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IMPERFECT STATE OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE

RESOURCES OF THE MOUNTAIN DISTRICT.

Mount Washington, above the sea, 6.234 feet. maps, he is constrained to the performance of doties Adams,

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which pertain to the geographical, rather than to Jefferson,

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the geological department of science, yet all that Madison,

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can be accomplished in either branch, with the Franklin,

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means placed at his disposal, may be confidently Monroe,

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expected from his discriminating zeal and untiring From this it appears most probable that there are a perseverance. greater number of peaks in the Essex group that Owing, perhaps, to the soda and lime which are exceed tive thousand feet, than in New Hampshire ; constituents of the labradoritic rock, and its somealthough the honor of the highest peak is justly claim. what easy decomposition when exposed to the aced by the latter.

tion of the elements, the soil of this region is quite favorable to the growth of the forests as well as the purposes of agriculture. The beds of iron ore

which are found on the waters of the Hudson, at It appears unaccountable that the elevation of McIntyre, probably surpass in richness and extent, this region at the sources of the Hudson should any that have been discovered in other countries. have been, hitherto, so greatly underrated. Even In future prospect, this may be considered as the Darby, in his admirable work on American geog- Wales of the American continent, and with its natraphy, estimates the fall of the rivers which enter ural resources duly improved, it will, at no distant Lake Champlain from the west, as similar to those period, sustain a numerous and hardy population. on the east, which he states to be from five hundred

New York, November 1, 1837. . to one thousand feet.* The same writer also estimates the height of the table land from which the Hudson flows, at something more than one thousand feet !f The mountains of this region, appear

OUR NATIONAL FLAG. to have almost escaped the notice of geographical writers, and in one of our best Gazetteers, that of

The Hon. Joel R. Poinsett, now Secretary of Darby and Dwight, published in 1833, the elevation War, of the United States, related the following inof the mountains in Essex county, is stated at one cident at a publick meeting in Charleston during thousand two hundred feet. In Macauley's History the nullification controversy some years since : of New York, published in Albany in 1829, there

“ Wherever I have been, (says Mr Poinsett,) I is however, an attempt to describe the mountains of have been proud of being a citizen of this great rethe northern district of the state, by dividing them publick, and in the remotest corners of the earth into six distinct ranges. This description is neces- have walked erect and secure under that banner sarily imperfect, as regards the central portion of which our opponents would tear down and trample the group; but this author appears to have more under foot. I was in Mexico when that city was nearly appreciated the elevation of these mountains taken by assault. The house of the American am. than any former writer. He states the elevation of bassador was then, as it ought to be, the refuge of Whiteface at only two thousand six hundred feet, and the distressed and persecuted; it was pointed out to the highest part of the most westerly or Chateaugua the infuriated soldiery as a place filled with their range at three thousand feet. To the mountains enemies. They rushed to the attack. My only near the highest source of the Hudson, including defence was the flag of my country, and it was probably the High Peak, he has given the name Aung out at the instant that hundreds of muskets of the Clinton range, and has estimated their eleva. were levelled at us. Mr. Mason, (a braver man tion from six hundred, to two thousand feet! He never stood by his friend in the hour of danger,) and also describes the West Branch of the Hudson myself placed ourselves beneath its waving folds, which rises near the eastern border of Herkimer and the attack was suspended. We did not blench, county, as being the principal stream. · The North- for we felt strong in the protecting arm of this west Branch, which unites with the main North mighty republick. We told them that the flag that Branch, a few miles below Lake Sanford, he de- waved over us was the banner of that nation to scribes as rising on the borders of Franklin and Es- whose example they owed their liberties, and to sex counties and as pursuing a more extended whose protection they were indebted for their safety. course than the North Branch. Perhaps this de- The scene changed as by enchantment, and those scription may be found correct, although information men who were on the point of attacking my house received from other sources does not seem to con- and massacring the inhabitants, cheered the flag of firm the position.

our country and placed sentinels to protect it from It is understood that Prof. Emmons, in pursuing outrage.

Fellow citizens, in such a moment as his geological explorations, has ascended another of that, would it have been any protection to me and the principal peaks situated easterly of the highest mine to have proclaimed myself a Carolinian? Should source of the Hudson, and made other observations I have been here to tell you this tale if I had hung which will be of value in settling the geography of out the Palmetto and the single star? Be assured this region. The professor finds the northern dis- that to be respected abroad, we must maintain our trict of the state, to be one of great interest to the place in the Union.” geologist, and although from the deficiencies of our

The human heart rises against oppression, and is * Darby's View of the U. S. p. 242. + Ib. p. 140. soothed by gentleness, as the wave of the ocean * Macauley's History of New York, Vol. I. p. 2 to 9 and 20, rises in proportion to the violence of the winds, and 21, Albany, 1829.

sinks with the breeze into mildness and serenity.

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INDIAN SUMMER-AMERICAN FORESTS, AND THE ! with the frequent auroral ministers that attend his

INFLUENCE OF THE GREAT LAKES ON OUR exit in this latitude, lead us to marvel, and rever. AUTUMN SUNSETS.

ence and worship the Power that spreads and gilds The beauty, blandness and mingled glories of a the bannery, tent-displaying a handiwork man can Western Indian Summer belong alike to earth and only admire and enjoy, not imitate. sky. In the valley of the great Lakes they are

The theory of this writer accounts for the sucblent with a, mellow richness and loveliness un cessive flushes of golden and scarlet light so often known in other climes. The spirits of beauty can observed to rise and blend and deepen in the west worship in no temple more resplendent than the as the sun approaches the horizon, and sink below arched heavens lit up by an Autumn sunset, and it, by the supposition that each lake, one after the burnished with flashes and crimson colourings, deep- other, lends its reflecting light to the visible portion ened by the many-teinted foliage of the primeval of the atmosphere, and thus as one fades, another woods, mirrored and reflected from waters broad Alings its mass of radiance across the heavens, and and bright as the Mediterraneans of the old world. acting on a medium prepared for its reception, proThe forest—pen nor pencil can do justice to the longs the splendid phenomena. He says :spectacle it presents, when the frost of a night has

"We have for years noticed these appearances, changed the lingering green of a summer.

and marked the fact, that in the early part of Sepif a myriad of rainbows were laced through the tember, the sunsets are of unusual brilliancy, and tree-topsmas if the sunsets of a summer-gold, more prolonged, than at other times. They are at purple and crimson—had been fused in the alembick this season, immediately after the sun goes down, of the west, and poured back in a new deluge of accompanied by pencils or streamers of the richest light and colour over the wilderness. It is as if light, which, diverging from the position of the sun, every leaf in those countless trees had been planted appear above the horizon, and are soinetimes so to outflush the tulip—as if, by some electrick miracle, well defined that they can be distinctly traced to the the dies of the earth's heart had struck upward, zenith. At other seasons of the year, clouds just and her crystals and ores, her sapphires, hyacinths below the horizon at sunset produce a somewhat and rubies, had led forth their imprisoned colours, to similar result in the formation of brushes of light; mount through the roots of the forest, and, like the and elevated ranges of mountains by intercepting angels that in olden time, entered the bodies of the and dividing the rays, whether direct or reflected, dying, reanimate the perishing leaves, and revel an effect the same appearances ; but in this case there hour in their bravery.'

are no elevated mountains, and on the finest of A writer in a late number of the “Oasis” advances these evenings the sky is perfectly cloudless. The the plausible theory that the chain of lakes lying in uniformity of these pencils at the same season for a great circle from south of west to north, add much a great number of years, prove the permanency of to the splendour of our Autumn sunsets. Rays of their cause, and lead us to trace their origin to the light falling on a reflecting surface, slide off, so to peculiar configuration of the country bordering on speak, in a corresponding angle of elevation or de the great lakes. pression, whatever it may be. The writer consid

" At the time of the year these streamers are the ers the great American lakes as vast mirrors spread most distinct, a line drawn from this point (Oswego) horizontally upon the earth, reflecting the rays of to the sun would pass over a small part of the west the sun that fall upon them according to the optical end of Lake Ontario, the greatest diameter of Lake laws that govern this phenomenon. The higher Huron, and across a considerable portion of Lake the sun is above the horizon, the less distance the Superiour. From considerations connected with reflecting rays would have to pass through the atmo- the figure of the earth, and the relative position of sphere, and of course, the less would be the effect the sun and the lakes, with the hills that border Lake produced; while at or near the time of setting, the Huron on the east, it appears clear to us that this direct rays striking horizontally upon the waters, the broken line of these hills acts the part of clouds or direction of the reflecting rays must be so also, and mountains in other circumstances in intercepting therefore pass over or through the greatest possible and dividing into pencils the broad mass of light reamount of atmosphere previous to their final disper- flected from the Huron, and thus creating those sion. Objects on the earth's surface, if rear the re- splendid streamers, by which, as it were, the comflecting body, require but little elevation to impress mencement of autumn is marked. As the sun still their irregularities on the reflected light. Any con- advances to the south, the pencils formed by the siderable eminences on the eastern shores of the highlands are lost to us, but in their place come great lakes would produce the effect of lessening or two broad ones, caused by the feebler reflective totally intercepting these rays at the moment the powers of the isthmuses that separate St. Clair from

was in a position nearly or quite horizontal. the Huron, and the former from Lake Erie. This The reflective power of a surface of water is much occurs not far from the middle of September, when greater than that of earth, which accounts for the the sun sets a few degrees north of west, and can admitted superiour beauty and brilliancy of autumnal be observed nearly a month. These interruptions sunsels in the northern, over the most gorgeous in of the brilliance of the west are not, however, of the southern states.

the duration of those effected by the hills, as the The views of this writer may be novel, yet his sun has scarcely time to leave the surface of the hints are worthy the attention of the curious. The Huron before these pencils and breaks are all absuccession of most resplendent sunsets for the past ruptly melted into the rich dark crimson that floats several weeks, when not destroyed by atmospherick up from the Michigan or the mighty Superiour. derangement attending storms, the effulgence which “ After the southern declination of the sun has continues to curtain the chambers of the day-king- become such that the Huron range of hills is to the

sun

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northward of the range of light reflected to us, below Satartia, in Yazoo county, the Sun Flower these pencils disappear from the heavens apparently, two hundred miles long, and navigable for steamand do not return until, with another season, and a boals—puts in from the right, or Washington county renewed atmosphere, the sun is found in the same side. Within fifteen miles of its mouth, it receives position. The reason of this is, the whole of the Deer creek from the right, and finally, after a course Michigan peninsula is so level that it does not of seven hundred miles, empties into the Mississippi, break the reflected light from that lake ; and the twelve miles above the flourishing city of Vicksbroader ones made by breaks in the chain of lakes burgh. From one point of the Yazoo, known as the froin Erie to Huron, are not of a nature to be so Chickasaw bayou, it is only seven miles through distinctly marked as those produced by the inter- for skiffs, in high water, to Vicksburgh: while it is ception of rays by hills or clouds.

thirty round. * We have thrown out these hints for we con- Steamboats have ascended the Yalobusha forty sider them nothing more-in the hope of directing miles. the notice of other and more competent observers to The Yoccony Pataufa-two hundred miles long the facts stated, and if possible, thereby gaining a -is also a branch of the Tallahatchie. satisfactory explanation of the splendid phenomena From the confluence of the Cold Water to the connected with our autumnal sunsets, should the mouth of the Yazoo and westward to the Mississipabove not be considered as such."

pi, the country is entirely alluvial, no part of it The favourable location of our city, overlooking as being more than thirteen feet above overflow. Here, it does a broad expanse of waters on the north and doubtless, the ocean once dashed its wave, and held west, often gives it the famed rose-coloured skies of dominion till the Mississippi, slowly, but not less impassioned Italy. At such an hour the divinity is surely, compelled it to retire. stirred within us, and few can go out under the pa- The Yazoo Pass puts out from the Mississippi vilion nature has spread over our forest, city, and ten miles below Helena, and after twenty-five miles Erie, without feeling that “God alone is to be seen joins the Cold Water, or Oka Kapussa, and thus in heaven." The breathings of the sweetest of communicates with the Yazoo. By this route, American bards then coine unbidden from the fount which is longer than the main channel, you reach of meinory :

the Mississippi by a genuine current, in five hun“Oh! what a glory doth this world put on

dred miles, through which many boats have descenFor him that with a fervent heart goes forth

ded. Efforts are now making to clear the pass of Under the bright and glorious sky, and looks

obstructions to its navigation ; but the appropriation On duties well performed and days well spent! For him the wind, ay, and the yellow leaves,

of ten thousand dollars is inadequate. The summit Shall have a voice, and give him eloquent teachings. level on both sides of the breadth of a thousand He shall so hear the solenın hymn that Death Has lighted up for all, that he shall go

yards should be dyked for some miles. To his long resting-place without a tear.”

The Ya200 is from one hundred to two hundred [Cleveland Herald. yards broad. At and near its mouth, it is called

Old river; because it was the bed of the Mississippi one hundred and fifty years ago. It is there a

mile in width or more. At Liverpool, twenty miles RIVERS IN MISSISSIPPI.

below Manchester, the Yazoo is within seven miles The principal streams of the state of Mississippi of the Big Black. are as follow :

Steamboats may ascend the Yazoo four hundred Pearl river, which heads near the Choctaw miles or more. county line, and has a course of about seven hun- Deer Creek is nowhere more than from fifteen to dred miles, till ils waters mingle with those of the twenty miles from the Mississippi. It has been Gulf of Mexico. Steamboats can ascend it five hun- ascended in skift's nearly to its source. It commudred and eighty miles to Pensacola, on its west bank, nicates with the Sun Flower, by the Rolling Forks, in Leake county, four miles southwest of Carthage. and it is usual to ascend the Sun Flower in order The greatest impediments to its navigation are in to reach the plantations on Deer Creek, or to pass the first hundred miles above its mouth. One point over to the Mississippi. of it, in Madison county, is only thirteen miles Biy Black rises in Choctaw county, and after a from the Big Black, and about thirty-five from the course of five hundred miles, enters the Mississippi Yazoo. Its principal tributaries are the Lobutcha, one mile and a half above the city of Grand Gulf, Yukainokhina and the Bogue Chitto from the west, in the county of Claiborne. It receives not a and Strong river from the east. Yukainokhina has single tributary of importance. Its width at low been ascended some miles by keels.

water exceeds one hundred yards in very few Yazoo river may be considered as heading near places ; but, during floods, it is a mile or more in Pontolock. The stream sweeps round, and receiv- width. Steamboats inay ascend it more than three ing the Cold Water from the west, and the Tallatoba hundred miles. As you ascend, after leaving the from the east, flows on under the name of Tallahat. county of Claiborne, it intervenes between the chie, till its junction with the Yalobusha from the counties of Hindes and Madison on the south, and left; when the united stream assumes the name of those of Yazoo and Holmes on the norih. About Yazoo. Near the Holmes county line, there are two thirty thousand bales of cotton annually descend chaurels at high water. That on the left, which is this river. about seventy miles long, is known by the name of The Tombigby is only partly--say two hundred Liule river; part of which is also called Chula and fifty miles—within the state of Mississippi. lake. The island formed is called Honey island, Between townships sixteen and seventeen north of and is very fertile, Descending further, a few miles the basis of townships of the Choctaw district, or in latitude thirty-three degrees, fifteen minutes, it hay, is about four hundred miles ; of which two hun. passes into ihe state of Alabama, and flows on to dred miles or more may be navigated. join the stream of that name. It divides the coun- Homochillo-river rises in the county of Copiah, a ties of Monroe and Lowndes nearly centrally. It few miles south westerly of Gallarin, and after a has been navigated by steamboals, within our state, course of three hundred miles, enters the Mississipone hundred miles or more, to Cotton-Gin-Port, pi above Fort Adams. It has been ascended two ninety miles above Columbus, and six hundred from hundred miles. the gulf of Mexico ; from whence, to its source, it is about seven hundred and fifty miles.

'The Oktibbeha is a branch of the Bigby, as it is familiarly called, and enters it from the west, four

DESTRUCTION OF THÉ JANIZARIES BY MAHmiles above Columbus. It may be navigated iwenty

MOUD II. miles, to Mahew. Noxubee river, which gives its name to a county,

The destruction of the Janizaries will ever be is another branch, one hundred and thirty miles long, considered as one of the most memorable erents in and rises in our state.

the history of the reign of the Sultan Mahmoud, a Pascagoula river disembogues into the gulf of Mexico. It is formed by the union of the Chicka- portrait of whom is given below. The Janizarics sawhay from the north, and Leaf river from the were a famous military body; the name signifg. nortbwest. Its length, following the Chickasaw-ling, new soldiers; it was created by the Emperour

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Orcan, about the middle of the fourteenth century, stan placed himself at the head of the male popula. and was regularly organized by his successor, Amotion of the capital, and the Janizaries were then urath I.

summoned to come under the sacred standard. The corps of Janizaries, like that of the Egyp- They refused; the mufti then declared that the tian Mamelukes, was at first recruited exclusively law had ceased to protect them, and the sultan from young Christian captives ; afterward, however, added that their lives were forfeited. They were native born Turks were admitted. As the pay of now attacked by a furious people, and by the regthe corps was large, and as it possessed great ad- ular troops. The Janizaries presented no resistvantages and exorbitant privileges, recruits were sel- ance; they stood as it were in a stupor, and perishdom wanted, and the corps was divided into those ed by fire and sword. The gates of the city had who were in actual service, and those who were been closed so that there was no escape. Several called upon in case of war; the latter received no thousand persons were taken, some of whom were pay, but were entitled to all other privileges. At liberated, while those who were told to “ go and the time of its destruction, this body was composed consult the mufti,” were strangled by the execuof one hundred and ninety-seven ortas or legions, of tioners. More than eight thousand Janizaries per-.

. one thousand men each.

ished in Constantinople alone. A large number Having contributed actively to the aggrandizement were executed in the provinces; many were banof the Turkish empire, the Janizaries, like most ished to Asia, and the rest were disarmed and min. purely military bodies, the Pretorians of Rome, the gled with the population. Strelitz of Russia, and the Mamelukes of Egypt, On the 17th of June, the body of Janizarics was became a formidable body; they made emperours dissolved by a decree: the term was declared infa. and displaced them. Many sultans had attempted mous, and their memory was execrated. Thus perto destroy this dangerous institution, or 10 neutralize ished at one blow, a body of military, formidable its influence by enrolling new troops. From the for its power, and which had existed for more than commencement of the eighteenth century,

four hundred years. perours, Selim III. and Mustapha IV., had paid for

Mahmoud II., is the son of the emperour Abdul their attempts, by the loss of throne and life. Mah- Hamid, who died in 1789; his mind is highly cultimoud II., the cousin of one and brother of the vated, and he speaks and writes with eloquence ; other, who had obtained the imperial purple through his external appearance, however, is by no means a revolt, determined 10 accomplish this enterprise or remarkable, and the semi-European costume which to perish with them. For fifteen years he plotted he has adopted, deprives him of the advantage of against these Janizaries, who being naturally ene- the oriental dress; his manners, however, are affamies of all innovations, had remained stationary ble, dignified, and sometimes imposing. while all Europe was advancing in civilization.

Mahmoud, who by his conduct had gained the respect and affection of the Ottoman people, had already acquired the moral elements of success; and by organizing small troops of artillery devoted to

PROFESSOR MORSE'S ELECTRO-MAGNETICK himself and hostile to the Janizaries, had also pre

TELEGRAPH. pared the material for triumphing by force. At the

It is with some degree of pride, that it falls to end of May, 1826, it was determined in council that our lot first to announce the complete success of this a military reform was necessary for the safety of the wonderful piece of mechanism, and no place could Ottoman race, and it was decided that the Janizaries have been found more suitable to pursue the course should furnish their contingent of the new troops. machinery than the Speedwell Works. Replete as

of experiments necessary to perfecting the detail of At first, the military received this resolution with they are with every convenience, Professor Morse coldness, but when it was attempted to enforce the quietly pursued the great object, and has finally sucorder, they mutinied, and on the 14th of June, in the ceeded. Others may have suggested the possibility evening, they were in full revolt. They ravaged of conveying intelligence by electricity, but this is Constantinople, pillaged and burned several of the the first instance of its actual transmission and per,

manent accord. publick buildings, and the next day assembled on

The telegraph consists of four parts : the

square of the Atmeidan. The government how- 1st. The battery-A Cruikshank's galvanick ever was ready; the most energetick measures trough of sixty pair of plates, seven by eight and a were determined upon. The sacred standard of the half inches each. 2d. The portruleAn instruProphet was displayed at the mosque of Achmet, rule answers to the stick of the printers, and in it

ment which regulates the motion of the rule. The and every faithful Mussulman was commanded to the type representing the numbers to be transmitted take arms, and to rally under this banner. The gul-l are passed beneath the lever which closes and breaks

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