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snow with those of other substances. He has not the three following considerations: first. as a mark particularized any modification excepting that where- of politeness; secondly, as it produces love; and, in the radii of the stars are pinnated with collateral thirdly, as it bears analogy to purity of mind. In branches diverging at acute angles. The following eastern climates, it is enforced in both the Jewish are his own words : “ Nitre crystallizes in the and Mohammedan law, as part of their religious obsame slender spiculæ. Salts of hartshorn, sal am- servances. The regulations prescribed in Leviticus moniack, and some other volatile salts, besides their and Deuteronomy are very explicit on this point; main and longer shoots, have other shoots branched and we learn, that Mahomet used to enjoin his folout from them; resembling, as those the main, so lowers to wash the face, neck, hands, and arins, bethese the collateral points of snow. But the icicles fore each prayer. Now, as their prayers are repeatof urine are still more near: for in the salt of harts- ed five times daily, they are bound to perform their horn, although the collateral shoots stand at acute ablutions as often. Besides these, there are others, angles with the main, yet not by pairs at equal adapted to particular states and exigencies, which height; and in sal ammoniack although they stand are eminently conducive to individual comfort and diametrically opposite or at equal height, yet with health. When the pilgrims to Mecca cannot well al at right not acute angles. Whereas in the icicles procure water in the deserts of Arabia, they still of urine they stand at equal height and at acute an- hold in mind the precepts of their Koran, and rub gles both; in both like those of snow. And it is the parts abovementioned with sand. observable that the configuration of feathers is like- The importance of preserving the skin perfectly wise the same: the reason whereof,” he quaintly re- clean, will be better appreciated by a knowledge of marks, "is because fowls having no organs for the the functions of this organ, and its intimate connexevacuation of urine,” (an egregious errour by the ions and relations with other parts. The great exby,) “the urinous parts of the blood are evacuated tent of surface of this membrane, its continuation by the habit or skin, where they produce and nour- with, and general similarity to, that which lines the ish feathers.” From all this reasoning he concludes, air and digestive passages, and its consequent close that the spiritous and aqueous particles of the drops sympathy, and, in a measure, community of office of rain, descending into a colder region of the at- with these latter, must not, for a moment, be lost mosphere, are apprehended in their descent by those sight of. Let a naked arm be put into a long glass of a nitro-urinous, but chiefly urinous nature. The jar, and the space between the iwo at the mouth, so whole mass then congeals into these little starry filled up as to exclude the external air; and we shall .crystals, which are variously modified as they meet soon see the inside of the glass bedewed with a va. with gales of warmer air, or impinge and rub against pour, which becoming denser, is finally converted each other. By these means, says he, some are into drops like water. This vapour is constantly a little thawed, blunted, frosted, clumpered ; others given out or secreted from capillary tubes in the skin broken; but the most hanked and clung in several of a healthy individual, and is then called insensible parcels together, which we call flakes of snow." perspiration : but when abundant, and condensed Dr. Clarke, too, observed the stellar crystallization into a watery-like fluid, it constitutes sweat.

In adof snow, on the 2d of April, 1800, during his trav- dition to this, there is also a discharge or secretion, els in Russia. The thermometer of Celsius stood as it is technically called, of an oily Auid ; and also at 50 below the freezing point, (27° Fahrenheit.) of gases, viz: carbonick acid gas, or fixed air, and The crystals were all precisely alike, viz. of the nitrogen or azote, being that gas, which, in union shape of little wheels, of about the diameter of a pea, with oxygen or vital air, constitutes common atmoeach having six spokes or radii. “This appearance spherical air. But the skin has another set of capilcontinued,” he remarks,“ during three hours, in lary vessels, by which it imbibes or absorbs watery in which time no other snow fell.” He also states and other Auids presented to its surface, and also that the weather was calm ; “the snow falling oxygen and nitrogen gases.

Now the above gases gently upon us as we drove along the streets." and vapour are precisely those which are given out

So also Dr. Grew. “He who wishes to learn and absorbed by the lungs; of course impeded functhe nature of snow, should observe it when it is tions of the one will affect the regular discharge of thin, calm and still.” The same is confirmed by those of the other. Connect this with the facts of Monge, president of the late French Institute, who an external surface, in some of the lower animals, has likewise noticed this beautiful phenomenon. serving both for the sense of touch and for the abDr. Black too, corroborates this fact, and remarks sorption of nutritive matter, in place of stomach; that the weather should also be “very cold.” and of the continuity and general sameness of the

We hence perceive, that the observations of Dr. outer or cutaneous, and the inner or digestive, memGrew, Black, Clarke and Monge, all tend to the branes, and we have, à priori, most ample reasons conclusion, that these crystals are more frequent and why the healthy state of the skin should exert such more regularly formed, when the atmosphere is in a a powerful influence over the organs of breathing state of quiescencema conclusion which might and digestion. have been readily anticipated, when we call to our If personal cleanliness, and preserving the vigour recollection that a state of quiescence is considered of the skin, be neglected, this part loses its delicaessential to the crystallization of all other substances. cy as the seat of touch, and its pores being obstruct

ed, it cannot longer perform its destined offices in POPULAR MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS. the animal economy. Cutaneous eruptions, slug

gishness of the other functions, and general disturbPERSONAL CLEANLINESS.

ance, as in colds, rheumatisms, indigestion, and nuCLEANLINESS, one of what Aristotle calls the merous other ailments, will often be the consequenhalf virtues, is recommended in the Spectator, forces of such peglect. What we mean to say is, that the common atmospherical vicissitudes would often rheumatism, nor colds and coughs, as before. It fail to give rise to colds and rheumatisms, but for also cleans and improves the sight, and contributes the neglect to preserve the skin in its healthy state : much to its duration. The practice ought, of course, nor would various kinds of food, which we accuse to be continued all the year round. The timid are as causes of dyspepsy, prove such, were this pre-recommended to begin in summer. caution duly attended to.

The authoress of "A Vindication of the Rights We cannot, on this occasion, do better than to re- of Woman,” says, “ Were I to name the graces that peat the rules proposed by Hufeland for preserving ought to adorn beauty, I should instantly exclaim, cleanliness and a sound state of the skin ; which, cleanliness, neatness, and personal reserve. So “if observed from youth, may be considered as very necessary, indeed, is that reserve and cleanliness, powerful means for the prolongation of life. which indolent women too often neglect, that I will

“1st. Remove carefully everything that the body venture to affirm, that when two or three women live has secreted, as corrupted or prejudicial. This may in the same house, the one will be most respected be done by changing the linen often, daily if it be by the male part of the family, who reside with possible, and also the bedclothes, or at least the them, leaving love entirely out of the question, who sheets ; by using, instead of a featherbed, a mat- pays this kind of habitual respect to her person.” tress, which attracts less dirt; and by continually Elsewhere she says, “ In order to preserve health renewing the air in apartments, and particularly in and beauty, I should earnestly recommend frequent one's bedchamber.

ablutions, to dignify my advice, that it may not of“2d. Let the whole body be washed daily with fend the fastidious ear; and by example, girls ought cold water, and rub the skin strongly at the same to be taught to wash and dress alone, without any time, by which means it will acquire a great deal of distinction of rank.” life and vigour.

“3d. One ought to bathe once a week, the whole year through in tepid water; and it will be of considerable service to add to it three or four ounces of


Á late writer lays great stress on the beneficial AMONG the advantages attending the diversity of effects of washing with cold water; and details mi-climate, in different parts of the United States, is nutely the process which he deems most advisable. the important one to those of its inhabitants who are He recommends a person on awaking, if determined on the list of invalids, that they can obtain all the or obliged then to get up, to remain three or four good effects of change of air and scene, sea-bathminutes until perfectly collected. The quilt, or ing, and drinking mineral waters, without expatriasome of the outside covering, should next be thrown tion or journeying among strangers, in a strange off, so that he may, for a minute or two, cool grad- land. From the region of firs and oak in Maine, to ually. He should then proceed to wash himself, that of oranges and sugar in Louisiana and the Flor. dressed only to the waist-it being impossible to do idas, with all the intermediate climates and producit otherwise effectually. The following directions tions of the soil, the American citizen finds himself are next given.

under the safeguard of similar institutions; and Dip the face two or three times in a basin of cold among fellow-citizens, with whom he is bound by water. The eyes may

be either open on immersion, the common ties of language, laws, and customs. or, as it may be easier on beginning, while under He may be said, after weeks of travelling, to have the water. After this, water should be squirted | rather changed than abandoned his home-he finds briskly into the eyes with a syringe. On the first at his new place of abode kind friends, perhaps reltrials they may be closed, and opened immediately atives, ready to administer to all his little wants, and after the dash, but they will soon be able to bear the to exclude, by their numerous delicate attentions, shock when open. Water should be squirted against that feeling of loneliness and abandonment which each ear.

You must next, with the hands, and often casts a deadly damp over the sensitive mind using soap, wash well the armpits, the back of the of the invalid who goes to foreign lands in search of neck, behind the ears, the arms up to the shoulder, health. If, moreover, he desire a physician, he can the breast, loins, and entirely round the waist. Af- obtain a full and patient hearing of all his sufferings, ter having well dried with a very coarse cloth, you and receive clear and available different may finish with a fine towel, and then rub with a this from the imperfect communication, perhaps by hard flesh-brush.over the body, wherever you can means of an interpreter, which he would have with conveniently reach, particularly the chest, arms, ab- a foreigner. In every season of the year, we find domen, and small of the back. The arms should these advantages realized by the inhabitants of the then be thrown back very briskly, twenty or thirty various sections of the Union. The southerner times, which will open the chest, and may promote comes on to the

to find cooler breezes and a salutary expectoration. This will altogether oc- protection from the fevers of summer and autumn, cupy, even when well accustomed to it, about twelve or to receive invigoration, after attacks in previous minutes, but it will be time well bestowed.

years—while the inhabitant of the north, a prey to The author asserts confidently, that this practice, rheumatism, or fearing the approach of dire conwhen assisted by cleaning the teeth,' is a certain sumption, flies to the south to enjoy its milder win. preventive of that galling pain, the toothache, and ter, and to breathe a more balmy air. Climate, also a cure for those aff|icted with it. He of course again, changes as we travel weșt; and the Allegany means that variety called rheumatick. It so fortifies ridge has often been discovered to serve as a saluand strengthens the system, that those who have tary barrier against the chilly east wind sweeping long persevered in it, aro not nearly so liable to from the Atlantick ocean : as when a resident of


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the coast has transported himself to the valley of they were at home. The reverse opinion is a corthe Ohio or the Mississippi.

rect one. The motion in travelling is of itself a Unquestionable as are the benefits to one's health stimulus, and hence less stimulating nourishment is obtained by change of clinate and travelling, they then required than in a state of rest. There is are often neutralized by a neglect on the part of the hardly any advice more pernicious than that freinvalid of the common precepts of hygeine. Dis- quently given to those fatigued after a day's journey, appointed hopes and aggravated disease are often, in to drink a glass of wine, or spirits and water, or the such cases, laid to the account of the country which like, to recruit the strength, which can only be suithe visited, when, in fact, the whole ground of com- ably renovated by sleep. Such a practice, of which plaint rested with himself. Many families leave a hearty supper forms part, is of itself competent to home, in the summer season, on a trip, in which the produce indigestion, feverishness, and disturbing pursuits of health and pleasure are often attempted dreams. The meals of an invalid traveller, or into be blended—but in which their anticipations of deed of any person on the road, ought to be of light the enjoyments of either are often sadly marred by nutritive food, in moderate quantities, taken early in an oversight of the respective claims of each. For the morning, or after a ride of eight or ten miles, the guidance of all such travellers, we give the fol- and early in the evening, after the day's journey is lowing rules, which we earnestly commend to their completed; so that some time shall elapse between serious attention.

this last repast, which is both dinner and supper, As regards a single individual, it may be safely and the hour for retiring to bed. In the long days asserted that, if not too feeble, nor suffering from a of summer, a rest of at least two or three hours is local malady, which would render the exercise too required, during which the invalid can take repose, painful, travelling on horseback is to be preferred to by reclining on a couch or settee, or indulging in a any other mode of conveyance.

short sleep. If any aliment be taken at this time, it When a person travels in a carriage, it is desira- ought to be a simple beverage, such as a glass of ble to secure a free introduction of air, without his lemonade, or of buttermilk, or milk and water, with being exposed to a draft or current. It is very ben- a crust of bread or simple biscuit. eficial to change the posture frequently, that is, to In the choice of food, when travelling, it is a good -sometimes sit and sometimes to recline, so as to pre- rule to use the common fare of each country or revent the fatigue and other unpleasant consequences gion, provided it be such as general experience which would follow a jolting or shaking in one di- shows to contribute to the true nutrition and health rection.

of its inhabitants. Food readily obtained, and such If possible, the transition from long seclusion in as cannot be easily adulterated, is to be preferred. a sick room or house, to going a journey, should not Hence it is safest to use milk, eggs, well-baked be abrupt. Moderate exercise should be taken for bread, plain roasted ar boiled meat, and ripe fruit in some days beforehand.

small quantities. This last is still safer when eaten Excursions, the object of which is health and the with bread. As a general rule, the wines on the prolongation of life, must not be too fatiguing. The road are bad, and will often be found to disorder the standard here will, however, depend on the state regular drinker of them. Simple water is, after all, and constitution of the person, and the temperature the beverage best adapted to all classes and descripof the weather. Progression on the road just enough tions of persons. Should this fluid be impure, or to give change of scene, and to induce that degree have an unpleasant odour, as sometimes happens in of fatigue productive of sleep, will be sufficient. particular districts of country, it may be rendered Hence a distance of from twelve to twenty miles a sweet by mixing about a tablespoonful of finely pulday will often sufficemat any rate to begin with. verized charcoal with a pint of water, then stirring One ought, above all things, io avoid travelling in it well round; and after it has stood for a few minthe night-time, which, by interrupting the necessary utes, let it run slowly through filtering paper into a repose, checking perspiration, and exposing the body glass. A limpid and perfectly pure fluid is thus obto unwholesome air, is always prejudicial. By re- tained. The charcoal-powder may be carried on a specting nocturnal rest, one may accomplish twice journey in a small bottle well corked. as much in the day. Even in the case of invalids, Pains ought to be taken to select a bedroom for compelled for want of private carriages to avail the night which has not been recently painted, or themselves of stages and steamboats, this nile can whitewashed or wetscrubbed the same day. It is still be adhered to-since it is in their power to stop especially important to see that the sheets are perat a suitable house in the evening, and prosecute fectly dry. Should there be the least dampness felt, their journey by the next day's conveyance. Noth- they ought to be aired before a fire, or, when practiing can be more absurd, and, in some cases, more cable, a warming-pan passed frequently beiween injurious to health, than the rapidity with which them. Many a fatal cold has been caught by neg. journeys are commonly made: as if the fate of the lecting this advice. An additional precaution will republick depended on a certain traveller arriving at be found in carrying with one a thin fannel shirt, a given place in a certain number of hours; and supposing that such an article of apparel be not hawhen he arrives there he has, perhaps, nothing to bitually worn.

With the same view, some persons do, and wishes himself again upon the road. When take with them what are called “ sleeping-trowsers" the weather is fine, the traveller may, with advan- of linen or cotton, which enable them to dispense tage, walk a mile or two, so as to obviate the stiff with sheets entirely, if there be a suspicion of their ness from setting long in a carriage.

dampness. People, especially valetudinarians must not ima- It is prudent to regulate the day's journey, so that gine, as is so commonly done, that because they are the best publick-house may be reached by sunset, or travelling they can eat and drink more than when I before nightfall at the latest.

Jour. of Health.


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• AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. | so they wound up their traffick by carrying away

their bargains in their stomachs. While this trade

was going on, it happened that a bull, which KarlSETTLEMENT EFFECTED IN VINELAND, BY

sefne had brought along with him, came out of the

wood and bellowed loudly. At this the Skrellings (Continued from page 328.)

became terrified, rushed to their canoes, and rowed

away southward. About this time Gudrida, KarlThese three vessels continued their course un- sefne's wife, gave birth to a son, who received the til they came to a place where a firth penetrated name of SNORRE. In the beginning of the followfar into the country. Off the mouth of it was an ing winter the Skrellings came again in much greatisland, past which there ran strong currents, which er numbers ; they showed symptoms of hostility, was also the case farther up the firth. On the is- setting up loud yells. Karlsefne caused the red land there were an immense number of eider ducks, shield to be borne against them, whereupon they adso that it was scarcely possible to walk without tread- vanced against each other, and a battle commenced. ing on their eggs. They called the island STRAUM- There was a galling discharge of missiles. The EY,(Stream isle,) and the firth STRAUM-FIORDR, Skrellings had a sort of war-slings; they elevated (Stream Firth.) They landed on the shore of this on a pole a tremendously large ball

, almost the size firth, and made preparations for their winter resi- of a sheep's stomach, and of a bluish colour; this dence. The country was extremely beautiful. They they swung from the pole upon land over Karlsefne's confined their operations to exploring the country. people, and it descended with a fearful crash. This Thorhall afterward wished to proceed in a N. direc-struck terrour into the Northmen, and they fled along tion in quest of Vineland. Karlsefne chose rather the river. Freydisa came out, and seeing them flyto go to the S. W. Thorhall, and eight men with ing, she exclaimed: “How can stout men like you him, quitted them, and sailed past Furòustrander fly from these miserable caitiffs, whom I thought and Kialarnes; but they were driven by westerly you could knock down like cattle! If I had only a gales to the coast of Ireland, where, according to weapon, I ween I could fight better than any of you!" the accounts of some traders, they were beaten and They heeded not her words. She tried to keep made slaves. Karlsefne, together with Snorre and pace with them, but the advanced state of her pregBiarne, and the rest of the ships' companies, in all nancy retarded her: she however followed them into 131 (CXXXI) men, sailed southward, and arrived at the woods. There she encountered a dead body : the place where a river falls into the sea from a lake. it was THORBRAND SNORRASON ; a flat stone was Opposite to the mouth of the river were large islands. sticking fast in his head, and his naked sword lay They steered into the lake, and called the place by his side; this she took up, and prepared to deНОР, (1 Hбре.) On the low grounds they found fend herself. She uncovered her bosom, and struck fields of wheat growing wild, and on the rising it with the naked sword. At this sight the Skrelground, vines. While looking about one morning, lings became terrified, and ran off to their canoes. they observed a great number of canoes. As they Karlsefne and the rest now came up to her, and exhibited friendly signals, the canoes approached praised her courage. They were now become

, nearer to them, and the natives looked with astonish- aware that, although the country held out many adment at those they met there. These people were vantages, still the life that they would have to lead sallow, and ill-looking; had ugly heads of hair, large here, would be one of constant alarm from the hoseyes, and broad cheeks. After they had gazed at tile attacks of the natives. They therefore mada) them for a while, they rowed away again to the S. preparations for departure, with the resolution of reW. past the cape. Karlsefne and his company turning to their own country. Sailing eastward, they had erected their dwelling-houses a little above the arrived in Streamfirth. Karlsefne then took one of bay, and there they spent the winter. No snow the ships, and sailed in quest of Thorhall, while the fell, and the cattle found their food in the open field. rest remained behind. They proceeded northward One morning early, in the beginning of 1008, they round Kialarnes, and, after that, were carried to the descried a number of canoes coming from the S. W. northwest. The land lay to the larboard of them ; past


cape. Karlsefne having held up a white there were thick forests in all directions, as far as shield as a friendly signal they drew nigh, and im- they could see, with scarcely any open space. They mediately commenced bartering. These people considered the hills at Hope, and those which they chose in preference red cloth, and gave furs and now saw, as forming part of one continued range. squirrel-skins in exchange. They would fain also They spent the third winter at Streamfirth. Karlhave bought swords and spears, but these Karlsefne sefne's son, Snorre was now three years of age. and Snorre prohibited their people from selling. In When they sailed from Vineland, they had southerly exchange for a skin, entirely gray, the Skrellings wind, and came to Markland where they met with took a piece of cloth of a span in breadth, and bound five Skrellings. They caught two of them, (two boys,) it round their heads. Their barter was carried on whom they carried away with them, and taught in this way for some time. The Northmen found them the Norse language, and baptized them. These that their cloth was beginning to grow scarce, where- children said that their mother was called VETHILLDI, upon they cut it up in smaller pieces, not broader and their father Uvæge; they said that the Skrelthan a finger's breadth; yet the Skrellings gave as lings were ruled by chieftains, (kings,) one of whom much for these smaller pieces as they had formerly was called AVALEDMON, and the other VALDIDIDA ; given for the larger ones, or even more. Karlsefne that there were no houses in the country, but that also caused the women to make and pour out milk the people dwelt in holes and caverns.

Biarne soup, and the Skrellings relishing the taste of it, they Grimolfson was driven into the Irish ocean, and desired to buy it in preference to every thing else'; I came into waters that were so infested with worms,

VOL. V.-48

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that their ship was in consequence reduced to a in fixing the position of the lands and places nanied sinking state. Some of the crew, however, were The nautical facts are of special importance, alsaved in the boat, as it had been smeared with seal- though hitherto they have not been sufficiently atoil tar, which is a preventive against the attack of tended to ; these consist in statements of the course

Karlsefne continued his voyage to Green- steered and the distance sailed in a day. From data land, and arrived at Ericsfiord.

in the Landnama and several other ancient Icelandick geographical works, we may gather, that the

distance of a day's sailing was estimated at twentyVOYAGE OF FREYDISA, HELGE, AND FINNBOGE;

seven to thirty geographical miles, (German or DanTHORFINN SETTLES IN ICELAND.

ish, of which fifteen are equal to a degree : each of During the same summer, 1011, there arrived in these being, accordingly, equal to four English seaGreenland a ship from Norway, commanded by two miles.) From the island of HELLU-LAND, afterbrothers, from Ausfiord in Iceland, Helge and Finn- ward called little Helluland, Biarne sailed to Here BOGE, who passed the following winter in Green- iulfsnes, (Iki-geit,) in Greenland, with strong southland. Freydisa went to them, and proposed a voy- westerly gales, in four days. The distance between age to Vineland, on the condition that they should that cape and Newfoundland is about one hundred share equally with her in all the profits which the and fisty miles, which will correspond, when we take voyage might yield ; to this they assented. Frey- into consideration the strong gales. In modern dedisa and these brothers entered into a mutual agree- scriptions it is stated that this land partly consists of ment that each party should have thirty able-bodied naked rocky flats, where no tree, nor even a shrub, men on board their ship, besides women ; but Frey can grow, and which are therefore usually called disa immediately deviated from the agreement, and Barrens; thus answering completely to the hell-29 took 'with her five additional men, whom she con- of the ancient Northmen, from which they named cealed. In 1012 they arrived at Leifsbooths, where the country. they spent the following winter. The conduct of

MARKLAND was situate to the southwest of Freydisa occasioned a coolness and distance be- Helluland, distant about three days' sail, or from tween the parties ; and by her subile arts she ulti- eighty to ninety miles. Here then we have Nova mately prevailed on her husband to massacre the Scotia, of which the descriptions given by later wribrothers and their followers. After the perpetration ters answer to that given by the ancient Northmen of this base deed, they, in the spring of 1013, return- of Markland ; "the land is low in general;" “ the ed to Greenland, where Thorfinn lay ready to sail coast to the seaward being level and low, and the for Norway, and was waiting for a fair wind; the shores marked with white rocks ;" “ the land is low,

l ship he commanded was so richly laden, that it was

with white sandy cliffs, particularly visible at sea ;) generally admitted, that a more valuable cargo

had says the “ North American Pilot,” by J. W. never left Greenland. As soon as the wind became Norie, and another Arnerican sailor : on the shore favourable he sailed to Norway, where he spent the are some cliffs of exceedingly white sand.” Here following winter, and sold his goods. Next year,"level" corresponds completely to the Icelandick when he was ready to sail for Iceland, there came


," " low to the seaward” to the short expression a German from Bremen, who wanted to buy a piece

ó-se-bratt," and " white sandy cliffs" to the "hvítof wood from him ; he gave for it half a marc of ar sand-ar” of the Northmen. Nova Scotia, New gold; it was the wood of the Mazer tree, from Vine- Brunswick, and Lower Canada, situate more infand. Karlsefne went to Iceland, and in the follow- land, which probably may be considered as all belonging year, 1015, he bought the Glaumbæ estate, in ing to the Markland of the Northmen, are almost Skagefiord, in the northland quarter, where he re- every where covered with iminense forests. sided during the remainder of his life ; his son Snor

VINLAND was situate at the distance of two been born in America, was his succes- days' sail, consequently from fifty-four to sixty miles, sor on this estate. When the latter married, his in a southwestely direction from Markland. The mother made a pilgrimage to Rome, and afterwards distance from Cape Sable to Cape Cod is stated in returned to her son's house at Glaumbce where he nautical works as being W. by S. about seventy had in the meantime ordered a church to be built. leagues, that is, about two hundred miles. Biarne's The mother lived long as a religious recluse.

A description of the coast is very accurate, and in the numerous and illustrious race descended from Karl- island situate to the eastward, (between which and sefne, among whom may be mentioned the learned the promontory that stretches to eastward and northbishop Thorlak Runolfson, born in 1085, of Snorward Leif sailed,) we recognise Nantucket. The re's daughter, Halfrida, to whom we are principally ancient Northmen found there many shallows, indebted for the oldest ecclesiastical Code of Ice-|(grunnsæfui mik-it ;) modern navigators make mens land, published in the year 1123 ; it is also proba- tion at the same place “ of numerous reefs and ble that the accounts of the royages here mentioned other shoals,” and say, " that the whole presents an were originally compiled by him.

aspect of drowned land."

KIALARNES (from kiölt, a keel, and nes, a

cape, most likely so named on account of its stri. A SURVEY OF THE PRECEDING EVIDENCE. king resemblance to the keel of a ship, particularly

of one of the long ships of the ancient Northmen) 1.-GEOGRAPHY AND HYDROGRAPHY,

must consequently be Cape Cod, the Nauses of the It is a fortunate circumstance that these ancient likened to a Horn, and sometimes to a Sickle, or

Indians, which modern geographers have sometimes accounts have preserved not only geographical, but Scythe. The ancient Northmen found here track also nautical, and astronomical facts, that may serve less deserts, (ör-æfi,) and long narrow beaches and

re, who ha


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