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theory of exclusiveness. Thus far my narrative is in substance the same as that of the more detailed history which I have brought down to the Surrender of Athens, B.C. 404. In the subsequent chapters, written for this volume, I have had to exhibit the falling back of Athens into the ranks of mere city communities, sharing in the suspicions or jealousies always awakened where the growth of one city seemed likely to affect the complete independence of its neighbours. Such a state of things could end only in foreign subjugation. From this point therefore the historian is charged with the gloomier task of tracing the inAuence of Makedonian and Roman conquest on the country which was to become the seat of the Empire of the East, and ultimately to pass under the sway of the Ottoman Turks.

To relate in detail, in addition to the narrative of previous events, the history of the Greek people from the times of the Makedonian conquests to our own, is in the limits of a single volume of moderate size obviously impossible. I would gladly have dwelt more especially on the working of the federal principle in central Greece when the day of the great cities, Sparta, Thebes, and Athens, had passed away; but although this could not be attempted, I felt that some acquaintance with the later fortunes of a people still representing, in blood scarcely less than in language, the Greeks of Perikles, Agesilaos, and Philopoimen, is almost as necessary as a knowledge of the more brilliant history of earlier times. This want has not been met, so far as I am aware, by any of the smaller Greek histories hitherto published, The last Book of the present volume may therefore, I trust, lay before the reader the outlines of a picture which I hope to draw out in more full detail in the concluding volumes of my larger history.

The actors in this great drama I have striven to bring before the reader as living persons with whom we may sympathise, while they must be submitted to the judgement of the moral tribunal to which we are all responsible. Of all I have spoken plainly and honestly, being well assured that the sternest condemnation of the treasons and lies of men like Alkibiades and Theramenes will in no way clash with the profoundest veneration for the sober wisdom of Themistokles and Perikles, for the heroism of the gallant Demosthenes who all but saved the army brought to its doom by Nikias, and for the genius and patriotism of his mightier namesake who, in the immortal speech which un. masked the treachery of Æschines, pronounced the funeral oration of Athenian freedom.

I am indebted to the Proprietors of the Encyclopædia Britannica for permission to make use of some portions of the Chapter on Alexander the Great.

To the Rev. North Pinder I express my grateful thanks for much valuable aid given to me in carrying this volume through the press.

Note on the Spelling of Greek Names. No attempt has been made in this volume to alter the spelling of Greek names which have assumed genuine English forms --e.g. Athens, Thebes, Corinth, Thrace. It would be well perhaps if such forms had been more numerous.

The Latin form has been kept, where it has become so familiar to English ears that a change would be disagreeable, e.g. Thucydides, Cyrus. This last name is, indeed, neither Latin nor Greek; and the adoption of either the Greek or the Latin form is a matter of comparative indifference. Probably it would be to the benefit of historical study to revert to the true Persian form, and to write Gustashp for Hystaspes.

But these exceptions do not affect the general rule of giving the Greek forms, wherever it may be practicable or advisable to do so. This rule may be followed in all instances in which either the names or the persons are unknown to the mass of English readers. Thus, while we speak still of Alexander the Great, his obscure predecessor who acts a subordinate part in the drama of the Persian wars may appear as Alexandros.

The general adoption of the Greek form is, indeed justified, if not rendered necessary, by the practice of most recent writers on Greek History. It is, therefore, unnecessary perhaps to say more than that the adoption of the Greek form may help on the change in the English pronunciation of Latin, which the most eminent schoolmasters of the day have pronounced to be desirable. So long as the Phrygian town is mentioned under its Latin form of Celænæ, there will be a strong temptation for young readers to pronounce it as if it were the Greek name for the moon Selênê. It is well therefore that they should become familiarised with the Greek form Kelainai, and thus learn that the Greek spelling involves practically no difference of sound from that of the true Latin pronunciation, the sound of the C and K being identical, and the diphthongs being pronounced as we pronounce ai in fail.

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