Page images
PDF
EPUB

man was stripped, and every hat put in motion They that the unhealthy appearance of the poor, who hapseveral times sat down on their hams, but at each pen to have large families, crowded into small and time several of the poor creatures fell, and were in- ill-contrived chambers, and more especially the sickly stantly suffocated or trodden to death.

state of their children, in part originate in its agency. “Before nine o'clock every man's thirst grew in- The means of preventing or remedying the evils tolerable, and respiration difficult. Efforts were to which I have alluded, must naturally present themagain made to force the door, but still in vain. Many selves, on the consideration of the causes giving rise insults were used to provoke the guards to fire upon to them; and you will, perhaps, say that I might as the prisoners, who grew outrageous, and many of well spare you the trouble of listening to a redation them deliriouş. “Water, water,!' became the gen- of deficiencies produced by the severe and resistless eral cry. Some water was brought, but these sup- force of poverty, rather than proceeding from ignoplies, like sprinkling water on fire, only served to rance or negligence. Personal observation, howraise and feed the flames. The confusion became ever, has convinced me that, in this, as in many general and horrid from the cries and ravings for other instances, evils are allowed to pass unheeded, water, and some were trampled to death. This or are tamely submitted to, not because they are conscene of misery proved entertainment to the brutal cealed, or trifling, but, on the contrary, because their wretches without, who supplied them with water that general and frequent occurrence, has rendered them they might have the satisfaction of seeing them fight familiar. Thus a room is sometimes rendered insuffor it, and held up lights to the bars that they might lose ferably close, in consequence of a window, which no part of the inhuman diversion.

ought to let in air as well as light, not being so con“Before eleven o'clock most of the gentlemen structed as to allow of its being opened, although the were dead, and one third of the whole. "Thirst grew occupier, with a little pains and ingenuity, might intolerable ; but Mr. Holwell kept his mouth moist make it do so, by giving a small portion of time to it, by sucking the perspiration out of his shirt-sleeves, before or after work, supposing that he may not have and catching the drops as they fell like heavy rain the means to get it done by another. Sometimes a from his head and face. By half an hour after eleven window, which might be opened, is kept close to most of the living were in an outrageous delirium. avoid the draught, although a little management might They found that water heightened their uneasiness, protect the inmates from this inconvenience. Someand ' Air, air !' was the general cry. Every insult times a chimney, which is scarcely less useful as a that could be devised against the guard ; all the op- ventilator, than as a part of the fire-place, is either probrious names that ihe viceroy and his officers blocked up or wholly wanting. These are defects, could be loaded with, were repeated to provoke the for which the greatest poverty can hardly be urged guard to fire upon them. Every man had eager hopes in defence, and those who let apartments to the poor, of meeting the first shot. Then a general prayer and more especially those who contrive or construct to heaven to hasten the approach of the flames to the dwellings for their reception, should be careful to right and left of them, and put a period to their misery. observe and avoid them. Some expired on other3 ; while a steam arose, as well from the living as the dead, which was very offensive. “ About two o'clock in the morning they crowded

POETRY. so much to the windows, that many died standing, unable to fall by the throng and equal pressure round.

THE SEA CAPTAIN-BRAINARD. Vhen the day broke, the stench arising from the dead SOLEMN he paced upon that schooner's deck, lies was insufferable.

And muttered of his hardships :-"I have been

Where the wild will of Mississippi's tide At that juncture, the soubah, who had received

Has dashed me on the sawyer; I have sailed, in account of the havock death had made among In the thick night, along the wave-washed edge

Of icc in acres, by the pitiless coast them, sent one of his officers to inquire if the chief

Or Labrador; and I have scraped my keel survived, Mr. Holwell was shown to him ; and it O’er coral rocks in Madagascar seas: was near six when an order came for their release.

And often, in my cold and midnight watch,

Have heard the warning voice of the lee shore “ Thus they had remained in this infernal prison Speaking in breakers ! Ay, and I have seen from eight at night until six in the morning, when the The whale and sword-fish fight beneath my bows poor remains of one hundred and forty-six souls, being

And, when ey made the deep boil like a pot,

Have swung into its vortex; and I know only twenty-three, came out alive, but most of them To cord my vessel with a sailor's skill,

And brave such dangers with a sailor's heart :in a high putrid fever.”

But never yet, upon the stormy wave, In large assemblies, collected in disproportionatel; Or where the river mixes with the main, small or ill-contrived rooms, a slighter degree of the Or in the chafing anchorage of the bay, same inconvenience is felt, and the accumulation of

In all my rough experience of harm,

Met a Methodist meeting-house !* heat adds to the evil. The lights if there be any present, burn dimly--the robust are oppressed, and those

Cat-head, or beam, or davit has it none

Starboard nor larboard, gunwale, stem nor stern! less able to bear the altered state of the air, faint.

It comes in such a “questionable shape," From the extent to which the air of an apartment I cannot even speak it. Upjib, Josey, may be changed, through very small crevices, it seldom

And make for Bridgeport ! There, where Stratford Point,

Long Beach, Fairweather Island and the buoy, happens that the diminution of oxygen, or the excess Are safe from such encounters, we'll protest ! of carbonic acid, produced by the respiration of human

And Yankee legends long shall tell the tale,

That once a Charleston schooner was beset, beings, is sufficient to lead to any very serious con

Riding at anchor, by a meeting-house ! tamination of the air. Less degrees of it escape attention, yet the constant, Fame, from Charleston, via. New London. While at anchor in that har

• The Bridgeport paper of March, 1823, said: "Arrived, schooner or frequently-repeated application of the cause, can- buur, during the rain storm or Thursday evening last, the Fame was

run foul of by the wreck of the Methodist meeting. honse from Norwich, not fail to produce injurious effects. Nor can I doubt

| which was carried away in the late freshet.”

CONCHOLOGY.

productions; and, unlike every other branch, they (Continued.)

possess this immense superiority, that with a very

moderate degree of care, they may be preserved comShells are abundantly distributed over every part paratively uninjured for centuries, losing nothing of of the globe, from the polar regions to the torrid and their substance, and but little of their colour. inter-tropical zones, increasing in number, size and It being demonstrable that shells are formed on colour, as they recede from the one and approximate the model or naked body of the animal constructthe other, a fact equally to be observed in the other ing them, every portion or inequality of surface theso works of creation. Heat and light, as we shall here- bodies present must necessarily cause either depresafter explain, possess such a prodigious influence on sions or protuberances on the exteriour of their shells these productions, that the most beautiful, whether corresponding with them ; whereas, in the simple marine or terrestrial, are those inhabiting tropical snail, these do not exist, or in other shells which have climates. It may be said that no part of the world only little elevated knobs, or regular grooves, bands, is divested of shells, either terrestrial marine, or &c., we easily may conceive how the surface of the fluviatile, and the number of their species is always shell corresponds with the exteriour of the animal's proportioned to the extent of their peculiar location body; and when we examine shells constructed like or habitat ; we may also ascertain that nearly all the the Scalaria pretiosa (Wentletrap), or the Harpa families exist in the different zones of the globe, (Harp), and others of a similar character, we observe though the genera and species of some are far more the covering of an animal whose periodical increase numerous in one zone than in the other. To attempt is distinctly marked by the lip or termination of each a detailed account of the geographical localities of addition to its original size. 'This forms what may, the different genera, would not only be extremely for the sake of description, be termed ribs, when difficult, if not totally impracticable, but would occupy placed longitudinally from the apex to the base, as in a larger space than can conveniently be allotted to the Harpa, or rings, as in the Scalaria ; and here we the subject in a work like the present one.

only want the opportunity of ascertaining the time We will, nevertheless, point out a few leading occupied in constructing each of these additional porfacts with regard to the habitat of shells, which will tions, to determine the age of the shell. This remark serve as a general illustration of the localities of their also applies both to bivalve and univalve shells. But congeners. In the high northern latitudes shells are when we examine a shell set with spines, or foliated not numerous, and the species most usually found processes, we for a moment hesitate to believe that are of the genera Terebratula, Mya, Pandora, and such was formed in the animal's body; and here some of the Solens; they are not, however, equally the exercise of common sense is necessary to explain, abundant in all the northern seas. The Ostrea, in the absence of the animal, that which appears in Aviculo, Orbiculo, Crania, Terebratula, Haliotis, consistent with the theory laid down ; our reasoning Pecten, Patella, Arca, Lima, Mactra, Pholas, Balanus, faculties are called into action, and we observe, that Cardium, Teredo, and Helix, are everywhere found in in the early stage of growth, many species of shells greater or smaller numbers, as the degree of latitude differ widely from their mature formation, many varies ; the Clavagella, Aspergillum, and Fistulana, instances of which may be named in the genera appear confined to the equatorial zones; the Vulsella, Strombus, Pteroceras, Ranella, Cypræa, &c., not to Pernu, Chama, Crenatula, Trigonia, and some of the mention numerous bivalve shells whosa valves are Cardia, inhabit the southern zones; the Harpa, variously provided with spines arched scales, &c. Terebra, Cassis, Pleuroloma, Mactra, Strombus, When such are met with, it is obvious that their Conus, Oliva, Ovula, Cypræa, &c., principally in- formation has been caused by the necessity the anihabit the inter-tropical regions ; the Tridacna has not mal feels of having certain corresponding organs yet been met with anywhere than in the Indian protected, either wholly or partially. In the first archipelago : the Argonauta, Nautilus, and Spirula, period of growth, these organs, not having reached mostly dwell in the torrid zone. With respect to the full term of their development, the shelly matter terrestrial species of shells, it may be observed gen- extended no further than was required, for nature, erally, that they are more numerous—higher coloured, in her operations, never squanders the materials she and of a larger growth, in the southern and eastern employs to carry them into effect; she always adopts regions, than in the northern and inter-tropical. the shortest way of going to work, having no ulteriour Our Helix nemoralis, field snail, is, however, a re-object to guide her course than necessity; but that markable exception, as its colours vie with those of hard taskmaster never drives her from an uniform its congeners in any other country, and in point of progress. Combined with the strictest economy size, some species of European Helix exceed those both of time and matter, everything in creation hastens of the warmer latitudes; the Testacella may be said on, by regular stages, to its utmost state of perfection to live almost underground; and hot springs, and the or maturity—there stops-ever after sinking into bituminous wat rs of the Dead Sea, are not without gradual decay. The purposes of its animal existence testaceous inbitants. Extremely interesting con- daily become more feeble, till they are altogether clusions will, svi ner or later, be drawn as the science extinguished by death. Thus, in the genera we have of malacology becomes better understood ; respect- just named, the claws, spiny processes, or terminal ing the diminution of species, the limits of their varia- bands, could not have been formed from a calcareous tions, and to what extent the individuals are modified deposit on the body of the animal, properly so called; by local circumstances in the places they inhabit. but we can easily account for their formation, parMany shells are of a very large size, while others ticularly if we have the advantage of examining are invisible to the eye. In the formation and the young and the adult shell at the same time. In arrangement of collections of shells, merely as objects the Pteroceras, for example, the young shell inof natural beauty, they cede to no portion of nature's stead of the elongated points, has open, waved pro

rare.

longations, which, as the organs they then covered the slit on the upper side, as in the Purpura and increase in length, become lengthened, and finally Venus Dione, (Linnæus) appear on the contrary, ti closed altogether, as the animal, after attaining its have been produced by the concavity of an appendage maturity, finds it no longer necessary to go on build- to the mantle, which projected on the outside. ing, bui then retreats into its dwelling, and the very Nothing certain appears known of the age of organs most serviceable to complete it not being any shells, though we have just remarked that certain longer in constant action cease to grow, and, on the stages of growth are marked by signs of the shell contrary, diminish in size, and very frequently dis- being then finished; their growth probably in many appear altogether. In other genera, the Murex, &c., species, under favourable circumstances of climate we see regularly-formed sets of spines, or foliations, and food, continues for a definite period; with at given intervals, round the spiral form of the shell. regard to the animal, whose increase of bulk requires Each of these, it is quite clear, formed previous ter- increased accommodation in its shell, as would minations, and became successively closed as the appear particularly in the genera we have already increased size of the animal required more room. named, and in all the other genera whose varices,

These additions go on with the greatest regularity, whether spinous or foliaceous, seem placed at stated and correspond accurately in all the species, with intervals, some being found at the half turn of the the exception of some few, which may be considered whole circumference of the shell, others at a quarter, sports of nature, and not generic distinctions. By some one third, and some perpendicular, to the base; counting these periodical additions, we come to the others at the sides of the shell, giving it a flattened same conclusion regarding their age as with the or ventricose appearance, according to the position Wentletrap. We can indeed say that such a shell is of these previous terminations, which, it must be not an adult one, by counting the number of varices again observed, are formed of the vitreous, and not but it has not yet been determined what period of lamellar substance. In bivalve shells, also, the period time is necessary to complete the standard measure. of growth may be traced by their striæ, and they Helices, and their congeners, never form a thickened seem also to have a limited extent of increase, as, lip until their full growth is attained. Double-lipped generally speaking, the various genera attain a toleshells have been described, but they are extremely rably uniform size. Their age is, however, more

We shall point out the mode adopted by nature strongly marked by the thickness of the valves, and in forming the snail shell, in which it will be seen, the internal muscular impressions, than any other as before stated, that it is formed on the animal's body. guide. The valves of shells having a continual It is equally certain, though not so easily proved by tendency to fly open, in consequence of the elastic observation, that those shells which have claws, as ligament situated at the side of the hinge, which they are termed, such as the Pteroceras present, or operates as a muscle, it was necessary that the foliations or spines, as the Murices exhibit, must de- animal inclosed should have the power of closing pend wholly on the form of the skin of the mantle them at pleasure. There are, therefore, according to and its age, by means of which these were formed, the different genera, always one or two muscles fitted its lobes, prolongations of portions of the mantle, the for this purpose. In the oyster there is only one organs of respiration, the head, oviduct, &c.; each muscle of this kind, situated near the centre of the producing, by their habitual uses, the spines, claws, shell, behind the liver, and in the middle of the cloak. canals, arid other parts of the external covering of It is inserted into both valves, and by its contraction the animal. If the edges of the mantle of the animal brings them together with an astonishing force, equal are even, the termination of the shell is the same ; to the pressure of many hundred pounds weight. if waved, so is the external edge. Where digitations The same mechanism prevails in the Perna, Avicula, of the mantle exist, they are equally protected, and and Spondylus. In young shells these muscles leave become as we have stated, claws of spines ; tubular a fainter impression than in old ones, in which the in their early growth, but rendered solid by repeated increased substance of the valves render them deeper. deposits of testaceous matter, exuding from the man- They are, as it were, always advancing more towards tle in certain proportions, till the period of its full the edge of the valves, not that these muscles are maturity. The animal then declines; its dwelling ever displaced entirely, but new portions of them are is sufficient for the protection of its body; the wants formed as the animal finds it necessary to occupy a of its life in seeking food, or in moving from one spot convenient position in its dwelling; the posterior to another, during the completion of its growth, parts of the muscle become inactive, and die away, require an extension of those parts, at first but whilst others replace them on the anterior part, and slightly defined, and they are not in the full exercise so on during the life of the animal. These muscular of their adult functions; but these extended organs impressions also afford an excellent guide to the in youth are much greater in proportion, and fre- genus of animal to which the shell belongs, where no quently more numerous, than they are in the stage other opportunity presents itself of judging. The of decrepitude, when they begin to disappear, and the difference which exists in the size of shells of the activity of their offices gradually decline, being no same species, particularly in such s have not the longer required to complete most of their destined strongly marked lip, or other fina ermination, is operations. As a general deduction, we repeat, it very remarkable. It does not appear easily accounted appears quite certain that the spines, tubercles, and for, but a similar anomaly exists in every branch of claws of shells, however solid they may be met with, natural history; and it may therefore be attributed have all of them, at first, been channelled or grooved, chiefly to the strength and constitution of the anito defend certain exposed organs in those which have mal, being always proportioned to the favourable the canal or slit on the under side, and they are by or unfavourable situation of its habitat, and the far the most numerous, having been produced by the goodness of its nourishment in peculiar situations. digitations of the mantle ; while those which have Another extraordinary occurrence is, the elongation

[ocr errors]

of the spires of some univalve shells, in which the only to the booksellers and printers, but even the
whorls do not touch each other, but appear drawn manufacturers of paper and ink, are regarded with
out like a coiled spring. The Scalaria and Helix more respect than other artisans.
are those in which that lussus has been observed, This state of things, however, is not without its
though it is very rare ; but the greatest monstrosity disadvantages: the bookseller in China, is more
of all, the most inexplicable freak of nature, is dis- hampered with restrictions, than in other countries;
played in such shells as are sinister or heterostrophe, for the printer can not put a book to press, unless it
that is, having their whorls turned to the left instead has previously been approved, by the imperial cen-
of the right. This can only be accounted for by the sors : and even after it has been printed, if a manda-
viscera of the animal presenting a change in their rin find the book to be a bad one, the edition can be
position, which of course is followed in the formation confiscated, and the printer and editor bastinadoed.
of the shell, this is to be understood, but the former Typography was well known in China, before its
baffles inquiry. Such a phenomenon might therefore discovery in Europe, but it has made little progress.
occur in every species of mollusc, and does so in The manner in which impressions are taken, is very
numerous instances-

; but some of the genera, parti- simple, and resembles engraving. The manuscripts cularly of terrestrial shells, are more commonly left-are copied in raised characters on blocks of wood : handed than on the contrary. These, however, do the block is then coated with a layer of what is termnot, in the opinion of the author of this article, con- ed Chinese ink, and a sheet of paper is pressed gen stitute anything beyond a variety or sport of nature, tly against the prominent characters. As this paper, though constantly occurring in some genera. however, is made of the inner bark of bamboo, of (To be continued.)

cotton-wood, or of the mulberry tree, an impression can only be taken on one side. Upon each sheet are two pages of characters, and the sheet is then

solded so that the blank sides are together. CHINESE BOOKSELLER.

The Chinese binder, unlike those in our own The almost infinite number of characters in the country, attaches the loose edges of the sheet to the Chinese language (of which there are 80,000) ren- back of the book. In these books the lines are not ders the study of their literature, extremely difficult: written horizontally from left to right as in our books, hence literary acquirements in that country, are con- nor from right to left as in Hebrew works, but persidered as indicating great intellectual capacity, and pendicularly from above downward, commencing on all those devoted to belles-lettres, are regarded with the right. The books are generally covered with a marked respect. This esteem is extended to those sheet of coloured paper, sometimes, however, they who are in any manner connected with literature, not are bound in silk, embroidered with silver or gold.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

The Chinese bookseller, as represented in our which is then covered with a stratum of dry and clean engraving, has no store, but carries his books about sand, and a rake is applied to smooth it regularly all with him.

over the surface. When this is done the box is The Chinese do not write with pens, but with sa- brought close up to the copper. It must be observed ble pencils. Their escritoire is made of a piece of that these boxes are so made as to contain as much polished marble, in the ends of which are holes for of the melted lead as will cast the whole of the sheet the cakes of ink, and for water : the cake of ink is at the same time, and the slit in the bottom is adjusted moistened and rubbed against the marble until it be- so as to let as much, and no more, out, during its comes liquid and fit for use. The brush, ink, paper, progress along the table, as will be sufficient to cover and marble are designated by a simple word which it completely of the thickness and weight per foot signifies the four precious things.

required. When the box has dispersed its contents upon the table, it is suffered to cool and solidify, when it is rolled up and removed away and other sheets

are made till all the melted metal in the copper is USEFUL ARTS.

cast up, and it is emptied. The sheets so formed

are rolled up and weighed, as it is by weight the PLUMBERY.

publick are charged for sheet-lead. PLUMBERY is the business of an artisan who is The other kind of sheet-lead made use of by chiefly engaged in the manufacture and useful em- plumbers, called, in the trade, milled lead, is not manployment of lead, a metal of the greatest importance ufactured at home. This they purchase of the lead in the domestick arts.

merchant, as it is cast and prepared commonly at the The plumbers use lead in sheets, and of these ore and roasting furnaces. Such kind of lead is very they have two kinds, one of which they call cast thin, and commonly there is not more than four pounds and the other milled lead. The cast lead is used for of metal to the foot superficial. It is used by archithe purpose of covering the flat roofs of terraces of tects only for the covering of the hips and ridges of buildings, forming gutters, lining reservoirs, &c. roofs of buildings. It is by no means adapted to gutIn architecture it is technically divided into 5, 51, ters or terraces, or, in fact, to any part of a building 6, 61, 7,71, 8, and 81 lbs. cast lead, by which is much exposed either to great wear and tear or the understood that every foot superficial of such cast effects of the sun, as it expands and cracks by the lead is to contain these several weights of metal in latter, and is soon worn away by the former exposure. each respectively; so that an architect, when direct. It is laminated in sheets about the same size as has ing a plumber to cover or line a place with cast been described for cast sheet-lead ; and, in the presheet-lead, tells the workman that it is to be doneparatory operations, a laminating-roller is used, or a with 6 or 71b, lead;” meaning by it that he expects Hatting-mill

, which reduces it to the state in which it each foot superficial of the metal to be equal in is seen in commerce. weight to six, seven, or other number of pounds. The greatest proportion of the leaden pipes used The plumbers sometimes attempt deception in this in water-works was formerly made of sheet-lead arrangement, and particularly in work agreed for by wrapped round an iron or wooden core, and the joint contract, by putting down a lighter metal than the soldered up. The expense and trouble of this one they have engaged to do.

method was considerable, and the pipes thus made Every plumber who conducts business to any were extremely liable to burst at the joint, particuextent casts his sheet-lead at home; this he does larly if bent with a sudden angle. These defects from the pigs, or from old metal which he may have suggested the idea of casting the lead in the form of taken in exchange. The ready fusibility of lead en- pipes, by which means the trouble of previously ables the plumber at once to convert it into sheets. casting and laminating the lead into sheets would In order to this, he provides a metallick vessel, well be spared, and also the uncertainty of the soldered fixed in masonry, and placed at one end of his joints. Such pipes are cast in an iron mould, made casting-shop, and near to the mould or casting-table. in two halves, forming, when put together, a hollow The casting-table is, generally, in its form, a parallel- cylinder, of the size of the intended pipe. A core, ogram, varying from six feet in width and from eigh- or iron rod, the size of the bore of the pipe, is teen or more feet in length. It is raised from the adapted to this hollow mould, when the halves are ground as high as to be about six or seven inches put together, and secured by screws or wedges, so below the top of the copper which contains the metal, that it exactly occupies the centre of the hollow and stands on strongly-framed legs, so as to be very mould, leaving therefore an equal space all round steady and firm. The top of the table is lined with deal between them. A spout, or entry, for the admission boarding laid very even and firm, and it has a rim of the melted lead, is made by a corresponding notch projecting upwards four or five inches all round it. cut in each half of the mould, and at another place At the end of the table, nearest to the vessel in which is a similar vent for the escape of the air. This is the heated lead, is adapted a box equal in length to mould is fixed down upon a long bench; and a rack, the width of the table. At the bottom of this is made moved by toothed wheels and pinions, is fitted up at a long horizontal slit, from which the heated metal is one end of it, in a line with the centre of the mould, to issue when it is to be cast into sheets. This box A hook at the end of the rack, being put into an eye moves upon rollers along the edges of the projecting at the end of the core of the mould, affords the rim of the table, and is set in motion by ropes and means of drawing out the core, when the pipe is cast pulleys fixed to beams over the table. As soon as the round it by pouring the melted lead into the mould, metal is found to be adequately heated, every thing with the core in it, when the lead is cold, the core is got ready to cast it on the table, the bottom of l is drawn out very nearly to the end of the pipe, by

« PreviousContinue »