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by Lord Elgin, and now form the principal part of tion, which must be sprinkled occasionally over the the collection which is known by his name at the
Or is the chloride of lime is employed, British museum. In the modern order these sculp- make a mixture of about a pound of the chloride tures are most commonly an alternate bull's scull, with two buckets full of water, and proceed as beand patera. The extreme projections of all these fore. ornaments should be less than that of the triglyph For vaults, cellars, fc. take two ounces of the itself, thus keeping a due subordination between chloride of lime to three or four pints of water, and mere decorations and essential parts. All the Gre- sprinkle from time to time, by means of a wateringcian Dorick columns are fluted, and in both Greek pot. and Roman this is performed without fillets between, The solution should be thrown into the sink of a as in the other orders. The intercolumniations in privy—or into a well, the foul air of which it is dethis order differ from those of the others, on account sirable to neutralize. of the triglyph, the metopes being required to be ex- To preserve the health of workmen employed in actly square.
They are as follow: the coupled common sewers, a pound of the chloride of lime columns of course must stand under adjoining trig- should be dissolved in three buckets full of water lyphs ; this makes their distance, at the foot of the and a bucket full of the solution should be placed shall, twenty-one minutes. The next intercolumni- by the side of the workmen, to be employed by them ation is the monotriglyph, having one between the in washing their hands and arms, and moistening columns ; the distance is three modules. The dia- their nostrils, and for sprinkling on the filth. style-two triglyphs, five modules and a half. The For ships, take a spoonful or more of either chloaræosistile, which has three between, eight modules. ride, add it to a bottle of water, and sprinkle the so(To be continued.).
lution freely in every part of the hold, and over the decks.
For purifying offensive water, mix it with triu
chloride of lime in the proportion of one or two POPULAR MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS.
ounces of the latter, to about sixty-five gallons of
the former. After being thus disinfected, the water DISINFECTING AND PURIFYING AGENTS.
must be exposed to the air, and allowed to settle for The antiseptick, and consequent preservative, some time, when it becomes fit to drink. disinfecting, and purifying properties of the chlo- In domestick economy, the chlorides may
be used rides of soda and of lime, render them highly im- for the preservation in summer, of eggs, meat, game, portant agents in the preservation of health, and ap- poultry, and other articles of aliment; to deprive plicable in various ways to the promotion of publick vegetables which are kept during winter, of the un and domestick comfort. It is principally, however, pleasant odour they frequently acquire, and, danas in the preservation and promotion of publick hy- to disinfect spoiled meat, fish, &c. To powao... geine, that these salts become in the highest degree eggs they are to be put into a solution of one part valuable, by decomposing putrid miasmata of every of the chloride of lime in thirty-two parts of water, kind, and preventing the generation of epidemick their place being occasionally changed. Meat &c., diseases, or arresting their progress when they may be preserved sweet by wrapping it in a cloth, already exist. They are effeciual in destroying the wet with a weak mixture of the chloride of soda poisonous exhalations from privies, sewers, docks, and water. To deprive vegetables and meat of any or ponds left bare at low water; the putrid ma- disagreeable smell or taste they may have acquired terials accidentally admitted, or incautiously allowed they are to be immersed several times in water, conto accumulate in vaults and cellars, store-houses, laining one-fortieth or one-sixtieth part of chloride &c.: for disinfecting hospitals, prisons, market- of soda, and then well washed in pure soft water. houses, gutters—for purifying the air of wells, mines, The manner of disinfecting articles in a state of the rooms where silk-worms are reared, the manu- putridity, is by using a mixture of thirty or forty factories of glue, starch, catgut, &c.; slaughter-parts of water to one of chloride, and enveloping houses, drains, stables, the holds of vessels, amphi- them in pieces of linen or cotton soaked in this sotheatres, churches, theatres, hospitals, infirmaries, lution, or by sprinkling them freely, and at short in the rooms of the sick, &c.; for the preservation of tervals with it. By these means the disgusting dead bodies previous to burial, or for removing the odour and poisonous sxhalations given out by putrid fetor and injurious exhalations from bodies that have matters are pron.priy destroyed, and the danger beer. disinterred for the purpose of judicial investi- which may result from them is entirely removed. gation ; for washing the linen and bedding of the The chlorides of limo and of soda may be pro sick; for destroying the fetid emanations from filthy cured of all our principal apothecaries; the expense clothes, and disinfecting the stores and ware-rooms attendant upon their free use is so trifling as to place where secondhand clothing and rags are kept. them within the reach of almost every individual
The chloride of soda, which is liquid, is rather As a means of removing the sources of disease in more expensive, but more powerful than the chloride cities and villages, these salts demand the attention of lime, which is in the form of a white powder; of those who are constituted by law the guardians and hence the former is applicable to disinfecting of publick health. and purifying operations on a small scale. They
THE SUMMER, OR BOWEL-COMPLAINT OF CHILDREN are both used, mixed with more or less water, according to the intention in view. If a body is to be The chief causes of the summer or bowel-com preserved before burial, add about a pint of the con- plaint of children, to which so many annually fade centrated chloride of soda to a bucket full of water, victims, are heated and impure air, and errours in end cover the body with a sheet dipped in this solu- ! regard to diet ; hence the disease is almost solely
confined to large and crowded cities, and is most decayed fruit, and distilled or fermented liquors prevalent among the children of the poorer classes, must be carefully avoided. who inhabit narrow and confined streets, courts, and When the disease is present, many of the forealleys—who are badly nursed, and have not a suf- going directions are equally important to insure its ficient attention paid to the cleanliness of their per- removal, as they are previously, in order to guard sons and clothing. In the country it is seldom met against its occurrence. The circumstance of their with, excepting in the neighbourhood of marshes, being, in general, so litle attended to, is one cause or of low, wet, and otherwise unhealthy situations. of its very great fatality.
One of the most effectual means of preserving Parents should, in this, as in every other com. children from an attack of this complaint, is, there- plaint of children, be upon their guard against the fore, to remove them from the heated and impure pretensions of empiricism. Let them be assured air of the city, to a healthy situation in the country, that no remedy can be devised capable of curing before the extreme heat of the summer commences. effectually the summer-complaint of children, unless But, unfortunately, this change of situation cannot the latter are removed from the influence of those in every instance be effected; the circumstances of causes by which the disease has been produced : a large portion of the community being such, as ne- when such removal is effected at a proper period, cessarily to confine them, at all seasons, to the spot the lives of their children may in almost every inin which they happen to reside. Even when a re- stance be preserved. moval from the city cannot be accomplished, though the chances of success are lessened, yet still much may be done toward the prevention of the disease. In such cases, the children should occupy, always,
ASTRONOMY the largest and most airy room in the house; if possible, on the second floor. The room should be guarded from exposure to the direct rays of the sun, while a constant and free ventillation is kept up. The utmost cleanliness must also be observed in the room, as well as in the person and clothing of the children.
During the summer months, the daily use of the cold or tepid bath, while it insures the cleanliness of the skin, is a very powerful means of preventing this disease. It should not, therefore, be neglected, provided there is no circumstance connected with the health and constitution of the child to forbid its employment.
In clear weather, and in the cool of the day, children should be frequently carried abroad, in the most open and healthy parts of the neighbourhood; or, when the parents have it in their power, a considerable benefit will be derived from repeated rides
• PHENOMENA OF DAY AND NIGHT. in an open carriage, into the neighbouring country. Sailing for a few hours every day, is likewise an ef- The most familiar of all the astronomical pheficient means of enabling children to enjoy all the nomena is the gradual and regular transitions of day benefits of pure, fresh air; and which, in most of to night. It must be obvious to all that day is proour.large cities, by the numerous steamboats hourly duced by the presence of the sun's light, and night, passing to different situations in their neighbour- by the absence of it. By Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe, hood, is placed within the reach of almost every and other celebrated ancients, it was believed that parent.
the sun, moon, planets, and whole host of stars, The clothing of children should be loose, and of performed an eternal revolution round the earth, for a soft texture ; and carefully accommodated to the the mere purpose of lighting us. Subsequently, state and changes of the weather, so as to preserve however, it has been proved that the same effect is the body of an even and moderate temperature. As produced by the earth itself turning round, and thus already remarked, cleanliness of the clothing as exposing in succession every part of her surface to well as of the skin, is always indispensable to the the genial beams of the sun, the placid light of the health and comfort of children, and should, there- mooy, and the twinkling lustre of the stars. Those fore, be sedulously attended to.
ancient astronomers we have just mentioned, relied, The breast milk of the mother is the proper and for the most part, upon the evidence of their senses; only natural food for an infant; nature does not while in modern times, astronomers have been afford, nor can art supply, any effectual substitute guided by reason. The revolution of the earth, acfor this Auid." To it, therefore, should children be cording to the modern theory, may be exemplified almost entirely confined, if circumstances will al- in the following familiar manner. While a ship is low of it, until the process of teething has made under sail, a person looking out of the cabin winsome progress. After weaning, their diet should dow will perceive the churches, trees, and houses, consist of such simple articles as are nutritive, easy on the coast, moving rapidly in a contrary direction of digestion, and but little stimulating; all spices or to that which his reason tells him he is sailing, seasoning, with the exception of salt, all sorts of though he is not himself sensibly conscious he is
-kes and pastry, butter in every form, unripe and moving. Suppose, again, the ship to be the earth,
and the churches, trees, and houses, the sun, moon,
AFRICA. and stars, and you may then form some idea of the
We observe in a lato number of that valuable earth’s revolving upon her axis, and leaving, the work, the "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal,” tha heavenly bodies in the distance. As the earth is of a native African chief had recently arrived at one o a spheroidal shape, the rays of solar light cannot il- the European settlements, bringing with hiin his luminate but one-half of its surface at one time. wife, as fair a lady as any member of the Cauca The dews of the morning are constantly descending sian family. The chief states that in the interiou upon those portions of the earth toward the east, of Africa is a tribe of whites, who have never ye which are merging into the sun's beams, so that been visited by any traveller. they are gently moistened, and by that means suf
Every day seems to throw new light on that in ficiently prepared to pass under and receive his mid- teresting country. The sixteenth volume of Har. day heat-at iwelve o'clock.. And by the motion of per's Family Library is devoted to discovery and the earth round its axis, this portion of its surface adventure in Africa, and exhibits within a moderate is thus regularly but gently precipitating itself, from compass, whatever is most interesting in the adventhe rays of the noon-day sun, into the darkness of tures and observations of those travellers, who from night.
the earliest ages, and in various directions, have sought to explore that quarter of the globe. We
make a few quotations from this interesting volume. AMERICAN COMMERCE OF 1836. The gross amount in value of imports, within the year, ending on the thirtieth of September, 1836, is 189,980,035 dollars.
The amount of exports is 128,663,040 dollars, making an excess of imports over exports 61,316,995 dollars.
Of these imports 92,056,481 dollars, were of articles free of duty; 38,580,166 dollars, articles paying specifick duties; and 59,243,388 dollars, those paying ad valorem duties. Among the articles free of duty were 2,231,487 dollars, in gold and silver bullion, 11,169,384 dollars, gold and silver coin; teas 9,653,053 dollars, manufactures of silk 20,331,876 dollars, silks and worsted 3,171,023 dollars, linen 8,271,813 dollars, wool, not exceeding eight cents per pound 806,370 dollars.
Of articles paying ad valorem duties are woollen cloths and cassimeres, 8,926,382 dollars, printed and coloured cotton goods 12,192,980 dollars, whii: do. 2,766,787 dollars, silk goods from China 2,821,180 dollars, earthen and stone wares 2,424,514 dollars, indigo 1,513,477 dollars, wool exceeding eight cents per pound 463,756 dollars. Paying specifick duties, molasses 4,077,312 dollars, wine of all kinds 4,332,034 dollars, sugar, brown 11,623,699 dollars,
[Chief Jillemen or Native Musicians, and Gregree Man or white 890,805 dollars, cigars 1,058,857 dollars, bar
Magician.] iron 4,022,042 dollars, books, of all kinds 259,381 “ Jobson earlier, perhaps, than any other Englishlollars, black bottles 254,554 dollars.
man, had an opportunity of observing the manners or the goods exported, 21,746,360 dollars were and superstitions which are peculiar to native Afriof articles of foreign produce, and 106,926,680 dol-ca. He found each prince or chief attended by lars, domestick. Among the former were gold and hands of musical bards, whom he dignifies with the silver bullion 328,645 dollars, đ9. specie 4,493,350 title of “juddies or fiddlers," and compares them to dollars, teas 869,164 dollars, cofine 1,985,176 dol- the Irish rhymesters. These are called, as we learn lars, printed and coloured cottons 1,975,156 dollars, from other authors, Jelle, or Jillemen, and perform white do. 666,871 dollars, sugar, brown 2,425,421 on several instruments rudely formed of wood, madollars, while 378,318 dollars.
king a very loud noise. These minstrels, with the The exports of domestick produce were, of pro-Gregree-men, or magicians, most fantastically atduce of the fisheries 2,666,058 dollars, of the forest tired, often form singular groups, as exhibited in the 5,361,740 dollars, of agriculture, pork 1,383,344 accompanying cut. The two chief festivals were dollars, beef 699,116 dollars, flour 3,572,599 dollars, those of circuncision and of funeral. The former, rice 2,558,750 dollars, tobacco 10,058,640 dollars, performed in a very rough manner, attracted the cotton 71,284,925 dollars, manufactures, soap and whole country; the forest blazed with fires, while candles 478,310 dollars, boots and shoes 133,471 loud musick, shouts, and dancing, resounded throughdollars, household furniture 214,046 dollars, hats out the night. At the funeral of chiefs there was 244,012 dollars, cotton piece goods, printed and col. much crying and lamentation, conducted in a someoured 256,025 dollars, white 1,950,795 dollars, gold what mechanical manner, which reminded him of and silver coin, 346,738 dollars.
the Irish howl. Flowers of the sweetest scens
were buried along with the deceased, and much young females possessed of some beauty, not wholly gold was deposited for his service in the other obscured by the embellishments of coral stuck in world; but there is no mention of those human sac- the nose, and of oil streaming over the face. They rifices which form so foul a blot on some of the most are besides a gay, good-humoured, thoughtless race, civilized African nations. At all festivals a con- with all the African passion for the song and the spicuous part was acted by a personage called dance; which last they practise gracefully, and Horey, which name our author interprets “the with movements somewhat analogous to the GreDevil.” This being took his station in the adjoin- cian. This cheerfulness appears wonderful coning woods, whence he sent forth tremendous sounds, sidering the dreadful calamity with which they are supposed to be of sinister portent to all within hear- threatened every day. Once a year, or oftener, an ing. The only remedy was to deposite, as near to inroad is made by seir fierce neighbours, the Tuathe spot as any one would venture, a large supply ricks, who spare neither age nor sex, and sweep of "belly-timber," the speedy disappearance of away all that comes within their reach. The cow. which authenticated to the villagers both the exist-ardly Tibboos dare not even look them in the face ; ence of this supernatural being, and the fact of his they can only mount to the top of certain steep having been appeased. To Jobson, on the contrary, rocks, with flat summits and perpendicular sides, this very circumstance, combined with the severe near one of which every village is built. They hoarseness with which sundry of the natives were carry up with them every thing that can be removed, afflicted, afforded a clew to the origin of this extra- and this rude defence avails against still ruder asordinary roaring of this he had soon ocular de- sailants. The savage Tuaricks, again, were obmonstration. Happening, in company with a mara- served by Clapperton and Oudney in a journey to bout, to hear the Horey in full cry from a neighbour- the westward from Mourzouk, and were found in ing thicket, he seized' a loaded musket, declaring their private character to be frank, honest, and hosaloud his resolution forthwith to discharge the con- pitable. The females are neither immured nor optents at his infernal majesty. The marabout im- pressed, as is usual among rude and Mohammedan plored him to stop; the tremendous sound was tribes, but meet with notice and respect; indeed. changed into a low and fearful tone; and Jobson, the domestick habits of this nation have much reon running to the spot, found this mighty demon in semblance to the European. They are a completely the shape of a huge negro, extended on the ground wandering race of shepherds and robbers, holding in such agonies of fear, that he was unable even to in contempt all who live in houses and cultivate the ask for mercy.
ground; yet they are, perhaps, the only native Afri cans who have letters and an alphabet, which they inscribe, not on books and parchments indeed, bui on the dark rocks that checker the surface of theis territory, and in places where they have long re sided, every stone is seen covered with their wri. tings."
(Tuarick on his Camel, with Male and Female Tibboo.]
When speaking of Denham and Clapperton's tou through the desert, we find the following:
“In this route the travellers had on one side the Tibboos, on the other the 'Tuaricks, two native tribes, probably of great antiquity, and having no al. [Bornou Horseman, Kanemboo Spearman, and Munga Bow.
man.] liance with the Arab race, now so widely spread over the continent. The Tibboos were on the left, One of the modes in which the natives make war and it was through their villages that the caravan is thus stated :passed. These people live partly on the milk of “The route lay along the banks of the river Yeou, iheir camels, which pick up a scanty subsistence called also Gambarou, through a country naturally on the few verdant spots that rise amid the desert fertile and delightful, but presenting a disinal picture partly by carrying on a small trade between Mov- of the desolation occasioned by African warfare. zouk and Bornou, in which they are so busily em- The expedition passed through upward of thirty ployed, that many do not spend at home more than towns, completely destroyed by the Fellatas in their four months of the year. They are black, though last inroad, and of which all the inhabitants were without the negro features; the men ugly, but the either killed or carried into slavery. These fine
plains were now overgrown with forests and thick- to the camp, when the Mungas, stout and fierce ets, in which grew tamarind and other trees, pro- warriours who never shrunk from an enemy, yieldducing delicate fruits; while large bands of mon- ed to the power of superstition, and felt all their keys, called by Arabs "enchanted men,” filled the strength withered. It seemed to them that their woods with their cries. Here, too, was found Old arrows were blunted, their quivers broken, their Birnie, the ancient but now desolate capital, evident- hearts struck with sickness and fear; in short, that ly much larger than any of the present cities, cover- to oppose a sheik of the Koran who coull accoming five or six miles with its ruins. They passed plish such wonders was alike vain and impious. also Gambarou, formerly the favourite residence of They came in by hundreds, bowing themselves to the sultans, where the remains of a palace and of the ground, and casting sand on their heads in token two mosques, gave an idea of civilization, superiour of the most abject submission. At length, Malem to any thing that had yet beer: seen in Interiour Al- Fanamy himself, the leader of the rebellion, saw rica. There were left in this country only small that resistance was hopeless. After vain overtures detached villages, the inhabitants of which remained of conditional submission, he appeared in person, fixed to them by local attachment, in spite of con- mounted on a white horse, with a thousand followstant predatory inroads by the 'T'uaricks, who carried ers. He was himself in rags, and, having fallen off their friends, their children, and cattle. They prostrate on the ground, was about to pour sand on have recourse to one mode of defence, which con- his head, when the sultan, instead of permitting this sists in digging a number of Vlaquas, or large pits : humiliation, caused eight robes of fine cotton cloth, these they cover with a false surface of sods and one aster another, to be thrown over him, and his grass, into which the Tuarick, with his horse, plun- head to be wrapped in Egyptian turbans till it was ges before he is aware, and is received at the bot-swelled to six times its natural size, and no longer tom upon sharp-pointed stakes, which often kill the resembled any thing human. By such signal honone or the other on the spot. Unluckily, harmless ours the sheik gained the hearts of those whom his travellers are equally liable to fall into these living pen had subdued; and this wise policy enabled graves. Major Denham was petrified with horrour him, not only to overcome the resistance of this forto find how near he had approached to several of midable inve, but to convert them into supporters them ; indeed, one of his servants fell in, and was and bulwarks of his power." saved only by an alinost miraculous spring. It seems wonderful that the sheik should not have endeavoured to restore some kind of security to this portion of his subjects, and to re-people those fine deserted regions.
The troops, which had been seen hastening in parties to the scene of action, were mustered at Kabshary, a town which the Mungas had nearly destroyed. The sheik made a review of his favourite forces, the Kanembou spearmen, nine thousand strong. They were really a very savago and military-looking host, perfectly naked, except a girdle of goatskin, with the hair hanging down, and a piece of cloth wrapped round the head. They car
awa ried large wooden shields, shaped like a Gothick window, with which they warded off the arrows of the enemy, while they pressed forward to attack with their spears. Unlike almost all other barba- [Queen of Lattakoo, Lattakoo Warriour, and two Bosjesman
Hottentots.) rous armies, they kept a regular night-watch, passing the cry every half-hour along the line, and at The Mantatees are one of the most warlike of any alarm raising a united yell, which was truly the free tribes. friglulul. At the review they passed in tribes be- " The name Mantatee, which signified wanderer, fore the sheik, 10. whom they showed the most en- applies, it is said, in no other respect to this desolathusiastick attachinent, kneeling on the ground, and ting horde. They appear to be a Caffre tribe, inkissing his feet. The group on the preceding page, habiting the country near Cape Natal, along the shows the three noted military characters--the lower course of the river Mapoota. 'They were imBornou horseman, the Kanemboo spearman, and pelled to this inroad, in consequence of having been the Munga howman. The Mungas, again, were de- driven from their own possessions by the Zoolus, a scribed as terrible antagonists, hardened by conflict still more fierce and warlike race, who, on that ocwith the Tuaricks, fighting on foot with poisoned casion, were led to victory by their king, Chaka, arrows, longer and more deadly than those of the who can arm a hundred thousand fighting-men, and Fellatas. "The sultan, however, contemplated other has fifteen thousand constantly ready for war. A means of securing success, placing his inain reli- small English settlement has been formed on his ance on his powers as a Mohammedan doctor and maritime border
, which is encouraged by that pow. writer. Three successive nights were spent in in- erful chief with a view to commercial advantages, scribing upon little scraps of paper figures or words, but of course much precaution is required in dealing destined to exercise a magical influence upon the with a potentate who commands so many savage rebel host; and their effect was heightened by the bows and spears. display of sky-rockets, supplied by Major Denham. The Mantatoes, after their defeat, separated into Tidings of his being thus employed were conveyed several detachments, one of which seided among