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SUSPENSION-BRIDGE.

cables of each opening are firmly secured in masses

of masonry resting near the points of construction. It has been thought by many that one of the A hanging-bridge, upon the construction as above greatest obstacles to the rapid and permanent growth roughly suggested, (with all the necessary details of the city of New York, existed in the fact that carried out,) it is ascertained from experiments there is at present no certain and rapid mode of made, would have a surplus of upward of twelve communication with the adjoining country. To be hundred tons remaining, denoting the strength of sure the different ferries by which the inhabitants the bridge; a weight that beyond probability would of this splendid .city are able in the spring and sum- never be upon the bridge at one point of time. The mer months to enjoy the society of their neighbours, expense of constructing this bridge, would vary from might at first view, seem to render that objection five hundred to eight hundred thousand dollars.” futile ; but when we consider the great expense of ferriage, and the uncertainty of the length of passage in the winter season, when the rivers are frequently obstructed with ice, it will be apparent to

THE HUMAN BODY. every one that if bridges could be thrown over the The ultimate elements of which the human body North and East rivers, they would certainly be a is composed, are azote, or nitrogen, oxygen, and publick benefit, and contribute very much to the hydrogen; (gaseous fluids ;) and carbon, phosphorus, prosperity and comfort of the people.

calcium, sulphur, sodium, potassium, magnesium, We are therefore not a little gratified at being and iron, (solid substances.) These bodies are callable to present our readers in the present number of ed elementary and ultimate, because they cannot be the Family Magazine, with a beautiful plan of a resolved by any known process into more simple suspension-bridge, designed by Mr. Graves, and to substances. be built of iron. We hope in the course of a few These elementary bodies unite with each other years, to have the pleasure of walking over this in different proportions, and thus form compound bridge, which if erected in accordance with the plan substances. A certain proportion of azote uniting offered to the publick, will be highly honourable to with a certain proportion of oxygen, hydrogen, and the country, and to all concerned.

carbon, forms a compound substance possessing cer“ Mr. Graves' plan for an iron hanging-bridge over tain properties. Another proportion of azote uniting the east and west channels of the East river, from with a different proportion of oxygen, hydrogen, and between sixty-fifth and seventy-fifth streets on the carbon, forms another compound substance possesscity of New York side, across the northern part of ing properties different from the former. Oxygen, Blackwell's island to a feasible point on Long island hydrogen, and carbon, uniting in still different proopposite.

portions without any admixture of azote, form a The distance from point to point on a feasible third compound possessing properties different from line of construction may be stated as follows :- either of the preceding. The compounds thus formFrom New York to Blackwell's island, eight hun-ed by the primary combinations of the elementary dred and fifteen feet; across Blackwell's island, six substances with each other are called PROXIMATE hundred and ten feet; and from Blackwell's island PRINCIPLES. to Long island, six hundred and eighty-three feet; Each proximate principle constitutes a distinct making a total distance of two thousand one hun- form of animal matter, of which the most important dred and eight feet. The bridge to have three are named gelatin, albumen, fibrin, oily or fatty matopenings of seven hundred feet each between the ter, mucus, urea, pichromel, osmazome, resin, and points of suspension, with abutments of arched ma- sugar. sonry on either side of the channels, and spanning By chymical analysis it is ascertained that all the Blackwell's island with three connecting arches. proximate principles of the body, however they may Height of road-bed above high water, one hundred differ from each other in appearance and in properand twenty feet; to spring of side arches, ninety ties, are composed of the same ultimate elements.

from road-bed to summit of the suspending Gelatin, for example, consists (in 100 parts) of azo piers, fifty-eight feet; span of smaller arches, one 16,2866, oxygen 27 2006, hydrogen 79016, carbon hundred and fifty feet; centre arch, two hundred 47100 parts. The elementary bodies uniting in and fifty feet, with corresponding spring; each of the above proportions form an animal substance, main piers to be sixty feet wide at high water level, soft, tremulous, solid, soluble in water, especially sloping upward in proportion. The breadth of the when heated, and on cooling, which may be considbridge forty-five feet, with (at each opening) ten ered as its distinctive property, separating from its soribs of twenty pieces each, connected by a cross lution in water into the same solid substance, without grated plate, and cross braces, the whole further undergoing any change in its chymical constitution. secured by two horizontal diagonal cables, connect- Again, albumen consists of azote 15,0007oxygen ed at the centre point of crossing and at the piers ; 231066, hydrogen 70%, carbon 52,00

, 71 The roadway passes through arched openings in the elementary bodies uniting in these different proporsuspension-piers, to have two carriage-tracks with a tions, there results a second proximate principle, an foot-path intervening; suspended from four catena- adhesive Auid, transparent, destitute of smell and rian lines of malleable iron chains or cables, (of taste, miscible in water, but when subjected to a four cables each) by perpendicular lines of iron rods temperature of about 165°, converted into a solid alternating from the four suspension cables, spread- substance no longer capable of being dissolved in ing five feet apart horizontally with each side of the water. This conversion of albumen from a fluid, road-way, framed of iron lattice, left deep and simi- which is its natural state, into a solid, by the applilarly latticed below the road-bed. The suspension-cation of heat, is called coagulation. It is a process

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familiar to every one. The white of an egg is nearly increase in the proportion of its solid matter : hence pure albumen, naturally a glairy and adhesive fluid: the softness and roundness of the body in youth; its by boiling, it is coagulated into a white and firm solid. hard, unequal, and angular surface in advance life;

In like manner, fibrin consists of azote 191300, its progressively increasing fixedness and immobiloxygen 19,68%hydrogen 742b, carbon 53ity in old age, and ultimate inevitable death. parts, forming a solid substance of a pale whitish The fluids are not only more abundant than the colour and firm consistence, the peculiar character solids, but they are also more important, as they of which is its disposition to arrange itself into mi- afford the immediate material of the organization of nute threads or fibres.

the body ; the media by which both its composition On the other hand, fat or oil, which is a fluid sub- and its decomposition are effected. They bear stance of a whitish yellow colour, inodorous, nearly nourishment to every part, and by them are carried insipid, unctuous, insoluble in water and burning out of the system its noxious and useless matters. with rapidity, consists of a larger proportion of hy. In the brain they lay down the soft and delicate cerdrogen, a small proportion of oxygen, and a still ebral substance; in the bone, the hard and compact smaller proportion of carbon, without any admix. osseous matter; and the worn-out particles of both ture of azote.

are removed by their instrumentality. Every part From this account of the composition of the prox- of the body is a laboratory in which complicated imate principles, which it is not necessary to extend and transforming changes go on every instant; the farther, it is manifest that all of them consist of the fluids are the materials on which these changes are same ultimate elements, and that they derive their wrought; chymistry is the agent by which they are different properties from the different proportions in affected, and life is the governing power under which their elements are combined.

whose control they take place. The ultimate elements that compose the body are The fluids, composed principally of water holding never found in a separate or gaseous state, but al- solid matter in solution, or in a state of mechanical ways in combination in the form of one or other of division, either contribute to the formation of the the proximate principles.

blood, or constitute the blood, or are derived from In like manner, the proximate principles never the blood; and after having served some special exist in a distinct and pure state, but each is com- office in a particular part of the system, are returned bined with one or more of the others. No part con- to the blood ; and according to the nature and prosists wholly of pure albumen, gelatin, or mucus, but portion of the substances they contain, are either albumen is mixed with gelatin, or both with mucus. aqueous, albuminous, mucous, gelatinous, fibrinous,

Simple or combined, every proximate principle oleaginous, resinous, or saline. assumes the form either of a fluid or of a solid, and When the analysis of the different kinds of anihence the most general and obvious division of the mal matter that enter into the composition of the body is into fluids and solids. But the terms fluid body has been carried to its ultimate point, i. apand solid are relative, not positive ; they merely ex- pears to be resolvable into two primitive forms : press the fact that some of the substances in the first, a substance capable of coagulation, but posses. body are soft and liquid compared with others which sing no determinate figure and secondly, a substance are fixed and hard ; for there is no fluid, however having a determinate figure and consisting of roundthin, which does not hold in solution some solid ed particles. The coagulable substance is capable matter, and no solid, however dense, which does of existing by itself; the rounded particles are nev. not contain some fluid.

er found alone, but are invariably combined with Fluids and solids are essentially the same in na-coagulated or coagulable matter. Alone or combin. ture ; they differ merely in their mode of aggrega- ed with the rounded particles, the coagulable matter hence the

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and rapid transition from the forms when liquid, the fluids, when coagulated, the one to the other which incessantly takes place in solids. the living body, in which no fluid long remains a When solid, the coagulable substance is disposed fluid, and no solid a solid, but the fluid is constantly in one of two forms, either in that of minute threads passing into the solid, and the solid into the fluid. or fibres, or in that of minute plates or laminæ ;

The relative proportion of the fluids in the human hence every solid of the body is said to be either body is always much greater than that of the solids ; fibrous or laminated. The fibres or laminæ are vahence its soft consistence and rounded form. The riously interwoven and interlaced, so as to form a excess, according to the lowest estimate, is as 6 to net-work or mesh ; and the interspaces between the 1, and according to the highest, as 10 to 1. But fibres or laminæ are commonly denominated areola the proportion is never constant; it varies according or cells.

and to the state of the health. The younger This concrete substance, fibrous or laminated, is the age, the greater the preponderance of the fluids. variously modified either alone or in combination The human embryo, when first perceptible, is al with the rounded particles. These different modmost wholly fluid : solid substances are gradually ifications and combinations constitute different kinds but slowly superadded, and even after birth the pre- of organick substance. When so distinct as obviponderance is strictly according to age ; for in the ously to possess a peculiar structure and peculiar infant, the fluids abound more than in the child ; in properties, each of these modifications is considered the child, more than in the youth ; in the youth, as a separate form of organized matter, and is called more than in the adolescent; in the adolescent, more a PRIMARY TISSUE. than in the adult; and in the adult, more than in the aged. Thus, among the changes that take place in He who refuses to do justice to the defenceless, the physical constitution of the body in the progress will often be found making unreasonable concessions of life, one of the most remarkable is the successive to the powerful.

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THE BLACK AND WHITE SWAN.

the base toward the eyes, all of which are black. A Of the characters by which the Swans are distin- large protuberance, also of a deep black, surmounts guished from the rest of the family to which they the base of the bill ; the iris is brown; and the legs belong, the most remarkable are the extreme length black, with a tinge of red. All the plumage, without of their necks; the oval shape of their nostrils, which exception, in the adult bird, is of the purest white. are placed about the middle of their bill ; the naked- In length the full grown male measures upward of ness of their cheeks; the equal breadth of their bills five feet, and more than eight in the expanse of its throughout ; the great depth of that organ at the base, wings, which reach, when closed, along two thirds where the vertical considerably exceeds the trans- of the tail. Its weight is usually about twenty verse diameter; and the position of their legs behind pounds, but it sometimes attains five and twenty or the centre of gravity. They are by far the largest even thirty; and those which inhabit the southern species of the family; and there are very few birds coast of the Caspian are said to reach a still more that exceed them in magnitude. They live almost enormous size. The female is rather smaller than constantly on the water, preferring the larger streams the male ; her bill is surmounted by a smaller proluand open lakes; and feed chiefly on aquatick plants, berance : and her neck is somewhat more slender. the roots of which they are enabled to reach by When first hatched the young are of a dusky gray, means of their long necks, for they rarely if ever with lead-coloured bill and legs; in the second year plunge the whole of their bodies beneath the surface. their plumage becomes lighter, and their bill and legs They also devour frogs and insects, and occasional- assume a yellowish tinge; in the third year they ly, it is said, even fishes ; but this last assertion is put on the adult plumage and colouring of the naked contradicted by almost every observer who has at- parts. tended particularly to their habits, and seems quite The females choose for their nesting-place the at variance with the fact that the fish-ponds to which least frequented situations on the banks of the rivers they are sometimes confined do not appear to suffer or lakes which they inhabit, and build their nests in the smallest diminution in the number of their inhab- the rudest manner of twigs and reeds, lined with a itants from the presence of these inoffensive birds. comfortable coating of their breast feathers. They We are moreover informed by Mr. Yarrell that he lay six or eight grayish eggs, and sit for five weeks, has never found in the stomachs of any of the nu- generally in April and May. As soon as the young merous individuals dissected by him the least vestige birds are hatched, they are carried by both parents to of such a diet. In their habits they are as peaceable the water, and for two or three weeks asterwards are as they are majestick in form, elegant in attitude, borne upon their backs, or placed for shelter and graceful in their motions, and, in the two species warmth beneath their wings. The attentions of the that are most commonly known to us, unsullied in parent birds are continued until the next pairing seathe purity of their white and glossy plumage. son, when the old males drive the young from their

The distinguishing characteristicks of the tame society, and compel them to shift for themselves. To Swan, are found chiefly in its bill, which is through- prevent the tame ones from flying away, it is necesout of an orange red, with the exception of the edges sary every year to clip their quill-feathers ; and this of the mandibles, the slight hook at the extremity, mutilation seems to deprive them not only of the the nostrils, and the naked spaces extending from power, but also of the desire, to regain their liberty.

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They accustom themselves with ease to the society, which their “ rara avis" would be found in as great of man, and seem even to become attached to him, abundance as the common wild swan upon the lakes probably in consequence of the kindness with which of Europe. Such, however, has been one of the they are everywhere treated, and the peculiar privi- least singular among the many strange and unexpectleges which they enjoy at his hands. Besides their ed results of the discovery of the great southern connatural food, consisting of plants, insects, snails, and tinent of New Holland. Scarcely a traveller who similar productions, they eagerly devour bread and has visited its shores omits to mention this remarkall kinds of grain, and in winter are chiefly kept on able bird. An early notice of its transmission to these substances, and the same kind of provender Europe occurs in a letter from Wilsen to Dr. Martin that is given to ducks and geese.

Lister, printed in the twentieth volume of the PhiloAlthough naturally one of the most gentle and in- sophical Transactions; and Valentyn published in offensive of birds, the large size and great muscular 1726 an account of two living specimens brought to power of the swan, render it a formidable enemy Batavia. Cook, Vancouver, Philip, and White, men when driven to extremity, and compelled to act on ion it incidentally in their voyages ; and Labillar the defensive. In such a case it is said to give bat- dière, in his narrative of the expedition of D’Entretle to the eagle, and frequently even to repel his at- casteaux in search of La Pérouse, has given a more tack, forcing him to seek his safety in flight. It particular description, together with a tolerable figure. never attempts to molest any of the smaller water- Since this period many living individuals have fowl that inhabit its domains ; but in the season of its been brought to England, where they thrive equally amours it will not suffer a rival to approach its place well with the Emeus, the Kanguroos, and other of retreat without a sanguinary struggle, in which Australian animals, insomuch that they can now one or the other is generally destroyed. It is said scarcely be regarded as rarities even in that country. to attain a very great age, thirty yeårs being com- They are precisely similar in form and somewhat monly spoken of as the term of its existence. It is inferiour in size to the wild and tame swans, but are even asserted that in Alkmar, a town in the north of perfectly black in every part of their plumage, with Holland, there died, in the year 1672, a swan belong the exception of the primary and a few of the seconding to the municipality, which bore on its collar the ary quill-feathers, which are white. Their bill is date of 1573, and must consequently have been a of a bright red above, and is surmounted at the base century old ; and several other instances of a similar in the male by a slight protuberance, which is wantnature have been related by authors. We must con- ing in the female. Towards its anteriour part it is fess, however, that we entertain strong doubts of the crossed by a whitish band. The under part of the authenticity of such statements, founded merely on bill is of a grayish white; and the legs and feet are popular tradition and unsupported by any positive of a dull ash-colour. In every other respect, except evidence.

in the mode of convolution of its trachea, this bird So much for the white swan. We must now give corresponds perfectly with its well known congeners. a few remarks in regard to the black swan figured in The black swans are found as well in Van Dieour cut.

men's Land as in New South Wales and on the When the classical writers of antiquity spoke of western coast of New Holland. They are generally the black swan as a proverbial rarity, so improbable seen in flocks of eight or nine together, floating on a as almost to be deemed impossible, little did they lake; and when disturbed, flying off like wild geese imagine that in these latter days a region would be in a direct line one after the other. They are said discovered, nearly equal in extent to the Roman em- to be extremely shy, so as to render it difficult to pire even at the proudest period of its greatness, in l approach within gunshot of them.

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[Hammer-headed Shark.) THE HAMMER-HEADED SHARK.

This fish is very abundant in the Mediterranean, This strange creature resembles the shark in and is at times taken as much as fifteen or eighteen many respects, but differs from it in the odd shape feet in length; it was well known to the ancients, of its head, which, as may be seen by the engra- but they believed it to be a kind of whale. Ai ving, resembles in some degree a hammer. The Marseilles, it is called the jew-fish; in the West orbits of the eyes project a great distance from each Indies it has obtained the name of the slipper-fish. side of the scull.

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