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the beginning of the ninth century, built a citadel on the ramparts, to the seizure of merchandi and a church on the heights between the Elbe and and finally of the bank funds, by Davoust. At] the eastern bank of the Alster, as a bulwark againsi the city was evacuated in May, 1814, and part the neighbouring pagans. The adaptation of the the bank funds were restored by the Bourbon go place for commerce and fishing attracted many sett-ernment. lers. Although its barbarous neighbours frequently The city of Hamburgh, has a population of o destroyed this settlement; it was as often re-estab- hundred and thirty thousand persons, and the lan lished, and the city was enlarged by new buildings. over which it has a separate jurisdiction conta It became important as a commercial city in the about thirty-five thousand more. twelfth century, and in the thirteenth it was one of the founders of the Hanseatic league. Even after the decline of the confederacy it maintained its freedom and flourishing commerce. The Hanseatic POPULAR MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS. league with Lubeck and Bremen subsisted till 1810, and has been renewed since 1813 and 1814.

PHYSICIAN AND PATIENT. Until the fifteenth century the city was confined The fate of a physician is a hard one. to the strip of land between the Elbe and the east- nothing of the length of time spent in his medica ern bank of the Alster. The western bank was studies, all of which are laborious—some decidedly gradually built upon, principally by exiles from the repulsive, and of the necessary expenditure of mo Netherlands. Thus arose the new town, which ney for attending lectures and hospitals, purchasing was so important, even in the early part of the books and instruments, and in many cases, for foreign thirty years' war, that it was enclosed within the travel, he must expect, after he is fairly a candidato fortifications, and thus gave to the city its present for professional employment, to be made, in this caextent. In 1618 Hamburgh was formally acknowl-pacity, an occasional butt for the stale jokes of peoedged a free city of the empire, although the arch-ple in health, and their ready servitor at all hours bishops of Bremen continued to maintain possession when they are sick. The latter think no trouble too of the cathedral, which was ceded away at the great--no service too menial for him to perform for peace of Westphalia, and was afterward ceded, with them. He cannot, indeed, complain that the comihe duchy of Bremen, to Hanover. The thirty munication made to him by his patients, of their years' war, amidst the devastations of which Ham- various infirmities, though it be a confidence often burgh was spared, increased the number of its in- grudgingly given, and extorted by pain, should still habitants, as late wars in Europe have also done, be regarded by him as a secret and sacred deposit. during which many persons emigrated there from But he is expected, moreover, to be proof against che Rhine, from the Netherlands, and from France. every trial of his temper made by the impatient and Its commerce increased in the same proportion, and querulous sick, and to compensate, by his assiduity compensated, in a great degree, for the diminution and skill, for neglect of themselves, by their delay of its manufactures, occasioned by the awakened in sending for him at an earlier period. He mus spirit of industry, and by the non-importation acts supply, by intuition, all the blanks left in the details of foreign powers. Its sugar-refineries, manufacto- of their feelings, and the exposures which originaries of whale-oil, ship-yards, and establishments for ted the disease, whether the omission were from printing cotton, are still important. The commerce forgetfulness or design. As he himself is not sup. of Hamburgh was increased, particularly by its di- posed to have much sensibility, no pains are taken rect intercourse with the United States of America, to spare him on that score. Every suggestion, how. and by the war in the Netherlands and on the ever absurd and ill-timed, which false aflection o Rhino, by which it obtained a considerable share of neighbourly impertinence can make, is freely ob. the commerce of those countries. Thus, at the be- truded on him. “He is driven to a declaration of the ginning of the present century, Hamburgh was one result of the case under treatment, and often com of the richest and most prosperous of the free cities. pelled to sacrifice either his reputation for sincerity Its reverses began, in 1803, with the entrance of the or for skilful prognosis. If he frankly predict ar French into Hanover. They took possession of unfavourable and fatal issue, he is supposed to be Ritzebüttel, and closed the Elbe to the English, wanting in the resources of the art; or, if he forete who, in turn, closely blockaded the mouth of the recovery, he is supposed not to be fully aware of al river. Hamburgh afterward passed into the occu- the dangerous symptoms, and in either case, hints pancy of a large French garrison, and Bonaparte are thrown out that an additional adviser would be seized on a part of the publick funds. In 1810 it desirable. Should he, with a full knowledge of the was incorporated with the French empire, and de- acuteness and violence of the disease, adopt a clean clared the capital of the department of the Mouths and decided plan of treatment, he is accused by of the Elbe. The decrees prohibitory of commerce gossiping visitors-spies from the camp of scandal continued with occasional suspension, but with im- of acting rashly, and in a spirit of theory. Wer mense loss to this city, from 1808 until the spring he, on the other hand, knowing that the disease wil of 1813, when the hope of support from the ad- terminate favourably, without the necessity of mucl vancing troops of the allies led to a memorable, but interference on his part, to give little medicine, and premature, effort against the French. Hamburg! resolve to wait—a calm but not unobservant specta was shortly after re-occupied by the latter, a contri-tor, it is delicately whispered that he is at a los bution of nearly two millions sterling imposed on it, what to do, and that he is ignorant of the remedie: and the most positive orders given to defend it, at adapted to the case. The loss of his sleep and the whatever sacrifice, against the allies. This led to in- interruption at his meals, often caused by frivolou ealculable distress, to the destruction of the housesmessages, alarms without cause, need merely b

VOL. V.-5

mentioned they are things wnich, as a matter of When the physician begins his inquiries into the course, a physician is expected to submit to with a causes of the disease, and the habits of the patient, good grace, and to seem even as if a favour had and the feelings of the latter at the time, the replies been conferred on him, by preventing him from grat- ought to be full and frank-no equivocation-no ifying his hunger, and renovating his weary frame falsehood. If delicacy, real or false, prevent a feand anxious mind.

male patient from replying to all questions, her aged And what, after all, is the equivalent for these relative or nurse ought to be very explicit in her services rendered, annoyances encountered, body stead. Whatever has been attempted in the way of worn down, and temper chafed? At times, and not cure, ought to be distinctly mentioned. In fine, unfrequently, nothing---no money-cold-thanks- every information ought to be communicated by the sometimes misrepresentation and abuse. On occa- patient and friends, which can throw any light upon sions, indeed, he receives the language, and has the existing malady. There ought to be no reserve, evidently elicited the feeling, of deep gratitude. trick, or falsehood, respecting an avowal of the atBut for the recurrence of such, even though the in- tendance of another physician, should such have tervals be long, he could not sustain himself under been previously called in. It sometimes happens, the pressure of so many annoyances. The mean that there is a coolness, if not rupture, between two est, most abject, and avaricious member of the pro- physicians, owing to what is thought by one of them, fession, could not remain in it without some such ungentlemanly conduct on the part of the other ; reward-mere money could not pay him. The rich- whereas, in fact, the whole misunderstanding origiest man in the land, however prodigal in the pay- nated in the false or garbled notice made by the pament of fees, is still the debtor to his physician, tient or the friend, near his bed side. Doctors are who has saved his life, or rescued him from defor- said to be .quarrelsome ; and where is the wonder, mity and lingering disease. What shall be said when sick people often think themselves excused in then to those who swindle the physician out of his a course of concealment and of prevarication, which hard earnings, by refusing to pay him, while all makes it impossible for the physicians called in a other claims are attended to ? who think him paid different times, and without the knowledge of each by the honour of having been their ready servant, other, to know the real state of the case, or of the their slave during a protracted and dangerous dis- language held to each of them respectively, by the ease, or who chafer about their bill, as if they were patient and his relatives, or meddling friends. trading with an old clothes man?

The same disingenuousness is shown by invalids There are medical ethicks which point out the to their physicians, in the case of the former taking duties of the physician to his patients and to those quack medicines. When first questioned on the applying to him for relief, and also the rules which subject of their having used any medicines at all, are to govern him in his intercourse with his pro- they occasionally answer decidedly, in the negative, fessional brethren. We wish those ethicks were the physician is, consequently, at a loss to explain widely circulated among all classes and callings, the coming on of certain symptoms and disturbances that the duties of patients to their physicians might -such as salivation, mercurial sever, or sore mouth, be more clearly understood, and distinctly admitted. deranged functions of the stomach and bowels, and Indeed, it would not be amiss if there were to be peculiar eruptions of the skin. Had the truth been promulgated a code of valitudinary ethicks, in order told, it would have showed that the patient had been to show the nature of the obligations incurred on the salivated by some panacea, catholicon, or some one side of the sick.

of the many syrups vended by quacks, all equally Among the first duties, as regards their own pres- unworthy of trust, in as far as their nostrums are ervation is, to send early for a physician--the dura- concerned. tion of the disease will thereby be made shorter, its violence more easily subdued, much pain and suffering prevented, and the fees so much dreaded, for

A YANKTOANA HORSE-FIGHT. long attendance, saved. A physician sent for on the first hour of disease making its attack, will be (Extract from a letter addressed to the editor of the New York

Evening Star.) more likely to bring it to a favourable termination in three days, than he would in a fortnight, if three My last letter was closed yesterday in some haste days were allowed to elapse before his services for the purpose of witnessing an Indian amusement, were required.

just without the town, on the bank of the KeetooshWhen the disease is thought to require medical sahawna creek. I have frequently scen bull baits in assistance, it is better for the interest of the patient, Mexico, and among the refined amusements of my that the message be conveyed to the physician early youth have enjoyed the extacies of a cock-pit, and in the morning, before he commences his business many a battle royal between two contending masround—so that he can make the desired visit almost tiffs, to say nothing of an occasional set-to myself; immediately, in place of allowing hours to elapse, but a regular horse-fight among the Yanktoana Indi. which must often necessarily be the case, if the ans on the sources of the Missouri river, beats then message is left after he goes out. In the country, all hollow. it is still more important that the physician should I feel incapable of picturing in your mind, in a have early notice; otherwise he may be ignorant of letter a scene so gladiatorial as thai which has just the call on him during a whole day, in which he is taken place in this city between two Indian studvisiting distant patients, near some one of whom, ponies; because you cannot, without being an eyen perhaps, is the very individual who is now all anx- witness, imagine the various modes and the skill by iety to see him, but who was tardy in announcing which their attacks and repulses were directed. his. wishes.

This scene possessed a more than ordinary inter

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est to us, who were anxious to read the Indian char- To make fattening hogs profitable, it is necessary
acter from the fancy pictures drawn in modern nov- first of all, that the breed selected for feeding should
els. Here we had the soul and substance of be a good one. There is a vast difference in hogs,
the animal indulging in the native cruelty of his na- in respect to easy fattening, proper proportion of
ture. Some five or six hundred Indians, of all ages bone, weight, &c., and the farmer who thinks to
and both sexes, surrounded two ponies of more make money by feeding the long-snouted, hump-
than ordinary size, in an artificial basin, formed at backed, slabsided animals, which disgrace the very
the base of ivo ancient mounds, about sixty feet name of swine, will find in the end that he has reck-
high. The spectators were variously attired and oned without his host, and has thrown away both
unattired! in ihe most fantastick manner imagina- time and money.
ble, with faces and shaved heads painted in the There are several good breeds of pigs now in the
deepest colours, gaudy plumes waving from their country, mostly introduced by crossings of other
crowns, bright trinkets hanging from noses and ears, kinds with the Chinese, and of course having differ-
their arms and legs loaded with shining clasps, and ent degrees of aptitude to fatten; and these breeds
small looking-glass ornaments suspended from their have been so disseminated over the country,
necks. About forty chiefs were mounted, provided farmer who is willing to make the effort may have
with large clubs, who performed the duties of whip- some improved animals in his pens. The time has
pers in, and to keep the antagonists from desertion. gone by when a hog should be kept four years to
A loud and tremulous yell! a whoop from the whole weigh four hundred; the business of fattening is but
tribe who were present, gave the signal for the on- little understood where hogs of a year and a half do
set. The mounted chiefs commenced beating the not reach that amount, and some pigs have even ex-
combatants most unmercifully, and forcing them with ceeded that weight.
their clubs and horses upon each other, when they Next to selecting good breeds, it is requisite that
soon began a simultaneous attack by biting and they should be kept constantly growing.
kicking, and this was done with such consummate must be some foundation for saitening, when the pro-
skill, in parrying each other's blows, that we were cess commences, or much time will be lost in re-
compelled to believe they actually entered into the pairing errors, and much food consumed in making
sport, and understood the science of the game they carcass that should be employed in covering it with
were playing All this was amidst the deafening fat. Hogs should be kept in clover pasture, a field
yells of applause and approbation of the spectators, being allowed to them for their exclusive use, so
who were grouped in the most picturesque manner. large in proportion to their numbers that the feed
Their attacks were by kicking sideways, and biting may always be fresh, yet not so much so as to run
at the same time, then turning, and after eyeing up to seed, or grow coarse or rank. They should
each other like two cocks, would rear and plunge have the slops of the kitchen, the whey or buttermilk
their fore feet into the opponents, like two battering of the dairy, unless this is required for young pigs,
rams coming together until one seized the other by and, in general, every thing they will eat to advan-
the neck, and in a twinkling laid him prostrate, and tage, or which will promote their growth.
held him down for near half a minute. This part The manner in which the material intended for
was a perfect wrestling scene. They often show- fattening pork is prepared and fed has a decided in-
ed symptoms of exhaustion, at which the Indians fluence on the rapidity of the process, and of conse-
beat ihem on to the fight the harder; nor was the quence on the aggregate profits. If given out raw,
baille ended until after about one hour's constant much of the value of the article is lost; grain is much
struggle, when one of them was entirely done over improved by grinding, but the full effect of all kinds,
and yielded unresistingly to the victor. They were of feed is only brought out by cooking. Corn is
a complete gore of blood, their skin being lacerated without doubt, the very best article ever produced
and laid open in places all over their bodies, being for making pork; and though other good substances
covered with bruises which had swollen into large may occasionally be used with advantage, and may
bunches, and nearly all the teeth were knocked out produce pork of fair and good quality, yet experience
of their heads. The next day I examined them, and has proved that the real cornfed meat is on the whole
neither of them could stand upon his legs. They superiour to all others. Hogs will satten on corn giv-
had been trained for two years for this exhibition of en to them in any state, yet it is far preferable when
savage cruelty. The festivities of the day closed soaked, ground, steamed, or boiled. “A farmer of our
with a war-dance and a fancy ballette among the acquaintance, and who is celebrated for the weight
squaws!

of his hogs and the excellence of his pork, is in the
habit of mixing oats with bis corn before grinding,
in the proportion of about one-fourth, and thinks that

if he had not the oats of his own, he should be a FARMERS' DEPARTMENT.

gainer in exchanging corn, bushel for bushel, for oats, rather than not have them to mix with his swine

seed. He thinks that they eat the mixture better The business of fattening pork for sale, is practised than the clear corn meal, are much less liable to surto some extent by most of our farmers, and when feit, and of course will fat much faster with the oats performed economically, or when the most is made than without them. Peas have generally been rankof the materials given them, it is undoubtedly a ed next to corn as an article for making good pork, source of handsome profit. Yet all will admit, that and they are probably the best substitute that has yet when carried on in the manner it sometimes is, the been found, hogs feeding well on them, fattening process of pork-making drains, instead of replenish- rapidly, and the pork being of good quality. It is ing, the farmer's pocket.

almost indispensable that poas should be ground or

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MAKING PORK.

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soaked previous to feeding: Potatoes are probably | over-dried, crumbled, and are lost. Cured in cocks, the best of the whole for this purpose. Unless they every part of the grass, whether the leaves of the are boiled, however, they are of little value compar- thick stalk, dries alike, and is alike preserved, and atively, but when soaked, they will give the hogs a the evaporation of moisture goes on, I believe, even fine start in feeding, and they may then be easily in wet weather ; for a partial, though in no wise a finished off with corn or peas.

prejudicial fermentation takes place, and the rarefied The fattening of hogs on apples may be consider-air which degenerates, being specifically lighter ed as one of the successful innovations of the age, than the atmosphere, is constantly passing off. it being certain that this fruit possesses a value for We have been induced to these renarks, in conthat purpose which but a few years since was whol- sequence of finding in the Farmer and Gardener, an ly unknown. . The success of this experiment has agricultural paper published at Baltimore, a commugiven a new, value to orchards, and will probably nication from John Smith, fully confirming the utilcheck their destruction, which in some sections of ity of our recommendation and long practice. It the country had already commenced to a considera- would seem that Mr. Smith was led to make the exble extent. The various reports from gentlemen of periment rather from necessity than choice. But intelligence, of the practical results of apple-feeding, we will let him tell his own story. are most gratifying, and we have no doubt the sys- “ It will perhaps be recollected,” he says, “by tem' will be fully approved wherever fairly tested. all attentive agricultural readers of that paper, (the Where convenient, let the hogs lie in the orchard American Farmer,) that it was recommended to from the time the fruit begins to fall, till it is time to farmers to put their hay, in its green state, or as gather apples for winter or cider, and they will in soon as cut, into small cocks and cure it by sweating most cases be found respectable pork. When it is 6 When I commenced cutting my clover hay, the necesowy

scary to put them in the pen, boiled apples mix- prospect for favourable weather was flattering, but ed with a small quantity of comm, as, peas, or buck- in a short time it changed, and it became evident wheat meal, will fill them up rapidly, make them we should have a wet spell. I then dropped my lard well, and fill the farmer's barrels with sound, scythes and put all my hands to putting up the

grass sweet pork of the first quality. If any, however, are (then perfectly green, but exempt from external wet) doubtful, they can easily finish off their apple fed into packs of the size of two hundred pounds of pork, as is generally done with potato fed, with corn cured hay; building them compact and high, to or peas, and with similar results.

Genesee Farmer. avoid the introduction of rain as much as possible.

Rain came on before I secured all the cut grass,

but the next day was fair, and I succeeded, by unreMAKING CLOVER HAY-IN ÇOCKS.

mitting attention, in getting the water dried out of Nothing is so hard to combat as the prejudice of the remainder and put it up in the same way. It farmers who think that they can learn nothing in continued rainy for ten days, and afforded no opportheir business. We have often recommended curing tunity to cure in the sun, the cocks were examined clover hay in cocks, as a means of doubling the value daily, by running the hand and arm into them, and, of this kind of hay, besides lessening the expense of contrary to all expectation, gave no indication of fercuring it. Many good farmers and intelligent men mentation. At the end of ten days the weather behave ridiculed the process, because it ran counter to came fair, the cocks were opened and found to be their practice, and was what they could not recon- in a perfectly sound condition, except so far as the cile to their idea of good management. But they rain had penetrated, and the external wetting alone, would never make the trial ; if they had done so in my opinion, made it necessary to open it at all. they would have seen that they were wrong and we Tell farmers they need not fear of losing their hay right. We beg leave here to say, that in many dis- on account of unfavourable weather at harvest. I tricis of Great Britain, spreading hay from the swath, have never seen worse weather in hay harvest, and or tedding it, is going wholly out of practice, as cau- I saved mine entirely well. It was most excellent sing umecessary labour, and as diminishing the val- hay.” ue of hay. But there they are not blessed with an Our practice has been, except in cases of necesordinary sunshine and heat in the hay season. The sity, like the one above, to let our hay wilt in swath, hay curing process with them is a business of some that is to cock in the afternoon that which is cut in days, on account of their comparatively cool climate the forenoon, and to have the cocks not to exceed and humid atmosphere. But with us, when grass is fifty to seventy pounds of hay when cured. We are matured, and thin, and the weather good, it is often glad to see that a large quantity will cure well. Let the business of a day. But this cannot be the case it be remembered that the cocks must not be made with us with early mown hay, particularly where by rolling, but by placing with a fork one layer clover abounds. The

grass

is then in full juices, and above another till the cock is completed. Cultivator. the succulent stocks of the clover require time, as well as sunshine, to part with their moisture. Spread

GRUB OR CUT WORM. and exposed to a hot sun, the leaves, blossoms, and The farming interests of this country, have long exteriour of the stems soon dry, but, in drying, the and ineffectually sought for some mode to arrest the exteriours of the stems become indurated, and refuse, depredation of this worm, so destructive to the proslike wood painted when green, to part with the inte- pects of our agriculturists in the staple article of riour moisture. The consequence is, the grass must Indian corn. either be housed in this half cured condition, and The writer of this, is fully confident from analo. spoil in the mow, or if the curing process is comple- gy, that the following, if carefully adopted, will perted, so as to prevent damage, the leaves and blos- fectly secure the corn against the influence of any soms, which constitute the best parts of the hay, are insect or worm, accustomed to injure it, viz :

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