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RECOLLECTIONS OF GENERAL PUTNAM. presented themselves to his choice. So instanta“ In the winter of 1757, when Col. Haviland was neously was the latter adopted, that one man who commandant of fort Edward, the barracks adjoining had rambled a little from the party, was, of necessito the northwest bastion took fire. They extended ty, lest, and fell a miserable victim to savage barbarwithin twelve feet of the magazine, which contained ity. The Indians arrived on the shore soon enough three hundred barrels of powder. On its first dis- to fire many balls on the batteau before it could be covery, the fire raged with great violence. The got under way. No sooner had our batleau-men commandant" endeavoured, in vain, by discharging escaped, by favour of the rapidity of the current, besome pieces of heavy artillery against the supporters yond the reach of musket-shot, than death seemed of this flight of barracks, to level them with the only to have been avoided in one form, to be encounground. Putnam arrived from the island where he tered in another, not less terrible. Prominent rocks, was stationed, at the moment when the blaze ap- latent shelves, absorbing eddies, and abrupt descents, proached that end which was contiguous to the mag. for a quarter of a mile, afforded scarcely the smalazine. Instantly, a vigorous attempt was made to lest chance of escaping without a miracle. Putnam, extinguish the conflagration. A way was opened trusting himself to a good Providence, whose kindby a postern-gate to the river, and the soldiers were ness he had often experienced, rather than to men, employed in bringing water; which he, having whose tenderest mercies are cruelty, was now seen mounted on a ladder to the eaves of the building, re- to place himself sedately at the helm, and afford an ceived and threw upon the flame. It continued, not- astonishing spectacle of serenity: his companions, withstanding their utmost efforts, to gain upon them. with a mixture of terrour, admiration, and wonder, He stood, enveloped in smoke, so near the sheet of saw him incessantly changing the course, to avoid fire, that a pair of thick blanket-mittens were burnt the jaws of ruin, that seemed expanded to swallow entirely from his hands—he was supplied with the whirling boat. Twice he turned it fairly round another pair dipped in water. Col. Haviland, fear. to shun the rists of rocks. Amidst these eddies, in ing that he would perish in the flames, called to him which there was the greatest danger of its founder. to come down. But he entreated that he might be ing, at one moment the sides were exposed to the suffered to remain, since destruction must inevitably fury of the waves; then the stern, and next the ensue if their exertions should be remitted. The bow, glanced obliquely onward, with inconceivable gallant commandant, not less astonished than charm- velocity. With not less amazement the savages beed at the boldness of his conduct, forbade any more held him sometimes mounting the billows, then, effects to be carried out of the fort, animated the plunging abruptly down, at other times skilfully veermen to redoubled diligence, and exclaimed, “If we ing from the rocks, and shooting through the only must be blown up, we will all go together.” At narrow passage; until, at last, they viewed the boat last, when the barracks were seen to be tumbling, safely gliding on the smooth surface of the stream Putnam descended, placed himself at the interval, below. At this sight, it is asserted, that these rude and continued from an incessant rotation of replen- sons of nature were affected with the same kind of ished buckets to pour water* upon the magazine. superstitious veneration, which the Europeans in the The outside planks were already consumed by the dark ages entertained for some of their most valproximity of the fire, and as only one thickness of orous champions. They deemed the man invulnertimber intervened, the trepidation now became gen- able, whom their balls (on his pushing from shore) eral and extreme. Putnam, still undaunted, covered would not touch, and whom they had seen steering with a cloud of cinders, and scorched with the in- in safety down the rapids that had never before been tensity of the heat, maintained his position until the passed. They conceived it would be an affront fire subsided, and the danger was wholly over. He against the Great Spirit, to attempt to kill this fahad contended for one hour and a half with that ter-voured mortal with powder and ball, if they should rible element. His legs, his thighs, his arms, and ever see and know him again.” his face were blistered; and when he pulled off his second pair of mittens, the skin from his hands and “In the battle of Princeton, Capt. M‘Pherson, of fingers followed them. It was a month before he the 17th British regiment, a very worthy Scotchrecovered. The commandant, to whom his merits man, was desperately wounded in the lungs and left had before endeared him, could not stifle the emo- with the dead. Upon General Putnam's arrival tions of gratitude, due to the man who had been so there, he found him languishing in extreme distress, instrumental in preserving the magazine, the fort, without a surgeon, without a single accommodation, and the garrison."
and without a friend to solace the sinking spirit in
the gloomy hour of death. He visited and imme" A few adventures, in which the public interests i diately caused every possible comfort to be adminwere little concerned, but which, from their peculiar-istered to him. Capt. M.Pherson, who contrary to ity, appear worthy of being preserved, happened be- all appearances recovered, after having demonstrated fore the conclusion of the year. As one day, Major to Gen. Putnam the dignified sense of obligations Putnam chanced to lie, with a batteau and five men, which a generous mind wishes not to conceal, one on the eastern shore of the Hudson, near the rapids, day in familiar conversation demanded — Pray, sir, contiguous to which fort Miller stood ; his men on what countryman are you?' 'An American, anthe opposite bank had given him to understand, that swered the latter. Not a Yankee !' said the other. a large body of savages was in his rear, and would A full-blooded one,' replied the general. "By G-d, be upon him in a moment. To stay and be sacri- I am sorry for that,' rejoined M.Pherson, 'I did not ficed-to attempt crossing and be shot—or to go think there could be so much goodness and generosdown to the falls, with an almost absolute certainty ity in an American, or, indeed, in anybody but a of being drowned, were the sole alternatives that I Scotchman.'”
The above group of animals consists of a scape- ! rusalem and the temple service,) that the goat was goat, and young bullock, goat and kid of goats, which taken to a place about iwelve miles from Jerusalem were used by the highpriest of Israel, for a sin- where there was a formidable rocky precipice; and offering. See Levit. xvi. 10, et seq.
they add, that for this occasion a sort of causeway The scape-goat is the large white one above fig- was made between Jerusalem and this place, and ured with a riband or fillet ried around his horns. that ten tents with relays were stationed at cqual
" Let him go for a scape-goat into the wilderness." | distances between them. On arriving at the preci. A commentator holds the following language on this pice the goat was thrown down from its summit, and, text:
by knocking against the projections, was generally “The Rabbins inform us, that after the lot had been dashed to pieces before it had half reached the bottaken, the highpriest fastened a long fillet, or narrow tom. It is added that the result of this execution piece of scarlet to the head of the scape-goat; and was promptly communicated, by signals, raised at ibat after he had confessed his own sins and those proper distances, to the people who were anxiously of the people over his head, or (for we are not quite awaiting the event at the temple. It is also said, certain about the point of time,) when the goat was that at the same time a scarlet riband, fastened at finally dismissed, this fillet changed colour to white the entrance of the temple, turned red at this instanı if the atonement were accepted by God, but else of time, in token of the divine acceptance of the exretained its natural colour. It is to this that they un- piation; and that this miracle ceased forty years bederstand Isaiah to allude when he says :—'Though fore the destruction of the second temple. We do your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; not very well understand whether this fillet is a vathough they be red like crimson, they shall be as riation of the account which places one on the head wool. (Isaiah i. 18.) After the confession had of the goat, or whether there were two fillets, one been made over the head of the scape-goat, it was for the goat and the other for the temple. If the committed to the charge of some person or persons, latter, we may conclude that the change took place previously chosen for the purpose, and carried away simultaneously in both. However understood, it is into the wilderness; where, as we should under- very remarkable that the Rabbins, who give this acstand, verse 22, it was set at liberty; but the Rab-count of the fillets, assign the cessation of the mirbins give a somewhat different account. They in- acle by which the divine acceptance of this expiaform us, (speaking with a particular reference to Je-ltion was notified, to a period precisely corresponding with the death of Christman event which most | somewhere else than in the creature itself, from the Christians understand to have been prefigured by fact that the action performed in this perfect manner atoning sacrifices, which they believe to have been by the organized animal, is not the result of the ordone away by that final consummation of all sacri- ganization, neither is the organization the result of ficial institutions. The assertion of the apostle, that action. A cormorant does not catch fish by dashing without the shedding of blood there is no remission into the water, and following them to a greater or less of sin, (Ileb. ix. 22,) renders the account of the depth, as may be necessary, because its feet, ils Rabbins that the goat was finally immolated, rather wings, its bill, and all the other parts of its organizathan lest free in the wilderness, far from improbable, tion, are filled for such purposes, any more than it were it not discountenanced by verse 22. It is how-throws the fish up in the air, because it has a knowlever possible that the Jews may have adopted the edge that the fish will come down in a more manusage described when they settled in Canaan, and ageable posture for swallowing than that in which it could not 30 conveniently as in the wilderness carry is seized by the bill. As little can we say that the the goat to a land not inhabited. But they allow bill has or can have any control over what its organthat it sometimes escaped alive into the desert, and ization shall be, for the organization precedes the was usually taken and eaten by the Arabs, who, of action in the order of nature. The instinct follows course, were little aware of what they did.” the race, and is true to it; which we find is not the
case either in knowledge or in action with us Therefore, when we examine the more curious func tions wbich are performed by the lower animals, (as we term them,) we ineet with far more striking eri: dences of Almighty wisdom and power than we do in the case of human conduct. There are no productions which assist us more in the forming of these general views than those birds which seek their food in the waters; and as the cormorants find their food by skill and energy, not by craft, there are few sea. birds better worth our attention.
The characters of the genus are as follows :-The bill long, or of mean length, compressed, rounded in the culmen, straight for the greater part of its length, but much hooked at the tip of the upper mandible, a'id having the extremity of the lower one truncated, so as to act against the hook. The base of the bill has a small cere, and the naked skin is continued on the throat, and partially also on the face. The nos
trils are at the brow of the bill, in the form of longitudinal slits, and barely visible. The legs are stout, the tarsi short, and rather inclined toward each other. The hind toes are turned in ward, and included in the web of the feet; the outer toe is the longest and strongest in the foot; the claws are not large for the size of the foot, and that on the middle toe is toothed
on the edge. The wings are of rather more than THE CORMORANT.-Pelicanus carbo.
mean length, and they are rather pointed, the second
quill being the longest. They are not, however, “Cormorants are sometimes called sea-ravens, or formed for whirling and turning rapidly in the air ; sea-crows, and they have nearly the same voracity and the rounded extremity of the tail further shows, as the land-ravens, though their prey and manner of that whirling in the air is not one of the principal accatching it are both very different. Cormorants gen- tions of the bird. erally fish near the shores, and are more frequently The Pelicanus carbo, or common cormorant, is on the wing over the water than at rest upon the comnion on the British shores, and in some places rocks. When they pursue their prey in the sea, it moves inland to the lakes which are near the sea, they do not hesitate in coming near inhabited places; or to the larger rivers, which have long tideways. but when they fish in the fresh waters, they choose in these last situations, it is often found standing or more lonely haunts. They catch their prey, which nestling on trees; but as a sea-bird, its place of reconsists wholly or chiefly of fish, by the middle with pose and nestling is the rocks.
31 the bill; and as they cannot easily swallow it from This is a large bird : three feet in length, nearly this position, or indeed, if it is presented to the gullet five feet in the extent of the wings, and weighing as
in any other way than head foremost, they throw it much as seven pounds ; but this must be considered - into the air and seize it with great dexterity as it as the dimensions of a large specimen, and the sizes falls. All birds which fish along the surface of the are apt to vary. Length of the bill about five inches water, and indeed all animals which swallow their and of a dusky colour for the greater part of its lengih, prey without masticating or dividing it with the but with the cere yellow; tarsi, toes, and webs sooty teeth, are dexterous at this mode of turning a tish. black; irides bright green. The plumage varies a
This is one of the most remarkable instances of little with the season. General colour, greenish adaptation with which we meet in nature, and ought black, with black margins to the feathers on the back, to teach us to look for the intelligence of the creature and a line of ash colour on the scapulars. In the
breeding season, the neck and thighs are mottled southern parts of the same, we believe principally with small white feathers, and there is a crest of confined to Africa, though it also occurs in the south long green feathers on the back of the head. In of Asia. winter these feathers fall off, and the general teint of The common hoopoe (U. epops) is a very beautithe upper part becomes rusty. There is also a white ful bird, measuring about a foot in length, and a fool gorget on the neck, which becomes much duller in and a half in the stretch of the wings, and weighing the colour during winter.
about three ounces. On the upper part, it is of a Though these birds are generally found in remote rust colour, or rather of a vinous red, with the wings and inaccessible places for their nests, such as high and tail black, crossed with two white bands on the trees and detached rocks, they are social with each wing-coverts, and four on the quills ; the tail is other, and many nests are often found in the near crossed by a crescent-shaped bar of white ; and the vicinity of each other. The eggs are three or four crest-feathers, which are orange, tipped with black, in number, of about two ounces in weight, greenish formed of two rows, and capable of being erected at white, and with the surface of the shell rather rough. the pleasure of the bird, give the bird a handsome
Though cormorants are industrious and successful appearance; the head, ck, and breast, are brownfishers, and as such, thin the waters of their finny in- ish red, and the rest of the under parts
are whitish, habitants to a considerable extent, yet they pursue streaked with brown. These birds are very discurtheir fishing with peace and good order, and never sive with the seasons; they chiefly winter in Africa, interfere with or annoy any other birds. It can be at least in the European longitudes, while in the tamed very readily; and a detailed account of one eastern part they find their way southward to India. in a domesticated state may be found in Montagu's In the south of Europe they appear in considerable Ornithological Dictionary."
numbers, generally in small flocks, which arrive in the extreme south about the month of March, but they do not make their way to the middle latitudes until the end of the spring, and they retire again at the close of summer.
In Britain they appear only as occasional stragglers, and, from the season at which some of them have been obtained, one would be led to suppose that they are strays, who have lost the proper line of migration, and so cannot find their way back again to the south. Within these few years one was shot in Cornwall, England, in the month of December, which is more than three months later than the time when the regular migrants depart from central Europe. Their straggling into this country bears some resemblance to that of the beeeaters, pratincoles, and other birds which belong to the central valley of the eastern continent, much more than to the countries on the shores of the Western sea. We look for our regular migrant birds in the warmth of summer only, or chiefly, in the southern parts of the country; but such a bird as the hoopoe is just as likely to occur in Caithness as in Cornwall, and in the Orkneys or the Hebrides, as in the isles of the Channel. In the eastern parts of the continent they range much farther to the north
on their summer excursions, and are not uncommon THE COMMOM HOOPOE.-Upupa epops.
in Russia, or even in Siberia. This might, however,
be expected; for, though the winters there are exThe hoopoes are inhabitants of the banks of rivers, ceedingly cold, and the summers of short duration, chiefly of those rivers which are alternately flooded those short summers are very warm, and the country and low, from the alternation of rain and drought. is thronged with such animals as those upon which There they feed upon beetles, and other ground in the hoopoes feed. sects, and on the spawn of fishes and reptiles. The Hoopoes, and also some of the other birds which number of insects which they capture is very great; most resemble them in haunts, habits, and character, so that they render no unimportant services to those are understood to make a sort of perpetual summer countries which they frequent, from their activity; of it, unless in the case of such strays as happen to they are necessarily voracious feeders, and their fall upon our winter, by missing the line and time of nests are somewhat rank with the remains of their their migration. In consequence of this, the birds abundant food, as is the case with the bee-eaters, are understood to breed two or three times, or even the kingfishers, and most of those birds of powerful more frequently, according to circumstances, in the wing and frequent flight which haunt the margins of course of the year. The nest is described as being the rivers. As is the case with must, if not all of rather miscellaneous in its position, but, true to those the section, the hoopoes are very handsome birds, migrant birds of the banks of rivers, always in some fine in their forms and graceful in their motions. sort of concealment. It may be in a hollow tree, There are only two species of them, one of which among the tangled roots near the ground, in a hole ranges for a considerable extent over the tropical and of a wall, or a crevice of the rock; and though the northern parts of the eastern hemisphere, over the female does adapt her labour in building so as slightly to improve the less commodious places, yet she is this ancient celebrity, however, and the pains which no very skilful nest-builder ; and the extent of her were taken to perpetuate specimens of the carcass labour usually goes no farther than collecting, first, a of this animal, those schemes did not accomplish tew withered leaves, and then a few feathers. The their purpose ; and in times comparatively modern, hatch varies much in number, being as many as there have not only been disputes about which spe seven when the situation and season are peculiarly cies is the sacred ibis, but some have contrived to favourable, and not more than two when circumstan- mystify the matter to such an extent, that, if we did ces are the reverse.
not possess the living bird to which we can appeal In Egypt and several other parts of Africa, the for its own history, we should have remained ignobirds frequent the meadows in the close vicinity of rant as to what bird received those high honours in human dwellings ; but on their northern excursions, the olden time. they are rather fond of solitary places. In Egypt, Bruce was the first who, in modern times, gave indeed, they are greatly encouraged, for their labours an accurate account of the bird; but it was not antil in destroying the insects with which the humid banks other evidence had been produced in corroboration of the Nile are insested, and accordingly they are of his statements, that the received the credit to as familiar and have their nests as much intermixed which be is so well entitled. This bird is not conwith the dwellings of the people as the common fined to Egypt, but is very generally distributed house-swallows have with us. The eggs are oblong, throughout Africa. It is a bird about the size of a of a bluish white colour, and marked with small common fowl, with the plumage entirely white, exspots of pale brown. The young have to be fed cept the quills, the points of which are black, and for a considerable time in the nest, and the feeding the last coverts of the wings have long and slender of them is rather a laborious occupation for their barbs also of a black colour, and with violet reflecparents. As is the case with all birds of similar tions, which ha.:g down over the extremities of the habits, the hoopoes have no song; but they have a closed wings, and the tail, the bill and feet are also sort of three calls; one a hollow booming note black, and so is the naked skin on the head and thrice repeated without modulation ; another a little neck. These birds are very common in the central more musical, but still not modulated, which is the parts of Africa, and also in that part of the valley love-song; and a sharp hissing note, which is the of the Nile which is liable to be fooled. Somesound of alarm. In their low fight they jerk on the times they are found solitary, and at other time they wing, flirting the tail at the same time, and when are found in gronps, but selelom more than ten or alarmed, they erect the crest and spread the tail fan- twelve are in close society with each other. A wise. They are very easily tamed, and can be made number of these little groups are, however, often to remain without confinement if they are properly found close to each other, especially after the water fed. Their fesh is eaten in the sonth of Europe, of the Nile has begun to subside, and the banks are but is not understood to be of much value.”
for some extent covered with soft mud. This mud they search with the most patient industry with their bills; and in moving about while on the ground they do not hop and run nimbly as the curlews do, but march along with measured steps; when on the wing they project the head forward and the feet backward; but there is not the same majesty in their aërial journeys as there is in those of the storks and cranes, neither do they extend their migration so far to the northward. Their flight is powerful, howe ever, and they rise to a great elevation.
It does not appear that there is a very great deal of foundation for that clearing of the country of poi. sonous reptiles, on account of which the Egyptians are said to have held the ibis in such veneration; for the chief ground adduced for this propensity in the old account given by Herodotus, is the antipathy which the ibis had to the serpent race.
In consequence of this the bird is said to have acted the par of a sart of preventive service, to hinder the serpents from smuggling themselves into the Egyptian ierritory. Now this is so contrary to the whole
tenour of animal conduct, that it can hardly, in the THE SACRED IBIS.
nature of things, be true. Animals do not kill each “ This bird has been very celebrated from compar- other from what we call antipathy, unless in the atively remote antiquity, for its real or supposed ser- case of those males which fight battles of gallauty rices to the ancient Egyptians,. in destroying offen- for their females--we believe the propensity goes sive and poisonous reptiles, and generally for sear no farther; and the greater number of them, whether engers' work done about the temples and houses. mammalia or birds, are vegetable feeders, and never For these reasons it was admitted into the temples kil) other animals for the sake of eating. On the themselves among the numerous other animal-gods other hand, we believe there is no animal which of the Egyptians; and mummies of it were pre- kills, or even offers to injure, any other species, exserved with the same assiduous labour of embaim- cept for the purpose of feeding on that species ; and, ing as those of men and monkeys. Notwithstanding therefore, if the ibis have been a serpent-feeder, it