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arm, beautifully spotted with yellow and brown, and nostrils or the corners of the mouth, as in many sprinkled over with blackish specks. They have a species of birds these points indicate generical or wide mouth, by which they inhale a great quantity specifick characters. of air, and when inflated therewith they eject it with If it be a bird feeding upon fish, such as the pelsuch force as to be heard to a considerable distance. ican or' heron, cleanse not only the throat but the These mortal enemies to mankind are described by crop and pouch, for the least pressure would force Jackson, as abounding in the desert of Suse, where out their contents and soil the plumage. To empty their holes are so numerous that it is difficult for a the pouch of a pelican, you have only to open his horse to pass without stumbling,

beak and take out the contents with your hand. In a bird without a pouch, the process although longer, has hardly more difficulty :-bang him up by the claws with the head downward, shake him, and squeeze the neck with a gentle pressure, passing from the breast down to the mouth; this will force

out the contents of the stomach. After this, stuff METHOD OF PROCURING AND PRESRVING his mouth with plaster and cotton as above directed. OBJECTS OF NATURAI. HISTORY.

The escape of the excrement is prevented in the

same way. We have had numerous applications from our

This is the moment when the naturalist should subscribers to furnish in the Magazine the necessa- make, the following indispensable observations. ry instructions for the procuring and preserving ob- Open his eyes and take exact note of their colour.; jects of Natural History. In compliance with this --measure his extreme length from the point of the call, we commence in this number a course of arti-beak to the end of the tail ;-and, if you have had

opportunity before shooting him of observing his alcles which will be extracted from different works, Litude, note it down, that when he is stuffed he may but chiefly from the “ Manual of the Practical Nat- be placed in the same position. These observations uralist.” The instructions here given will be very may consist chiefly of the following: explicit; sufficiently so to enable any person who

1. Does he perch † or otherwise ? has the least inclination, to procure and preserve a

2. Are his thighst bare, or hidden by the plumage

of the belly? valuable collection.

3. Is his body while at rest placed vertically, ob

liquely, or horizontally ? Of taking Birds.-In whatever manner the ta

4. Are the wings drawn up, or hanging down ?-king of birds is to be performed, the operator should Do they cross over the tail ?-Are they confounded furnish himself with a pair of pincers, paper, cot- and united with the feathers of the breast and back ton, flax or clean tow, and plaster of Paris in pow. for a third, one half, or two thirds of their length from der. Should the weather be hot, or the place of the top ?-Do their tips reach to the end of the tail ? hunting distant, so as to hazard the spoiling of the or half its length ? or a quarter ? &c. game ere it can be sent home, have a tin box con

5. What is the exact colour of the claws-beak taining nettle, mint, and such aromatick plants as -ceres-and glands ? grow on the banks of rivers ; in this pack the birds, after preparing them as we shall presently direct. cessarily minute, yet are very essential." One ex

These remarks, although they may appear unne. This is recommended as a sure method by M. Boi- ample out of a thousand will sufice. Suppose you tard, who alleges in its favour an experience of more have shot a young male or old female cresserelle ; } than twenty years in Italy and the south of France, the most exact description will not enable you to where from the heat of the climate corruption in distinguish it from a female cresserellette, unless you ordinary cases takes place in a few hours. When a bird is shot, secure him immediately, in the first mentioned bird : or unless the wings and

note the precise length, which is two inches longer that he may not soil his feathers with the blood of tail be compared, as the wings in the cresserelle the wound. Seek out the wound, and raise the reach but three fourths the length of the tail. These feathers which cover it. Put a quantity of the pow- are the only clear distinctions of the two species. dered plaster* upon the wound, and thrust into it a

Having followed the above directions, hold the plug of cotton; then add more of the plaster, and bird by the bill, and shake him genuly to get rid of when the bleeding is quite stanched, replace the the superfluous plaster, and return the feathers to feathers. Cleanse the mouth and stop it with the their natural position; in aid of this you may blow tow or cotton, introducing a quantity of plaster. This precaution must be particularly observed in the upon him, but always in the direction of the feath

then roll up a sheet of strong paper into a case of birds of prey, as they often disgorge their

cone, and place him head first within, taking care food in dying, and soinetimes after death. The nostrils also should be plugged with cotton, on account of the ferid matter which commonly escapes therefrom; in the vulture this matter is so strong in habit of alighting on a branch or rail, in contradistinction to

+ To perch, in the language of ornithology, is 19 follow the odour, that when the feathers become imbued with alighting on the ground or any flai surface: thus a robin perches, it, nothing can remove the scent. In performing a duck does not, the operation, care should be taken not to distort the * In the present instance, the word thigh is used in the popular

application. The scientifick nomenclature gives another name

to this limb of the bird. • In these cases, when plaster is not to be bad, you may sub- & The Kestrel of Buffon, the Stannel or Wind-Hover of oth stituto dry earth, asbes, or bran,

ers, Falco Tinnunculus of Gmelin. Vor V17

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not to derange the feathers, it being extremely difi- ; unfit for your purpose ; he would part with his plucult afterward to replace them properly: the legs mage or come quite to pieces the moment you atshould be stretched along the tail, and the wings tempted to take off the skin. placed close : then close up the package, after pla- Much attention is requisite in the selection of cing within the notes you have taken respecting the birds ; upon this depends the freshness and brillianbird ; then put it carefully in a box or bag, and if cy of colour, which gives them their greatest value. you have several of these packages put the largest A bird reared in a cage loses his gracefulness, the at the bottom.

beauty of his dress, and sometimes the characteris. When you take a bird in a snare or net, be care- ticks of his species. It is only upon the summit of ful in killing him that he does not beat his feathers the craggy rock, that we find ihe enormous bird of off in struggling; seize him by the two fingers un- prey armed with his long and sharp talons. It is der the wings, between the breast and the belly, and upon the sandy shores of the ocean or the banks pinch him till he is suffocated. Taking with nets is of rivers, that we must look for the feathered comà tolerable method of obtaining small birds in good batants armed with a splendid cuiras of long and condition, but requires a degree of skill which is slender plumes; the woodpecker and the sparrow only attained by long practice. Its success too is are decked in the gaudy dress of the pairing-sea. hardly certain, except during the spring; when, in son, solely when they inhabit the solitude of the for. the season of pairing, the feathered tribe lose their est. The naturalist therefore will not make his setimidity and allow themselves to be approached. lections either from the barnyard, or the aviary of

Many interesting subjects are sometimes taken the bird-fancier. Nature must be studied in the by birdlime, but they are often quite spoiled by this fields. substance. Nevertheless, if a bird taken in this The nomenclature of birds is at present thrown manner have saved enough of his plumage to render into much confusion, by the errours of writers who him worth preserving, and his rarity make it an ob-have mistaken young individuals, females, and old ject, he may with care and patience be cleansed, males of a single class, for different species. Men ihus:-Rub the limed feathers with fresh butter till of high talent, Buffon himself

, cannot be exempted the lime and butter coalesce, which you may know from ihis imputation. This great naturalist has given by the mixture's not sticking ; remove as much as the name of faucon to the falco peregrinus of Gmeyou can scrape off with a knife, and wash the remain- lin ;-he has made one species of the full-grown der with a strong solution of potash ; the lime being male; a second species of the young male, which removed, wash again with clear water and dry it he has named faucon sors; a third species of the with powdered plaster. For want of potash, make year-old male, which he has called faucon noir pasa strong lie of equal parts of ashes and water; let sager ; and a fourth species of the very old male, it stand twenty-four hours, and decant it clear. If which has received froin him the title of lanier. An neither of these lotions be procurable, you may use intelligent amateur should employ all the means in very strong soap-suds several times renewed. his power to collect every variety of age and sex,

Some persons, after applying the butter to the as well as that variety occasioned by moulting. He limed feathers, add a quantity of ether, and after- who in this manner is enabled to make the acquisiward wipe the feathers dry with tow. This is tion of a whole genus, has rendered a true service doubtless the most expeditious way, but has the dis- to the study; his cabinet will possess more value in advantage of discolouring the plumage.

the eyes of a naturalist, than if he had heaped to: In addition to the above methods of procuring gether thousands of individuals, rare in theniselves, subjects, there is another which is by no means to but isolated in respect to classification. be neglected; this is, to go to the markets where Birds of prey in general, and particularly those game is sold. But ere you purchase a bird, how- of the hawk kind, (genus falco,) deserve the first atever valuable he may appear, satisfy yourself that tention of the naturalist; next follow those which he is capable of preservation. Examine first the frequent the shores of the sea and the banks of

. claws, the bill, and the large beam-feathers of the rivers ; afterward, those of the wings and tail. If none of these are wanting, see whether the scull be not broken, as many persons crush with the hand the heads of those birds which they take in nets, or, when shooting, finish them by

SIMILES, beating their heads ; in these cases, the bones of the head being fractared, it will be difficult to restore it to its true shape, and with any care it could not

THERE's a cloud in the east-'ris like night in its hue,

But the rists in its gloom reveal touches of blue; be arranged with firmness. Still, in the case of a So, oft, when the spirit would faint in despair, very rare subject, these circumstances will not de- We catch glimpses of hope through the twilight of care. tract wholly from its value.

Examine moreover whether the flesh be sufficient- In a desolate spot as gay flower ever grew in, ly free from putrefaction to preserve the feathers up

I saw a sweet rose leaning over a ruin ;

And I said, “When long years steal life's freshness away, on the skin in the process of flaying. This you May Love, like that rose, lend a smile to Decay !". cannot always know by the smell, for the wound will sometimes exhale an odour which infects no

The frail water-lily is tossed to and fro other part. Examine attentively the small feathers On the stream, but its roots cling unshaken below; at the corners of the bill and the cheeks ; if they

Thus the soul rides in safety adversity's wave,

When its anchor is cast on the “Mighty to save.' hold firinly, the bird is capable of preservation, but if you can rub off these feathers with the finger,

* The sixth order of birds, according to the Linnæan system, and the skin beneath feels damp, abandon bim as comprising all tbe singing-birds.

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CAUSES OF POVERTY.

the tailor to make him one of the same, and the [From Sedgwick's Publick and Private Economy.]

same fashion. In came the knight, and seeing the

shoemaker's cloth, asked whose it was. The tailor There is a large class of employments that told him, it was the shoemaker's, and that he wantmay be called the frivolous employments. It cannot ed a coat after the fashion of the knight's. • So be be said, that the labourers in them produce nothing, it,' said the knight, cut mine as full of gashes with but that they produce nothing of substantial value.

your shears as you can.' 'The shoemaker could get These labourers are not idle, that is not the diffi- no time to go to the tailor's till Christmas. Seeing culty ; no, many of them work like slaves, late and his coat cut full of gashes he began to swear. But,' early, and in the most unwholesome occupations. said the tailor, • I have done nothing but what you The singularity of this kind of labour is, that though bid me, for as Sir Philip's garment is, so is yours.' the labourers earn wages, and often very high wa-By my latchet,' says John Drakes, 'I will never ges, still that they do not produce anything of sub- wear gentlemen's fashions again.”” stantial utility, nothing that increases the general I shall, for the present, mention one instance only wealth, and thereby enables other labourers to fare of the expenditure of the publick money for fashion the better for the work they do. The labour here sake, and that is in the dress of a midshipman in meant is that immense amount of labour consumed the American navy. When he enters, as midshipin the fashions.

man, he must be fourteen years of age, and is, perFashion, fashion, this is the only tyrant left to haps, the son of a poor mechanick, farmer, or clerexercise an uncontrolled sway over the labour of gyman. His annual pay, including rations, amountthe people of the United States. It is a prodigious ed to three hundred and eighteen dollars, previous passion for finery and fashion, that makes poor and to the winter of 1835, when it was increased by act keeps poor very many among us. The rich employ of Congress. the poor in this kind of ostentation, to gratify their In the year 1830, the then Secretary of the Navy love of expense, and to keep up their superiority of issued an order, regulating the costume of several appearance, and those who work for small wages do of the officers, accompanying these orders, were not know that there is any other mode of getting a patterns of the dresses required, of the swords, &c. living. The rich have not been taught any nobler The midshipman's coat, (full dress,) is particularly manner of spending their money, nor the poor that prescribed; it must be an embroidered coat. It is there is any way of getting rid of this kind of deg- made by working a profusion of silk braid upon the radation. There are in every country a given num- sleeves and other parts of it. This coat cost at the ber that want good food, clothes, houses, domestick shop of a fashionable tailor, in New York, in the animals, gardens, and other proper accommodations year 1832, fisty dollars ; the embroidery on it, as a and enjoyments, but they cannot have them unless part of that filiy, fifteen. It was said, at that time, they will work to produce them. At present, in- that the entire full dress cost one hundred dollars. stead of employing our capital in setting people to Here is a boy, then, that cannot be known as the work for what they want, or rather should desire, servant of his country, without an embroidered coat, we employ them in fabricating what they do not which is not worn by the President, or any member want, and should not desire. The evil, in respect of Congress, or any private gentleman in the counto these frivolous occupations, is, that neither rich try. Neither is it worn by any member of the nor poor procure, with their labour or money, the house of Commons, or of the house of Lords, upon best enjoyments in their power, but like children, ordinary occasions. These are declared to be the cover their bodies, and fill their houses, with baw-most simple, well-dressed gentlemen in England. bles, playthings, and trinkets. These playthings, The first lesson taught to this boy is a lesson of probawbles, and trinkels, are not worked for because fusion, to spend what he never earned, and more they possess true beauty, taste, and elegance, or are than he ever spent before, and for no better reason, they even thought to possess them. Elegance and than that this is the warlike fashion ; and still the beauty, always, in due proportion to his ability, are sensible gentlemen of the navy despise this finery, proper objects for the labour of man, rich or poor; and object to for the same reason that a farmer or and one of the great causes of poverty at present, mechanick should. The money that a country pays is, that the poor are not trained to admire, and of its publick officers should be mainly for good work course, not to labour for them. Much of this beau- and noble deeds; these are always entitled to good ty is so cheap, and so easily obtained, that the poor wages. Little do the people know of the immense would find in it a full indemnity, and more than an amount of their money paid by government in follies indemnity for all their imagined deprivations of the of this kind. pleasures of the vain and sensual. But this is not Fashion does not mean a good fashion ; so far our education ; on the contrary, the country is del from it, that it is true, that there are admirable artiuged with gew-gaws ; there is an immense expen- cles, such as particular kinds of clothes, and other

the most frivolous products, in and out of things, of the most excellent and durable workmandoors, upon our dress, furniture, equipage, &c., for ship, that are thrown by, even by those who earn no better reason, than that it is the fashion. iheir daily bread, and never resumed, because the

And what is fashion ? The story is : “: That fashionable part of the publick have abandoned one Calthorp purged John Drakes, the shoemaker of them. Thus, the labourers do not bury their talents Norwich, England, in the time of King Henry the merely, but throw them into the sea ; they roluntacighth, of the proud honour which our people have rily give up a power which feeds them and clothes to be of the gentleman's cut. The knight bought them, which they have gained by their own ingenusome fine cloth and sent it to the tailor's to be made. ity, and hard work, and surrender to vanity and John Drakes, the shoemaker, seeing the cloth, told | pride the charter of their freedom.

diture upon

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Fashion, therefore, does not imply anything solid- do not know what their money is worth, or stands ly useful, substantial, or beautiful, (for good and use for, ought to have a coin of their own, stamped with ful fashions should be adopted of course.) nor that the figures of houses, horses, family utensils, loaves it is better than a former, more fit or graceful, but of bread, &c, to show them that these are the things only, generally, that it has been introduced by some that they are wasting and destroying. Nothing beinsignificant people in London or Paris, and thence littles the mind more than the employment of it uptransplanted into this country by merchants and ira- on mere fashion-perhaps an embroidered coat, or a ders, to turn the heads and einpty the pockets of button on it, or a shoestring, or riband, the height of a the people into their own. Besides, there are thou- hat or cap, or something equally insignificant. One sands, not only in London and Paris, but in our own of the first objects of those who set on foot ostentacountry, whose sole business and trade, is, to get up tious fashions, is to keep themselves as far off as these fashions, to establish them, to set them afloat possible from the common people; for, the moment in the world. It is by thus following the fashion, that these fashions descend to them, the bubble not on account of intemperance, or any other vice, bursts--there is an end of the fashion for ever! not on account of pauper wages, and the necessity, It is this ostentatious tyrant, fashion, that breaks as they think, of turn-outs, that many of our respect- up families, by setting a barrier between the rich able mechanicks and labourers, in the factories and and poorer members of them ; it is this same tyelsewhere, sacrifice their independence for a bawble ; rant, that destroys that sympathy, and intermingling that our upright and otherwise high-minded farmers, of different classes, at once so benevolent and so load their estates with mortgages, and finally reduce necessary in a great republican country; it is this themselves to beggary ; that the very poorest of the tyrant that severs the bonds of love. Let the whole people sacrifice their last shilling in some tawdry nation, therefore, cast of “these hair-devices, aduldecoration of the person or fashionable sensuality, terous trinkets, and monuments of their shame !"-who have not sound shoes, or stockings, or a whole let the labouring people of the United States rise in flannel garment.

their might, and proclaim to the world their regenIn this way the utmost skill and ingenuity of the eration! mechanick and manufacturer, are called forth to keep As I intend hereafter to give some account of the up the folly, to vary the mode, to change the stripes, fashion-trade, I will here make but one statement in to make the thing large or small, round or square, regard to it. black or white, short or long, or in some other form, It has been supposed that in England, at the pres. or of some other colour than it was before, for it ent day, " the quantity of gold and silver in actual matters not what form or colour, only that the thing existence, including utensils, ornaments, jewellery, be changed. Change, change, is the eternal, clam- trinkets, and watches, is three or four times as great orous cry of fashion! Much finery is made in Pa- as the value of those metals which exist in the ris and in other parts of France, principally for our form of money." market alone, in the same way as we buy and make What proportion of this immense amount is conbeads and other trinkets, to send to savage nations. sumed in bawbles, trinkets, useless gilding, and plaThese worthless things first appear among the ex- ting, sham ornaments, &c., it is impossible to say..

,

, travagant people of the cities; the refuse and sweep. It is certainly not intended to include su useful an ings are afterward sent to filch the money of our article as a watch, the wearing of which has, withplain country-people. Their life is short, however, in a few years, been discarded by a certain portion perhaps six months, or a year, in town or country, of fashionable females, and for no better reason than at the end of which time they are discarded; for that the common people now wear watches. nothing is so disgusting to the chameleon eyes of If the rich only purchased these bawbles and trinfashion as old finery—and then it may be seen on kets, the evil would not be so great as it is, though the backs of servants, as presents from silly masters that would be bad enough; for every rich man's and mistresses, who are for ever complaining of bad inoney may be well employed, not only for his own service, and who thus debauch the morals and tastes advantage, but for that of the poor also, and a thouof the people whom they hire, by the use of that sand times as much if he had it. It is impossible which is entirely unsuitable to their condition. An- that so many human beings should consent to be other part of this finery is doled out by hard-heart- employed in ministering to each other's vanity, in ed and dishonest employers, to the very poorest of fabricating trash for their mutual use, did they not the people, in pay for under-price wages ; for none suppose that it must be so—that it is best that it work for ever so little a pittance that some cannot should be so. Yes, they believe this to be true pobe found to work for a less, and thus these misera- litical economy ; and they show some of the greatble people, by their vanity and pride, and running at est te ners to be on their side. Therefore we are the heels of the rich, are kept ground into the very taught to waste, destroy, consume, that the poor dnst. If those who call themselves the working- may find employment. They say, that if the rich people, would "cut” the fashionable world, they did not scatter, the poor would starve ; whereas the would create a new world for themselves ; this fact is, that the more wasteful the rich are, the more would be better than a thousand turn-outs.

poor people they create. They say, also, that if the Of all the ways of spending money, few can be rich did not spend their money like children, they thought of more contemptible than to load the head, would hoard it like misers. The way, then, to salneck, ears, body, fingers, feet, with a mass of finery isfy all men, both rich and poor, that it is not for their and trumpery, created only by immense labour, and comfort and happiness to spend any part of their to be discarded for ever upon the first turn in the money, or labour, which is the same thing, in the fashions : is done by the rich, it is extreme folly- many wicked and stupid ways pointed out in this if by the poor, certain ruin. The silly people who ! article, is to prove to them that there a great many

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way in which a nation spends and falling upon the earth, exhibits itself in the form its money, will generally greatly depend upon what either of snow or hail; that congealing upon the surthey have produced-upon what they have created face of the earth is termed ice. Hail is of the saine by iheir work, and this will decide what occupa- nature as ice : snow is of the same nature as white tions, arts, and trades there shall be. The useful frost. That snow may be formed, it is necessary arts and trades are those by which alone the great that the aqueous particles diffused through the air mass of men can prosper. It is plain, then, that should congeal before they have united into gross the wealth, the comfort, the independence, the re- drops. The causes producing solidification in bod. spectability, of a people will much depend upon the ies, may sometimes so operate, that the masses conamount not only, but the kind of productions that creting shall assume certain regular and systematick their labour creates. The great reformation at pres- figures. These, in chymistry, are termed crystals. ent in the world is, that the people are more useful. In water, crystallization is ascribable only to ably and virtuously employed than they were, for this straction of calorick ; but in other substances it is produces improvement in all things. These virtu- effected also by evaporation. The crystals of snow, ous labours are the foundation of civilization of particularly, are distinguished from all others in our Christian civilization--of the civilization of the another respect; viz. they consist of little, thin, present time; not Roman civilization, where the smooth, and narrow bars of transparent ice, so disrich hired the poor, at their private social parties, to posed that they form planular or flattened hexagonal kill each other in gladiatorial combat, for the enter- stelle, or stars, rather than solid masses of a cuboi. tainment of the company. If, then, there be now dal or pyramidal configuration. These stelle, or an improvement in the labours of the people, in what stars, though of sufficient magnitude for ocular inthey are hired to do, it may be greater siill, if they spection, are, however, of rare occurrence, the floclabour now more to their own advantage than they culi being ordinarily of irregular and unequal fig. once did, they can go on in the same good course. ure. Hence they have been remarked upon by very Let this, then, be a cardinal American maxim, that few. When they do occur, therefore, they should there can never be a limit to the good things which be noted. the heart of the people can conceive and execute ! How snow should take on this beautiful stellated

crystallization, and by what operation the various

modifications of these stars are produced is not yet SNOW CRYSTALS.

ascertained. Dr. Grew, however, has endeavoured WATER, undergoing congelation in the heavens, to clear up this matter by comparing the crystals of

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