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which may be of as eminent use in experimental have their name. These feem not to breed with philosophy, as the magnetic compass is in naviga. us; but appear in our rivers only at certain fea101. The natural and spontaneous direction of fons, when there have been very violent N. winds. metallic emanations towards the W. being ascer- This fish is feldom found fingle'; so that the fishtained, it only remains to render them palpable, ermen rejoice at the taking one of thein, expectby the construction of an instrument, which may ing a large shoal of them near. be substituted in the place of the electrometrical BLEW-HOUSE, a village in Middlesex, W. of twig, that goes vulgarly by the name of the divi. Endfield-Chase. sieg rod. His analysis of the hot springs of Bour- BLEYDON, a village in Somersetshire, near bon-Lancy, to the fource of which, in the great Up-hill. mountains of Burgundy, he was led by the electri. (1.) * BLEYME. n. f. An inflammation in the cal sensations of Bleton, shows the great intelli- foot of a horse, between the sole and the bene. gence and fagacity of M. Thouvenel in operations Forrier's Dia. of this nature. He found the origin of thefe fa- (2.) BLEYMES are of 3 forts; the first, bred in mous hot springs in the centre of an oblong rising spoiled wrinkled feet with narrow heels, are usuground, fuli of coal, and commanded on 3 fides ally feated in the inward or weakest quarter; the by a group of mountains, of which the greatest 2d'infects the gristle, and must be extirpated, as part was filled with the same mineral. From a in the cure of a quitter-bone : the 3d is occafionparticular case, in which the electrical rays of the ed by small stones and gravel between the firoe fubterraneous water and those of the adjacent coal and the fole.--For a cure, pare the foot, let out crossed each other, he deduces a very natural ac- the matter, if any, and dress the fore, like the count of the errors which may sometimes, though prick of a nail. rarely, mislead for a time the greatest adepts in BLIBOROUGH, a town in Lincolnshire, S. of Bletonism, when they find themielves in combined Kirton. ipheres of electrical activity. Another observation, BLICCA, in ichthyology, a species of cyprinus. which seems confirmed by several facts, accounts See BALLERUS, No 2, and CYPRINUS. farther for this fallibility: the observation is, that BLICEA, in ichthyology, 1. the name of a small eletrical rays, whether direct or collateral, issuing fish of the harengiform kind, caught in the Cierfrom fubterranean focuses, seem to undergo, in man and other feas, and suppofed by many to be certain cases, a fort of refraction as they pass from the fame with our sprat. 2. It is also the name of 02 nedian to another, or traverse bodies which a freth-water fifh of the malacostomous, or leatherdiffer with respect to the property of transmitting mouthed kind, the same with the more common this electricity. It follows from these observations, kind of carcajjius. 3. It is also the name of an E. that when fach privileged investigators of currents India fish, of the shape and colour of the herring, er minerals as Bieton are placed upon the electri- but somewhat broader and thinner. Its tail is cal spheres of these bodies, they will indicate their forked; but its eyes and the end of its fout are Etuation and their respective depths, according to extremely large. These fish swim in vast shoals, the impressions they feel within themselves, or the and are caught principally on the coast of Malasioticns they observe in the electrometrical instru. bar. They are well tasted, but have no taste of a Dents which they employ: and if they meet with herring. They take salt, which scarce any other fecond accidental causes, or complications of e. of the East India fish will do, and are therefore kirical spheres, which modify or alter these me- much valued, and sent into all the neighbouring Cinds of trial, this will necessarily occafion mistakes parts of the country in pickle. The natives also, in the results of their operations which they may in manuring the lands con they low their rice, probably re&ify; but which, at all events, it would use these fish, which are caught in prodigious be unjunt to lay to their charge, or alledge as an plenty, instead of dung. objection against the reality of their talent. BLICKLING, a village in Norfolkshire, near
BLETONIST, a perfon endued with powers Alesiam.
BLETSOE, a village in Bedfordshire, on the Gloucestershire, near Awre.
Germans to the BLEAK. KLETUS, (2.1) in the ancient phyfic, a per- (1.)* BLIGHT.n./- [The etymology unknown.] fus whose fide, by reafon of fome internal infam. 1. Mildew; according to Skinner ; but it feems mation, as a pleurisy or peripneumony, turns taken by most writers, in a general sense, for any back or livid-spotted,'chiefly after death. cause of the failure of fruits. I complained to the TE BLEVE, or v. n. obl. [bleiben, Teut.] To oldest and best gardeners, who often fell into the TABLEVIN, S abide ; to tarry.
Сраис. same misfortune, and esteemed it some blight of (1.) BLEW, adj. See BLUE.
the spring. Temple. 2. Any thing nipping, or 3.) * Blew. The preterite from blow. The blasting.- When you come to the proof once, the re& fed into a strong tower, where, seeing no re. first blight of frost shall most infallibly strip you of medy, they desperately blew up themselves, with all your glory. L'Efrange, a great part of the caftle, with gunpowder. Knolles. (2.) BLIGHT, in husbandry, a difeafe incident BLEWBERRY, a village in Berkshire, near to plants, which affects them variously, the whole
plant sometimes perishing by it, and sometimes BLEW.CAP, an English name for a peculiar only the leaves and blofloms, which will be scorchfpecies of fith of the falmon kind, distinguished by ed and shrivelled up, the reit remaining green and a broad blue fpot on the head, from whence they flourishing. Some have supposed that blights are Vol. JY. PASTI.
ter, May 19,
usually produced by an eafterly wind, bringing Those other two equall'd with me in fate, vaft quantities of insects eggs along with it, from So were I equall'd with them in renown! some distant place; and that there, being lodged Blind Thamyris, and blind Mæonides ; upon the surface of the leaves and flowers of fruit And Teresias, and Phineas, prophets old. Mili trees, cause them to shrivel up and perish. To 2. Intellectually dark ; unable to judge ; ignorant cure this distemper, they advise the burning of with to before that which is unseen. wet littor on the windward side of the plants, that All authors to their own defects are blind ; the smoke thereof may be carried to them by the Hadst thou, but Janus like, a face behind, wind, which they suppose will ftifle and destroy To see the people, what fplay mouths they make the insects, and thereby cure the distemper. 0- To mark their fingers pointed at thy back. thers direct the use of tobacco daft, or to waih
Drgder. the trees with water wherein tobacco ftalks have 3. Sometimes of.been infused for 12 bours; which they say will Biind of the future, and by rage mised, deftroy those insects, and recover the plants. Pep- He pulls his crimes upon his people's head. per duft scattered over the blossoms of fruit trees,
Dryden. &c. has been recommended as very useful in this 4. Unseen ; out of the publick view ; private: ge case; and there are some that advise the pulling nerally with some tendency to some contempt o off the leaves that are diftempered. The true censure.—To grievous and scandalous inconve cause of blights seem to be continued dry easterly niencies they make themselves subject, with whon winds for several days together, without the in- any blind or fecret corner is judged a fit house o tervention of fhowers, or any morning dew, by common prayer. Hooker. 5. Not easily discern which the perfpiration in the tender bloffom is ible; hard to find; dark; obscure; unseen.stopped ; and if it so happens that there is a long There be also blind fires under stone, which Alam continuance of the same weather, it equally affects not out; but oil being poured upon them, they the tender leaves, whereby their colour is chan- Aame out. Bacon.-. ged, and they wither and decay. The best reme
Where else dy for this distemper, is to wash and fprinkle gent- Shall I inform my unacquainted fect ly over the tree, &c. from time to time with com- In the blind mazes of this tangld wood ? Mi?! mon water; and if the young shoots seem to be How have we wander'd a long dismal night, much infected, let them be washed with a wool- Led through blind paths by each deluding light len cloth, so as to clear them, if possible, from
Roscommon this glutinous matter, that their respiration and Part creeping under ground, their journey perspiration may not be obstructed.
blind, tion ought to be performed early in the day, that And climbing from below, their fellows mett. the moisture may be exhaled before the cold of the
Dryder: night comes on : nor should it be done when the So mariners mistake the promis'd gust, sun shines very hot. Another cause of blights in And, with full fails, on the blind rocks are loft spring is sharp hoary frosts, which are often fuc
Dryden ceeded by hot sunshine in the day time. These A postern door, yet unobserv’d and free, are the most sudden and certain destroyers of the Join'd by the length of a blind gallery, fruits that are known.
To the king's closet bed.
Dryden T. BLIGHT. v.a. (from the noun.] 1. To 6. Blind Veffets. (with chymists.] Such as have no corrupt with mildew.--This vapour bears up an opening but on one fide. long with it any noxious mineral steams ; it then
* BLIND. n. l. 1. Something to hinder thi blafts vegetables, blights corn and fruit, and is fight.--Hardly any thing in our conversation i sometimes injurious even to men. Woodward. 2. pure and genuine; civility casts a blind over the In general, to blast; to hinder from fertility.-My duty, under fome customary words. L'Estrange country neighbours do not find it imposible to 2. Something to mislead the eye or the under think of a lame horse they have, or their blighted standing.--These discourses set an opposition be corn, till they have run over in their minds all be- tween his commands and decrees; making the one ings. Lockeia
a blind for the execution of the other. Decay o But left harm care the lover's peace destroy, Piety. And roughly bliglt the tender buds of joy, (3.) BLIND, an epithet applied to a person on Let reafon teach.
Lyttelton. senlitive creature deprived of the use of his eyes BLIGHTED CORN. See SMUT.
or, in other words, to one from whom light, co BLIKE, in ichthyology, a name given by some lours, and all the glorious variety of the visible to an anadromous fish, resembling our river chub, creation, are intercepted by some natural or acci and called by Gefner capito onadromus ; but better dental disease. Such is the literal acceptation of known by the name of ZARTA, or the ZERTE. the term ; but it is likewise used in a metaphori BLILESLOW. See BLIDESLOW.
cal fente, (fee § 1. def. 2.) and frequently implies, KLIMHILI, a village in Staffordshire, W. of at the same time, some moral er ipiritual depra Penkridge.
vity in the soul thus blinded, which is either the To BLIN, 7. n. obf. To case. Spenser. efficient or continuing cause of this internal mala,
(1.) * BLIND. adj. blind, Sax.] 1. Without dy. Yet, even in metaphor, the epithet is fome. fight; wanting the sense of seeing; dark.-The times applied to a species of ignorance, which nei blird man that governs bis fteps by feeling, in de- ther involves the idea of real guilt nor of voluntafed of eyes, receives advertisements of things ry error. It is, however, our present intention to through a staff. Digby
consider the word, not in its figurative, but in its
zatural and primary sense. Nor do we mean in tracted powers of perception can give them no
relaxes their frame, and subjects them to all the
Τον περι Μεσ' επιλησε, διδε δ' αγαθον τε, κακον τε
Οφθαλμων μεν αμερει ειδε δ' αδειαν αοιδην. .
In clouds and darkness quench'd his visual ray,
-“ With the year
confused and inadequate. The comprehensive Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose,
is aimoft infinitely extended, its objects prodigi-
But chief of all,
Annull’d, which might in part my grief have found of his steps, by his manner of breathing eas'd,
and almost by every audible token which he ca Inferior to the vilest now become
exhibit. Prepared for the dangers which he may Of man or worm.' The vilest here excel me: encounter, from the surface of the ground up: 1 They creep, yet see.
which he walks, his step is habitually firm ar Ecarce half I seem to live, dead more than half cautious. Hence he not only avoids those falls O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noun, which might be occafioned by its less formidabl Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse
inequalities, but from its general bias he collect Without all hope of day!
some ideas, how far his fafety is immediately con Since light so necessary is to life,
cerned ; and though these conjectures may 1 And almost life itself, why was the fight sometimes fallacious, yet they are generally so true To such a tender ball as theye confin'd, as to preserve him from such accidents as are no So obvious, and easy to bę quench'd ?
incurred by his own temerity. The rapid torrei And not, as feeling, through all parts diffus'd, and the deep cascade not only warn him to keep That the might look at will thro' ev'ry pore? a proper distance, but inform him in what direc Then had I not been thus exil'd from light, tion he moves, and are a kind of audible syna As in the land of darkness, yet in light sures to regulate his course. In places to whic To live a life half dead, a living death ; he has been accustomed, he as it were recognise And buried ; but yet more miserable !
his latitude and longitude, from every breath a Myself the sepulchre, a moving grave,
varied fragrance that tinges the gale, from every
ascent or declivity in the road, from every natura Thus dependent on every creature, and passive or artificial found that itrikes his ear; if these in to every accident, can we be surprised, to observedications be stationary, and confined to particu moments when the blind are at variance with them- lar places. Regulated by these signs, the blin felves and every thing else around them? With the have not only been known to perform long jour fame instincts of self-preservation, the same irafci- neys themselves, but even to conduct othen ble passions which are common to the species, through dangerous paths at midnight, with th and exasperated by a sense of debility either for utmost security and exactness. See § 11. I retaliation or defence ; can the blind be really ob- would be endless to recapitulate the various me jects of resentment or contempt, even when they chanical operations of which they are capable, by seem peevish or vindi&tive? This, however, is not their nicety and accuracy of touch. In some thi always their character. Their behaviour is often tactile powers are said to have been so highly im highly expressiv«, not only of resignation, but en proved, as to perceive that texture and dispofi ven of cheerfulness; and though they are often tion of coloured surfaces, by which some rays o coldly, and even inhumanly, treated by men, yet light are reflected and others absorbed, and in thi they are rarely, if ever, forsaken of heaven. The manner to distinguishi colours. But the testimo conimon Parent of nature, whose benignity is nies for this fact itill appear too vague and genera permanent as his existence, and boundless as his to deserve public credit. A person who lost the empire, has neither left his amicted creatures use of his fight at an early period of infancy, wh« without consolation nor resource. See s. in the vivacity or delicacy of his fenfations was no
(5.) BLIND, ADVANTAGES ENJOYED BY THE, perhaps inferior to any one, and who had often The blind often derive advantages even from their heard of others in his lituation capable of distin loss, however oppressive and irretrievable; not in- guishing colours by touch, fimulated, partly by deed adequate to compensate, but sufficient to alle curiosity to acquire a new train of ideas, if potti yiate their misery. "The attention of the soul, ble, but ftill more by incredulity with respect to confined to these avenues of perception which she the facts related, tried repeated experiments, by can command, is neither diflipated nor confound- touching the surfaces of different bodies, and exa ed, by the immense multiplicity, nor the rapid mining whether any such diversities could be founo fucceffion of furrounding objects. Hence her in them, as might enable him to distinguish co contemplations are more uniformly fixed upon lours ; but no luch diversity could he ever ascer the revolutions of her own internal frame. Hence tain. Sometimes, indeed!,' he imagined that oh her percepțions of such external things, as arę jects which had no colour, or, in other words contiguous and obvious to her observation, be: such as were black, were somewhat different and come more exquisite. Hence even her inftru- peculiar in their surfaces; but this experiment did ments of corporeal sensation are more atsiduously not always hold. (See however s 13 & 14.). That improved; so that from them the derives such no- their acoustic perceptions are distinct and accu tices of approaching pleafure, or impending dan- rate, we may fairly conclude from the rapidity ger, as entirely escape the attention of those who with which they ascertain the acutenefs or gravi depend for security on the reports of their eyes. ty of different tones, and from their exact discern A blind man, when walking Twiftly, or running, ment of the yarious modifications of found, and is kindly checked by nature from rudely encoun. of fonorous objects, if the sounds themselves bé tering fuch hard and extended objects as might in any degree lignificant of their causes. From hurt or bruise him. When he approaches bodies this accuracy of external sensation, and from the of this kind, he feels the atmospagre more fenfi- afliduous and vigorous applications of a compra bly refift his progress; and in proportion as his hensive and attentive mind alone, we are able to motion is accelerated, or his distance from the account for the rapid and astonishing progresi object diminished, the resistance is increased. Ile which some of them have made, not only in those distinguishes the approach of his friend by the departments of literature, which were most obvi.
Aus to their fenses, and accessibie to their under the visible world, before they were surrounded tundings, but even in the most abstract sciences. with clouds and ever-during darkness. They What, for instance, can be more remote from the might, therefore, still retain the pleasing impreiconceptions of a blind man, than the abstract re- fions of what they had seen. Their descriptiore lations and properties of space and quantity? Yet might be animated with all the rapture and enthe incomprehensible attainments of Dr Saunder. thufiasın, which originally fired their boloms, fon in all the branches of mathematics are now when the grand or Jelightful objects which they fally known and firmly believed by the whole li. delineated were immediately beheld. Nay, that terary world, both from the testimony of his pu- enthusiali might still be heightened by a bitter pls and the publication of his works. But Mould sense of their loss, and by that regret which a fie the fact be ftill deemed uncertain, it might be ve tuation fo dismal might naturally inspire. Bit rihed by a living prodigy of this kind, with which how shall we account for the same energy, the our country is at present honoured; who, though fame transport of description, exhibited by those bind from his infancy, by the alliduity of his ap on whose minds visible objects were either never plication, and by the force of a genius to which impressed, or have been entirely obliterated? Yet, nothing is impenetrable, has not only made incre. however unaccountable this fact may appear, it is dible advances in mechanical operations, in mu- no less extraordinary than true. See the Preface fic, and in the languages; but is likewise profound- to Blacklock's Poems, written by G. G. Esq. and by killed in geometry, in algebra, in astronomy, printed at Edinburgh in 1754; or the account cr in chemifry, and in all the other branches of na- his life and writings by the Rev. Mr Spence, pretural philosophy, as taught by Newton, and re- fixed to a 4to edition of his poems, published at ceived by an admiring world, even aptics not ex- London in 1756. A foreign author, a stranger 10 cepted. See $ 7.
the Dr, says, “ Blacklock will appear to pofterie 16.) BLIND, A PHENOMENON RESPECTING THE, ty a fabulous character: even now he is a prodiNOT ACCOUNTED FOR. When we ruminate on gy.” See BLACKLOCK. the numberless advantages derived from the use (7.) BLIND, ASTONISHING ACQUISITIONS of fight, and its immense importance, in extend- MADE BY SOME OF THE. Dr Nicolas Bacon, a ing the human capacity, and improving every fa- blind gentleman, descended from the same family culty of the mind, we might be tempted to doubt with the celebrated lord Verulam, was, in the the reports concerning such persons as, without city of Brussels, with high approbation creathe asistance of light, have arrived at high de- ted LL. D. He was deprived of light at 9 years grets of erinence even in those sciences which ap- of age by an arrow from a cross-bow whilst he pearabfolutelyunattainable but by the interposition was attempting to shoot it. When he had recoof external mediums. It has, however, been de vered his health, which had suffered by the shock, monftrated by the late ingenious Dr Reid, that he pursued the same plan of education in which he blind men, by proper instruction, are susceptible had been engaged: and having heard that one Niof almolt every idea, and every truth which can calius de Vourde, born blind, who lived towards be imprefied on the mind by the mediation of the end of the 15th century, after having distinlight and colours, except the sensations of light guished himself by his studies in the university of and colours themselves. (Inquiry into the Human Louvain, took his degree as D. D. in that of CoMind. vi. \ !, 2.) Yet there is one phenomenon of logne, he resolved to make the same attempt. this kind, which seems to have escaped the atten- But the public, cursed with prejudices for which tion of that great philofopher, and for which no the meaneft fenfitive nature might blush, prejuauthor has offered any tolerable reason, though dices equally beneath the brutality and ignorance it certainly merits the attention of a philosopher. of the lowest animal instinct, treated his intention For though we should admit, that the blind can with ridicule; even the professors themselves were understand with great perfpicuity all the pheno- not far from being of the same sentiment; and meta of light and colours ; though it were allow they admitted him into their schools, rather from ed, that on these subjects they might extend their an impression that it might amufe him, than bepeculations beyond their instructions, and invef- come of any use to him. He had the good for. tigate the mechanical principles of optics by the tune, however, contrary to their expectations, to mirez force of genius and application, from the obtain the first places among his condisciples. It data which they have already obtained; yet it will was then faid, that such rapid advances might be be cicult, if not impollible, to affign any rea- made in the preliminary branches of his educakt
, say these objects should be more interesting tion; but would soon be effectually checked by 10 a briod man, than any other abstract truths studies of a more profound and abstracted nature. whatever. It is poffible for the blind, by a re. This, it seems, was repeated from school to tetive memory, to tell, That the sky is an azure; school, through the whole climax of his pursuits ; that the fan, moon, and stars, are bright; that and when, in the course of academical learning, the role is red, the lily white or yellow, and the it became necessary to study poetry, it was the tulip variegated. By continually hearing these general voice that all was over, and at length he kubkantives and adjectives joined, he may be me- had reached his ne plus ultra. But here he likewife cibatically taught to join them in the same man- disappainted their prejudices, and taught them Der: but as he never had any sensation of colour, the immense difference between blindness of body however accurately he may speak of coloured ob and blindness of foul. After continuing his ftujects
, his language muß be like that of a parrot ; dies in learning and philofophy for two years without meaning, and without ideas. Homer, more, he applied himself to law, took his degree Milton, and Ollan, had been long acquainted with in that science, commenced pleading counsellor