Wallawalla, is covered with bers either of the Episcopal or Presbyterian church, the mountain-sedge, a species of wormwood, with a and that a chaplain of the former church had just fibrous stalk of the size of a man's wrist, and from arrived from London. All appeared decidedly fa- three to four feet high, having a dead appearance. vourable to missionary efforts. The labouring men No creature, I believe, eats this bitter herb, unless
, are principally French Catholicks from Canada.” compelled by hunger. This sedge was some ob
Our readers will observe, that the place which is struction to the wagon, though but little to the packthus described as producing figs, oranges, lemons, horses. and cotton-plants, is near north latitude 450 ; the “ Three days before we reached Fort Hall, we latitudes of Michigan and Maine, the coldest and passed what seems to me one of the greatest curiosmost barren portions of the United States. What ities in the world—à natural soda-fountain of unmakes the difference? One is on the eastern, and known extent, having several openings. One of the other on the western coast of the United States. them is about fifteen feet in diameter, with no disThe same difference exists between the whole east- covered bottom. About twelve feet below the surern coast of the United States, and the shores of face are two large globes, on either side of this Europe. France, Spain, and Italy, which produce opening, from which the effervescence seems the olive, the orange, and the vine so exuberantly, rise. However, a stone cast in, after a few minutes, are in the latitude of the northern part of the United throws the whole fountain into a violent agitation. States, where the climate is
different. One is Another of the openings, about four inches in diamon the eastern and the other on the western shore of eter, is through an elevated rock, from which the the ocean.
water spouts at intervals of about forty seconds. But our readers need not suppose, that because it The water is, in all its properties, equal io any artiis so delightful at the mouth of the Columbia, the ficial fountain, and is constantly foaming and sparksame features prevail in the intermediate country. ling. Those who visit this fountain drink large Just the reverse is the fact. From the forks of the quantities of the water, with good effect to health, Platte river to within three hundred miles of the Perhaps in the days when a railroad connects the Pacifick, a distance of one thousand two hundred waters of the Columbia with those of the Missouri, miles, a barren, sandy, rocky Zahara intervenes, this fountain may be a source of great gain to the with scarcely water and grass enough to supply the company that shall accomplish such a noble work, traveller at night. The Snake, and Lewis rivers if they are beforehand in securing it. For I am run through sand-plains, in groves cut through the sure, if visitors can come from the far East to see solid rock from one hundred to five hundred feet the Niagara falls, they would not value a few days deep. Unless this desert is interrupted by fertile more to visit the West, and see the great soda lands on the head waters of the Yellow Stone, it fountain of the Rocky mountains. will effectually stop the progress of the states west. “Within a few days' ride of Salmon falls, we
The following great natural curiosities are not the passed three grand shoots of water, where small least which exist in our country.
rivers rushed from the perpendicular bluff, and fell from a height of about five hundred feet from the
surface of the earth, and three hundred from the " The geological structure of the earth, except a surface of the river, from the lofty banks of which tract of beautiful granite, through which we travel they fall. led for a few days near the BI hills, and one or "Four days before reaching Snake fort, we passed two specimens on Snake river, is one and the same, three hot springs; I also saw several afterward. viz. basaltick. It would seem that the entire Rocky The water was at a boiling heat. Fish were boiled mountains, extending even to the Pacifick ocean, sufficiently in them in twenty minutes. have been thrown up from the bowels of the earth “ The last thing I will mention under this head is by internal fires. The country of the Columbia Grand Round-so called from its appearance. It river, especially, is a beautiful specimen. The is a beautiful, rich, circular plain, probably twenty bluffs on either side rise to the height of one hun-miles in diameter, surrounded on all sides by mountdred to one thousand two hundred feet, in benches ains, covered with beautiful pine and spruce. A of perfect flutes, closely piled, all perpendicular, considerable river passes through the middle, skirted with the exception of two small piles which I ob- with timber. This is in the Chingoos country, and served in passing from Wallawalla to this place-is a favourable place for a mission.
BASALTICK ROCKS AND NATURAL SODA-FOUNTAIN.
Face of the Country.-We left Snake Fort on the few spots, we could not discover a green thing upon twenty-second of August, and arrived at Fort Walla- its borders, from Fort Hall, where we struck it, to walla on the third of September. Wallawalla is on Snake Fort, where we left it, there is nothing but a the south side of Columbia river, nine miles below vast plain of burning sand, with here and there a the mouth of Snake or Lewis river, and at the junc- mountain of burnt rocks. Our route lay generally tion of Wallawalla and Columbia rivers. It was some miles from the river, where we found food and built by the Hudson's Bay Company fifteen years water as above mentioned. The river passes through ago. No timber except floodwood is found within a channel of cut rocks, from one hundred to five twenty-five miles. The soil is good in small spots hundred feet deep, with frequent rapids, and four or on the Wallawalla river. All kinds of grains and five considerable falls. It is not navigable on acvegetables produce well. Cattle surpass in fatness count of the rapidity. So far from being a country any thing I ever saw in the United States. Horses of game, except the buffalo country, it is a country are as plenty and about as cheap as in our country of comparatively no game. Since leaving Fort Hall
beautiful, and usually milk-white or cream colour. we have travelled days, and I do not know but I All animals feed out through winter as there is but can safely say weeks, without seeing a living crealittle snow.
The grass is of a superiour quality, ture except a few crows in the air, and herds of called the Buffalo grass—a fine, short, bunch grass, black crickets upon the ground. We saw but two covering the whole face of the earth. This grass is bears in the whole route. However I learn that in one among the thousand marks of the goodness of the mountains, deer, antelope, elk, and bear, can be God in providing for all climates and sections of the found to some extent, even in the most destitute earth. It might naturally be supposed—there being parts of the conntry. The rivers abound in fish. no rain or dew in this country for six or seven The Columbia and its branches teem with salmon, months in the year-every thing would be parched three or four months in the year, during which time
sun, and there would be no means of subsist two or three hundred barrels are salted at Fort Vanence for animals; but this grass remains through the couver. A little care during the salmon season, and season quite fresh, retaining all its virtue, and forms all the settlers of the Columbia may supply themvery hearty food for winter. As soon as we came selves with salt salmon for the year. The salmon to it, about six days before arriving at Wallawalla, find their way into the mountains, up the several our animals would leave the green grass on the tributaries of the Columbia. We found them plenty streams, and seek this on the sand-hills and plains. at Salmon Falls, ten days below Fort Hall, perhaps
“Great American Desert.-With regard to the coun- a thousand miles from the ocean. They continue to try through which we passed, nothing probably could beat their way up the rivers and small streams till have set me right but actual observation, so differ- their strength is exhausted, and they float lifeless ent is the reality from what I had previously ima- upon the shore. Not one of the countless herds that gined. The fact that the vast interiour of North enter the mouth of the Columbia, every season, ever America is a barren desert, is not, so far as I am return. They are mostly dead by the first of Octoaware, very extensively known in the United States. ber. The Columbia also abounds in sturgeon and On the twenty-second of June we entered the Rocky seal." mountains, and came out of them on the first of September. Till we reached the forks of the Platte, we found some timber and considerable fertile soil on the water-courses, though both diminished to that
CANAL LOCKS. point. From that place, excepting a little spot at When a canal changes from one level to another Fort William, Fort Hall, Snake Fort, Grand Round, of different elevation, the place where the change of Wallawalla, till we come within a hundred miles of level takes place is commanded by a lock. Locks this fort, (Vancouver,) the whole country is a barren are tight oblong enclosures, in the bed of the canal, desert, with only here and there a little patch of furnished with gates at each end, which separate grass and willows planted, it would seem, by the the higher from the lower parts of the canal. When hands of a kind Providence, just often enough for a boat passes up the canal, the lower gates are openstops at noon and night, reminding one of the greated, and the boat glides into the lock, after which Sahara of Africa. In the morning we would mount the lower gates are shut. A sluice, communicating our horses and ride hour after hour through plains of with the upper part of the canal, is then opened, and burning sand or over mountains of rocks, till about the lock rapidly fills with water, elevating the boat midday; and when ourselves and animals had be-on its surface. When the lock is filled to the highcome thirsty and hungry and tired, we would come est water level, the upper gates are opened, and the suddenly upon a cool spring or stream of water, with boat, being now on the level of the upper part of the a few acres of excellent grass for our horses, (ex- canal, passes on its way. A process the reverse of cepting the route from Fort William to Rendezvous, this is performed when the boat is descending the where they suffered much,) and a little cluster of canal. Locks are made of stone or brick, somewillows for fuel. So we would travel in afternoon times of wood. The gates are commonly double, till we came upon a similarly favored spot, about the resembling folding doors. They meet each other, hour when we wished to encamp for the night. in most instances, at an obtuse angle, and the pres
“ A few days we were compelled to travel al. day, sure of the water serves to keep them firmly in consome twenty or thirty miles, to find water and grass. tact. Cast iron gates are sometimes used curved The region of the Snake or Lewis river, especially, in the form of a horizontal arch, with their convex is the most barren of our whole route. We camped side opposed to the water. In China, inclined planes but a few times on the river, and always found a are said to be used instead of locks, along which the
, limited supply of grass and willows. Except these boats are drawn up or let down.