Outlines of experimental chemistry; a familiar introduction to the science of agriculture

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Page 64 - WHEN a piece of straw, or any dried vegetable substance, is held in the flame of a candle, the greater portion is consumed in the form of gases, and only a very small portion, called the ash, is left behind. That portion which burns away is called the organic part of the plant, and that which remains, the ash, is called the inorganic part. The organic part of plants consists of four elementary substances, viz. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and a small quantity of nitrogen. The inorganic part consists...
Page 50 - Composition of Water. 46. It has already been explained that water is composed of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 1 part of hydrogen. Now, oxygen is exactly 16 times heavier than hydrogen ; hence it follows that there must be double the quantity by volume of hydrogen to form water. The composition of water may be determined in two ways : first, by sgnthesia, or by bringing the elements together ; second, by analgsis, or by separating the elements from each other.
Page 74 - SOILS. 83. Soils owe their origin to the disintegration or gradual crumbling down of rocks, by the action of water, frost, air, and various chemical agents. Hence soils, in general, derive their peculiar character from the geological strata upon which they lie, or from the nature of the rocks in the adjacent hills or mountains. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS. 84. Sandy and marly soils are heavy, while peaty soils are light. Strong clays and peaty soils absorb and retain moisture ; hence they are...
Page 55 - This compound is a colorless gas, similar in appearance to common air : it is sparingly absorbed by water. Preparation. — Put some copper cuttings into a retort, pour nitric acid upon them, and then add about an equal quantity of water : • brisk effervescence takes place without the aid of heat, and the gas may be collected over water in the pneumatic trough. The decomposition is represented by the following formula!
Page 66 - O12 12 eq. carbon and 12 eq. water. The only difference in the composition of these compounds is, that they contain different proportions of the elements of water. Most of vegetable compounds are characterised by the following circumstances: — 1. By being composed of the same elements ; 2. By the facility with which they undergo decomposition ; 3. By the facility with which many of them are converted into each other, especially when a substance containing nitrogen is present ; 4. By the impracticability...

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