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OF A CRIMINAL.

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cided; but, if asked our opinion, we say to Sir

GALVANICK EXPERIMENT ON THE DEAD BODY Walter Scott,--and for these reasons : Sir Walter Scott does not appear like Lord Byron, to have writ

The Louisville Journal gives the particulars of ten under the influence of morbid excitement, or an experiment in the laboratory of the Louisville availed himself of the resources of egotism. He did Medical Institute, by Professor Yandall on the body not draw from out the burning well of his own stormy of a man who had been executed for murder an hour passions. He has been the master of his imagination, and ten minutes before, and while the body was still rather than the slave. He has controlled it as with warm. the rod of an enchanter, and compelled it to do his

" The positive pole of the battery was applied to bidding, instead of becoming, like the frantick Pyth- the spinal cord or phrenick nerve, and the negative oness, the utterer of the eloquent ravings which were pole to the diaphragm, by which all the muscles of prompted by the demon that possessed her. His respiration were thrown into prompt and vigorous writings display a calm, consciousness of power. action, producing the appearance of a violent effort There is in them nothing of the feverishness of dis- to breathe. The neck was bent, and the head partly temper ; and they are not sullied and corroded by raised from the table—the arms were quickly thrown the operation of human passions. He seems to have up, and the chest at the same time heaving and sinklooked forth upon nature, serene and unruffled, from ing, the subject seemed to cough, and nothing was the watchtower of a commanding intellect.

wanting but the sound, and the lustre of the living - Time

may other writers, whose compar-eje, to render the illusion complete. ative greatness may deprive him of his present emi. “ The 'negative pole of the instrument touching nence; but it cannot deprive him of the merit of the nerve of the great toe, while the pole was in conoriginality, and of having first opened a new and de- tact with the spinal cord, the fluid thus traversing lightful path in literature. Not in a presumptuous the whole length of the body, a general tremour of spirit of prophecy, but as a token of our present ad- the muscular system ensued—the arms were elevamiration, we will say, that we think his novels likely ted and the fingers forcibly clenched-the legs were to endure as long as the language in which they are suddenly drawn up, and again extended—the head written.”

shook, and the respiratory muscles were convulsed. The last publication of the Author of Waverley, "! On passing the galvanick fluid through the was the Fourth Series of the “ Tales of my Land- nerves of the face, every strong passion which the lord,” 1832, at the conclusion of which appears the human countenance can express was exhibited in following most affecting passage :

quick succession and fearful intensity. Rage, in“The gentle reader is acquainted, that these are, dignation, scorn, horror, remorse, by turns distorted in all probability, the last tales which it will be the the features of the face, as the contact of the poles lot of the Author to submit to the publick. He is of the battery was renewed or broken. The subnow on the eve of visiting foreign parts; a ship of ject as he lay convulsed seemed to be under the dowar is commissioned by its Royal Master

minion of a terrifick dreama prey to intense an

carry the Author of Waverley to climates in which he may mental contest, and unable to speak. The move

guish or remorse—or engaged in some desperate possibly obtain such a restoration of health as may ments of life were mimicked with a truth which renserve to spin his thread to an end in his own country dered the effect not only striking but horrible--and Had he continued to prosecute his usual literary labours, it seems indeed probable, that at the term of

the spectator, while he looked upon the contracted years he has already attained, the bowl, to use the and agonized brow—the lip turned up as if in scorn pathetick language of Scripture, would have been or derision—the uplifted arm and 'heaving chest

, broken at the fountain ; and little can one, who has might also have fancied the subject to be in a deep, enjoyed, on the whole, an uncommon share of the disturbed sleep, and glared upon by the ghost of the most inestimable of worldly blessings, be entitled to

unhappy victim. It was a study for the painter or complain, that life, advancing to its period, should be the tragick actor, and might have suggested to a attended with its usual proportion of shadows and poet, a passage as thrilling as the ghost-scene in storms. They have affected him at least in no more Macbeth, in which the murdered Banquo rises and painful manner than is inseparable from the discharge shakes his gory locks,' a: the affrighted king.” of this part of the debt of humanity. Of those whose relation to him in the ranks of life might have insu

Boston LIBERALITY.-A late number of the North red him their sympathy under indisposition, many are American Review states, on the authority of Presinow no more, and those who may yet follow in his dent Quincy, that upward of one million eight hunwake, are entitled to expect, in bearing inevitable dred thousand dollars have, by the liberality of Bosevils, an example of firinness and patience, more es- ton alone, been contributed within the last thirty pecially on the part of one who has enjoyed no small years toward objects of a moral, religious, and litgood fortune during the course of his pilgrimage.

Of this sum, $345,400 were given “The publick have clains on his gratitude, for to the Massachusetts Hospital ; $222,696 to Harwhich the Author of Waverley has no adequate means yard College ; $79,532 to the Female Orphan Asyof expression ; but he may be permitted to hope, that lum; and $75,000 to the Atheneum. This estimate the powers of his mind such as they are, may not of donations is only brought down to 1830. Since have a different date from those of his body; and that time many other munificent donations have been that he may again meet his patronising friends, if not made; especially for the establishment of the Blind exactly in his old fashion of literature, at least in Asylum, and an institution for free lectures on scisome branch, which may not call forth the remark, ence and literature, to which an endowment of $250,that

erary character.

000 has been made by a young gentleman of that Superfluous lags the veteran on the stage." city.

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BY W. C. REDFIELD.

1

FIRST JOURNEY TO ESSEX.

(From the American Journal of Science and Arts.)

erhead's, at West Moriah, upon the Schroon river, SOME ACCOUNT OF TWO VISITS TO THE MOUNT- or East Branch of the Hudson, thirteen miles from

AINS IN ESSEX COUNTY, NEW YORK, IN THE Lake Champlain. An old state road from Warren
YEARS 1836 AND 1837; WITH A SKETCH OF
THE NORTHERN SOURCES OF THE HUDSON.

county to Plattsburgh, passes through this valley,
along which is established the line of interior settle-

ments, in this part of the county. Our further route NOTWITHSTANDING the increase of population, to the westward was upon a newer and more imperand the rapid extension of our settlements since the fect road, which has been opened from this place peace of 1783, there is still found, in the northern through the unsettled country in the direction of part of the state of New York, an uninhabited region Black river, in Lewis county. We ascended by this of considerable extent, which presents all the rugged road the woody defiles of the Schroon mountaincharacters and picturesque features of a primeval ridge, which, as seen from Weatherhead's, exhibits, wilderness. This region constitutes the most ele- in its lofty and apparently continuous elevations, litvated portion of the great triangular district, which tle indications of a practicable route. Having passed is situated between the line of the St. Lawrence, the a previously unseen gorge of this chain, we continMohawk, and Lake Champlain. That portion of it ued our way under a heavy rain, till we reached the which claims our notice in the following sketches, dwelling of Israel Johnson, who has established lies mainly within the county

of Essex, and the con- himself at the outlet of a beautiful mountain lake, tiguous parts of Hamilton and Franklin,and comprises called Clear Pond, nine miles from Schroon river. the head waters of the principal rivers in the north- This is the only dwelling-house upon the new road. ern division of the state.

To travel in view of the log fences and fallen trees In the summer of 1836, the writer had occasion of a thickly wooded country, affords a favorable opto visit the new settlement' at McIntyre, in Essex portunity for observing the specific spiral direction county, in company with the proprietors of that set- which is often found in the woody fibre of the stems tlement, and other gentlemen who had been invited of forest trees, of various species. In a large proto join the expedition. Our party consisted of the portion of the cases which vary from a perpendicuHon. Archibald McIntyre of Albaný, the late Judge lar arrangement, averaging not less than seven out McMartin of Broadalbin, Montgomery county, and of eight, the spiral turn of the fibres of the stem in David Henderson, Esq. of Jersey City, proprietors, ascending from the ground, is towards the left, or in together with David C. Colden, Esq. of Jersey City, popular language, against the sun. It is believed 'and Mr. James Hall, assistant state geologist for the ihat no cause has been assigned for this by writers northern district.

on vegetable physiology. It may be remarked, incidentally, that the direction, in these cases, coin

cides with the direction of rotation, which is exhib. We lest Saratoga on the 10th of August, and after ited in our great storms, as well as with that of the halting a day at Lake George, reached Ticonderoga tornado which visited New Brunswick in 1835, and on the 12th ; where at 1 P. M. we embarked on other whirlwinds of like character, the traces of board one of the Lake Champlain steamboats, and which have been carefully examined. were landed soon after 3 P. M., at Port Henry, two

We resumed our journey on the morning of the miles N. W. from the old fortress of Crown Point. 15th, and at 9 A. M. reached the Boreas branch of The remainder of the day, and part of the 14th, were the Hudson, eight miles from Johnson's. Soon afspent in exploring the vicinity, and examining the ter 11 A. M., we arrived at the Main Northern interesting sections which are here exhibited of the Branch of the Hudson, a little below its junction junction of the primary rocks with the transition se- with the outlet of Lake Sanford. Another quarter ries, near the western borders of the lake, and we of an hour brought us to the landing at the outlet of noticed with peculiar interest the effect which ap- the lake, nine miles from the Boreas. Taking leave pears to have been produced by the former upon the of the “road,” we here entered a difficult path which transition limestone at the line of contact; the lat- leads up the western side of the lake, and a further ter being here converted into white masses, remark- progress of six miles brought us to the Iron Works ably crystalline in their structure, and interspersed and settlement at McIntyre, where a hospitable rewith scales of plumbago.

ception awaited us. On the evening of the 13th, we were entertained with a brilliant exhibition of the Aurora Borealis, SETTLEMENT AT MCINTYRE.—MINERAL CHARACTER which, between 7 and 8 P. M., shot upward in rapid and luminous coruscations from the northern half of At this settlement, and in its immediate vicinity, the horizon, the whole converging to a point appa- are found beds of iron ore of great, if not unexam. rently fifteen degrees souih of the zenith. This ap- pled extent, and of the best quality. These deposites pearance was succ eded by luminous ical columns have een noticed in the first report of the state ge. or pencils of the color, aliernately, of a pale red and ologists, and have since received from Professor a peculiar blue, which were exhibited in great beauty. Emmons a more extended examination. Lake San

On the 13th, we left Port Henry on horseback, ford is a beautiful sheet of water, of elongated and, after a ride of six miles, left the cultivated coun- and irregular form, and about five miles in extent. try on the borders of the lake and entered the forest. The Iron Works are situated on the north fork of The road on which we travelled is much used for the Hudson, a little below the point where it issues the transportation of sawed pine lumber from the in- from Lake Henderson, and over a mile above its terior, there being in the large township of Moriah, entrance into Lake Sanford. The fall of the stream as we were informed, more than sixty saw-mills. between the two lakes is about one hundred feet. Four hours of rough travelling brought us to Weath. This settlement is situated in the upper plain of the

Vol. V.-44

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OF THE COUNTRY.

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Hudson, and at the foot of the principal mountain FIRST EXPEDITION TO THE MOUNTAINS.-nucleus, which rises between its sources and those

ENCAMPMENT. of the Au Sable.

It has been noticed that the north branch of the A remarkable feature of this mountain district, is Hudson, after its exit from Lake Sanford, joins the the uniformity of the mineral character of its rocks, main branch of the river, about seven miles below which consist chiefly of the dark colored and some the settlement at McIntyre. Having prepared for times opalescent feldspar, known as labradorite or

an exploration up the latter stream, we left Mcln. Labrador feldspar. Towards the exterior limits of the formation, this material is accompanied with yre on the 17th of July, with three assistants, and

the necessary equipage for encampment. Leaving considerable portions of green augite or pyroxene, the north branch, we proceeded through the woods but in the more central portions of the formation, this in a southeasterly direction, passing iwo small lakes, feldspar often constitutes almost the only ingredient till, at the distarice of three or four miles from the of the rocks. It seems not a little repugnant to our

settlement, we reached the southern point of one of notions of the primary rocks, to find a region of this the mountains, and assuming here a more easterly extent which is apparently destitute of mica, quartz; course, we came, about noon, to the mai branch of and hornblende, and also, of any traces of stratified the river. Traces of wolves and deer were frequentgneiss. This labradoritic formation commences at

ly seen, and we discovered also the recent tracks of the valley of the Schroon river, and extends wester

a moose, Cervus Alces, L. We had also noticed on ly into the counties of Hamilton and Franklin, to a the 16th, at the inlet of Lake Sanford, the fresh and limit which is at present unknown. Its northern

yet undried footsteps of a panther, which apparently limit appears to be at the plains which lie between had just crossed the inlet. the upper waters of the Au Sable and Lake Placid,

The beaches of the river, on which, by means of and its southern boundary which extends as far as frequent fordings, we now travelled, are composed

, Schroon, has not been well defined. It appears of rolled masses of the labradoritic rock, and small probable that it comprises an area of six or eight opalescent specimens not unfrequently showed their hundred square miles, including most of the princi- beautiful colors in the bed of the stream. As we pal mountain masses in this part of the state. So

approached the entrance of the mountains, the asfar as is known to the writer, no foreign rocks or

cent of the stream sensibly increased, and about 4 boulders of any size or description are found in this P. M., preparations were commenced for our enregion, if we are not to except as such, the fragments campment." A shelter, consisting of poles and spruce of the dykes, chiefly of trap, by which this rock is bark, was soon constructed by the exertions of our frequently intersected.

dexterous woodsmen. The camp-fire being placed The surface of the rock where it has been long

on the open side, the party sleep with their heads in exposed to the weather, has commonly a whitened the opposite direction, under the lower part of the appearance, owing to its external decomposition. Blocks and boulders of this rock are scattered over

On the morning of the 18th, we resumed the asthe country in a southerly and westerly direction, as far as the southern boundary of the state of New mountains, from between which the stream emerges.

cent of the stream by its bed, in full view of two York, as appears from the Report of Professor Em- About two miles from our camp, we entered the more mons and other observations; and they are often lodged on the northern declivity of hills, high above precipitous part of the gorge through which the lodged on the northern declivity of hills, high above river descends. Our advance here became more the general level of the country. But it is not else difficult and somewhat dangerous. After ascending where found in place within the limits of the United falls and rapids, seemingly innumerable, we came States ; the nearest locality at present known, being about noon to an imposing cascade, closely pent beabout two hundred miles north of Quebec, on the northeastern border of Lake St. John, from whence it feet into a deep chasm, the walls of which are as

tween two steep mountains, and falling about eighty appears to extend to the Labrador coast.* The most precipitous as those of Niagara, and more secluded. eastern of these transported boulders known to the With difficully we emerged from this gulf

, and conwriter is one of about one hundred tuns weight, at tinued our upward course over obstacles similar to Cocksackie, on the Hudson, one hundred and thirty the preceding, till half past 2 P. M., when we miles south' from the labradoritic mountains. This reached the head of this terrific ravine.

From a block is found on the northern shoulder of a hill

, ledge of rock which here crosses and obstructs the three hundred feet above the river, and one hundred

stream, the river continues, on a level which may be and fifty feet above the general level of the adjacent called the Upper Still Water, for more than a mile country.t

in a westerly and northwesterly direction, but con

tinues pent in the bottom of a deep mountain gorge See Lieut. Baddeley's communications in the Transactions of the Quebec Literary and Historical Society, Vol. I.

To this

or valley, with scarce any visible current. + The rocks found in the interior of the United States, west icebergs are still met with in the Southern ocean, in latitudes as of the Hudson river, exhibit strata composed of shells, and other low as that of North Carolina, in cases where they have not marine remains, which in some unknown period have evidently been intercepted in their course by a warm current, like that of formed the floor of the ancient ocean. Geologists and other the gulf stream. Even on the American coast, and between it well-informed persone, will therefore find little difficulty in ascri- and the gulf stream, large ice islands were found in the summer bing the extensive transfer of these heavy boulders to the agency of of 1836, almost in the latitude of Albany. floatin, icebergs, or large masses of ice which were borne by the It is worthy of notice that the labradoritic boulders abovemenpolar Curr.:*3 on the surface of the ancient sea, while the great- tioned, instead of being brought from the N. W. and N. N. W., er part of our continent was yet beneath its waters.

as in the case of the boulders of rocks in lower positions which To those who think the climate of these parallels an objection are found so frequently in New England, have evidently been to this theory, it may be remarked that huge glaciers are still carried by a norih or northeast current in a south or southwestformed in the mountain ravines at the head of the numerous erly direction, and corresponding nearly to the present course of bays which penetrate the southern extremes of the Andes, in a the great polar current, along the coast of Greenland, Labrador, climate less rigid than that of the Essex mountains; and that and the shores of the United States.

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point the river had been explored by the proprietors ( rection, over a constant succession of falls and rapon a former occasion.

ids of an interesting character. In one instance,

the river has assumed the bed of a displaced trap LAKE COLDEN.-MOUNTAIN PEAKS.

dyke, by which the rock has been intersected, thus Emerging from this valley, we found the river to forming a chasm or sluice of great depth, with perhave a meandering course of another mile, in a pendicular walls, in which the river is precipitated northwesterly and northerly direction, with a mod- in a cascade of fifty feet. erate current, until it forks into two unequal branch- Before returning to camp, the writer ascended & es. Leaving the main branch which here descends neighboring ridge for the purpose of obtaining from the east, we followed the northern tributary to view of the remarkably elevated valley from which the distance of two hundred yards from the forks, the Hudson here issues. From this point a mountwhere it proved to be the outlet of a beautiful lake, ain peak was discovered, which obviously exceeded of about a mile in extent. This lake, to which our in elevation the peaks which had hitherto engaged party afterward

gave the name of Lake Colden, is our attention. Having taken the compass bearing situated between two mountain peaks which rise in of this peak, further progress was relinquished, in lofiygrandeur on either hand. We made our sec- hope of resuming the exploration of this unknown ond camp at the outlet of this lake, and in full view region on the morrow. of its interesting scenery:

AVALANCHE LAKE.--RETURN TO THE SETTLEMENT. Previous to reaching ihe outlet, we had noticed on the margin of the river, fresh tracks of the wolf On returning to our camp, we met the portion of and also of the deer, both apparently made at the our party which had penetrated the valley north of fullest speed, and on turning a point we came upon the lake, and who had there discovered another lake the warm and mangled reinains of a fine deer, which of nearly equal extent, which discharges by an outhad fallen a sacrifice to the wolves; the latter hav- let that falls into Lake Colden. On the two sides of ing been driven from their savage repast by our un. this lake, the mountains rise so precipitously as to welcome approach. There appeared to have been preclude any passage through the gorge, except by two of the aggressive parly, one of which, by lying water. The scenery was described as very imin wait, had probably intercepted the deer in his posing, and some fine specimens of the opalescent course to the lake, and they had nearly devoured rock were brought from this locality. Immense their victim in apparently a short space of time. slides or avalanches had been precipitated into this

The great ascent which we had made from our lake from the steep face of the mountain, which in. first encampment, and the apparent altitude of the duced the party to bestow upon it the name of Avamountain peaks before us, together with the naked lanche lake. condition of their summits, rendered it obvious that Another night was passed at this camp, and the the elevation of this mountain group had been great- morning of the 20th opened with thick mists and ly underrated ; and we were led to regret our want rain, by which our progress was further delayed. It of means for a barometrical measurement. The was at last determined, in view of the bad state of height of our present encampment above Lake San- the weather and our short stock of provisions, to ford was estimated to be from ten to twelve hundred abandon any further exploration at this time, and to feet, and the height of Lake Colden, above tide, at return to the settlement. Retracing our steps nearly from one thousand eight hundred, to two thousand to the head of the Still Water, we then took a westfeet, the elevation of Lake Sanford being assumed erly course through a level and swampy tract, which from such information as we could obtain, to be soon brought us to the head-waters of a stream about eight hundred feet. The elevation of the which descends nearly in a direct course to the outpeaks on either side of Lake Colden, were estimated let of Lake Henderson. The distance from our camp from two thousand, to two thousand five hundred at Lake Colden to McIntyre, by this route, probably feet above the lake. These conclusions were en- does not exceed six miles. Continuing our course, tered in our notes, and are since proved to have been we reached the settlement without serious accident, tolerably correct, except as they were founded on but with an increased relish for the comforts of ciro the supposed elevation of Lake Sanford, which had ilization. been very much underrated.

This part of the state was surveyed into large August 19th. The rain had fallen heavily during tracts, or townships, by the colonial government, as the night, and the weather was still such as to pre- early as 1772, and lines and corners of that date, as clude the advance of the party. But tha ardor of marked upon the trees of the forest, are now dis, individuals was hardly to be restrained by the storm; tinctly legible. But the topography of the mountand during the forenoon, Mr. Henderson, with John ains and streams in tho upper country, appears not Cheney, our huntsman, made the circuit of Lake Col- to have been properly noted, if at all examined, and den, having in their course beaten up the quarters of in our best maps, has either been omilted or reprea family of panthers, to the great discomfiture of sented erroneously. Traces have been discovered Cheney's valorous dog. At noon, the weather being near McIntyre of a route, which the natives somemore favorable, Messrs. McIntyre, McMartin and times pursued through this mountain region, by way Hall, went up the border of the lake to examine the of Lakes Sanford and Henderson, and thence to the valley' which extends beyond it in a N. N. E. and Preston Ponds and the head-waters of the Racket. N. E. direction, while the writer, with Mr. Hender. But these savages had no inducement to make the son, resumed the ascent of the main stream of the laborious ascent of steril mountain peaks, which Hudson. Notwithstanding the wet, and the swollen they held in superstitious dread, or to explore the state of the stream, we succeeded in ascending more hidden sources of the rivers which they send forth." than two miles in a southeasterly and southerly di- Even the more hardy huntsman of later times, whos,

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when trapping for northern furs, has marked his path which is visible from near his residence, till the into the recesses of these elevated forests, has left 17th of July of the present year. We obtained a no traces of his axe higher than the borders of Lake fine view of this peak the next morning, bearing Colden, where some few marks of this description from Johnson's N. 20° west, by compass, a posi. may be perceived. All here seems abandoned to tion which corresponded to the previous observasolitude ; and even the streams and lakes of this up- tions; the variation in this quarter being somewhere per region are destitute of the trout, which are found betweeen go and go west. so abundant below the cataracts of the mountains. Descending an abrupt declivity from Johnson's, we

arrive at a large stream which issues from a small WHITEFACE MOUNTAIN. THE NOTCH. lake farther up the country, and receiving here the At a later period of the year, Professor Emmons, outlet of Clear Pond, discharges itself into the

Schroon river. in the execution of his geological survey, and ac

The upper portions of these companied by Mr. Hall, his assistant, ascended the streams and the lakes from which they issue, as Whiteface mountain, a solitary peak of different for well as the upper course of the Boreas with its mation, which rises in the north part of the county.

branches and mountain lakes, are not found on our From this point, Prof. E. distinctly recognised as maps. From the stream beforementioned, the road the highest of the group, the peak on which the ascends the Boreas ridge or mountain chain by a

favorable writer's attention had been fastened at the termina

pass,
the summit of which is attained

Between the tion of our ascent of the Hudson, and which he de- about four miles from Johnson's. scribes as situated about sixteen miles south of Boreas and the main branch of the Hudson, we Whiteface. Prof. E. then proceeded southward encounter, a subordinate extension of the mountain through the remarkable Notch, or pass, which is de group which separates the sources of these streams, scribed in his Report

, and which is situated about through the passes of which ridge the road is car. five miles north from McIntyre. The Wallface

ried by a circuitous and uneven route.

We reached the outlet of Lake Sanford about mountain, which forms the west side of the

pass, was ascended by him on this occasion, and the noon on the 1st of August, and found two small height of its perpendicular part was ascertained 10 boats awaiting our arrival

. Having embarked we be about twelve hundred feet

, as may be seen by the lake and mountain scenery which is here pre..

were able fully lo enjoy the beauty and grandeur of reference to the geological Report which was published in February lası, by order of the Legislature sented, all such views being, as is well known, preIt appears by the barometrical observations made by The echoes which are obtained at a point on the

cluded by the foliage while travelling in the forests. Prof. Emmons, that the elevation of the tableland which constitutes the base of these mountains at upper portion of the lake, are very remarkable for McIntyre, is much greater than from the result of their strength and distinctness. The trout are plen. our inquiries we had been led to suppose.

tisul in this lake, as well as in Lake Henderson and all the neighboring lakes and streams. We arrived

at McIntyre about 4 P. M., and the resources of the SECOND JOURNEY TO ESSEX COUNTY.

settlement were placed in requisition by the hospi. The interest excited in our party by the short ex- table proprietors, for our expedition to the source of ploration which has been described, was not likely the Hudson. io fail till its objects were more fully accomplished. Another visit to this alpine region was accordingly BAROMETRICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE ROUTE. made in the summer of the present year. on this occasion consisted of Messrs. McIntyre, The following table shows the observations made Henderson and Hall, (the latier at this time geolo- with the barometer at different points on our route, gist of the western district of the state) together and the elevation above tide water as deduced from with Prof. Torrey, Prof. Emmons, Messrs. Ingham these observations, and others made on the same and Strong of New York, Miller of Princeton, and days at Albany by Matthew Henry Webster, Esq. Emmons, Jr. of Williamstown.

No detached thermometer was used, the general We left Albany on the 28th of July, and took exposure of the attached thermometers to the

open steamboat at Whitehall on the 29th. At the latter air being such as to indicate the temperature of the place an opportunity was afforded us to ascend the air, at both the upper and lower stations, with tolereminence known as Skeenes' mountain, which rises able accuracy. In the observations with the mountabout five hundred feet above the lake. Passing ain barometer a correction is here made for variation the interesting ruins of Ticonderoga and the less in the cistern, equal to one fiftieth of the depression imposing military works of Crown Point, we again which was found below the zero adjustment at thirty landed at Port tienry and proceeded to the pleasant inches. village of East Moriah, situated upon the high It is proper also to state, that the two mountain ground, three and a half miles west of the lake. This barometers made use of, continued in perfectly good village is elevated near eight hundred feel above the order during our tour, and agreed well with each lake, and commands a fine view of the western slope other in their zero adjustment, which is such as of Vermont, terminating with the extended and beau- will give a mean annual height of full thirty inches tiful outline of the Green Mountains.

at the sea level; but, like other barometers which We lest East Moriah on the 31st, and our first have leather-bottomed cisterns, are liable to be day's ride brought us 10 Johnson's at Clear Pond. somewhat affected by damp and warm weather The position of the High Peak of Essex was now when in the field, and it is possible that this hygroknown to be but a few miles distant, and Johnson metric depression may have slightly affected some informed us that the snow remained on a peak of the observations which here follow.

Our party

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