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have nothing to do but to worship God, and be better instructed in the Christian faith, and spend their whole time without any thing to hinder them in prayer and devotion, according to the custom and discipline of the church. And for those in his army, who yet remained in their paganism and infidelity, he commanded them upon Lord's-days to go out into the fields, and there pour out their souls in hearty prayers to God; and, that none might pretend their own inability to the duty, bo himself composed and gave them a short form of prayer, which he enjoined them to make use of every Lord's-day: so careful was he that this day should not be dishonoured or misemployed, even by those who were yet strangers and enemies to Christianity. He moreover ordained that there should be no courts of judicature open upon this day, no suits or trials at law; but that for any works of mercy, such as emancipating and setting free of slaves or servants, this might be done. That there should be no suits nor demanding debts upon this day was confirmed by several laws of succeeding emperors ; and that no arbitrators, who had the umpirage of any business lying before them, should at that time have power to determine to take up litigious causes, penalties being entailed upon any that transgressed herein. Theodosius the Great, anno 386, by a second law ratified one which he had passed long before, wherein he expressly prohibited all public shows upon the Lord's-day, that the worship of God might not be confounded with those profano solemnities. This law the younger Theodosius some years after confirmed and enlarged, enacting, that on the Lord's-day (and some other festivals there mentioned) not only Christians, but even Jews and heathens, should be restrained from the pleasure of all sights and spectacles, and the theatres be shut up in every place; and whcreas it might so happen that the birthday or inauguration of the emperor might fall upon that day, therefore to let the people know how infinitely he preferred the honour of God, before the concerns of his own majesty and greatness, he commanded that, if it should so happen, that then the imperial solemnity should be put off, and deferred till another day.

I shall take notice but of one instance more of their great observance of this day, and that was their constant attendance upon the solemnities of public worship. They did not think it enough to read and pray and praise God at home, but made conscience of appearing in the public assemblies, from which nothing but sickness and absolute necessity did detain them : and if sick, or in prison, or under banishment, nothing troubled them more than that they could not come to church, and join their devotions to the common services. If persecution at any time forced them to keep a little close, yet no sooner was there the least mitigation, but they presently returned to their open duty, and publicly met all together. No trivial pretences, no light excuses, were then admitted for any one's absence from the congregation, but, according to the merit of the cause, severe censures were passed upon them. The synod of Illiberis provided that if any man dwelling in a city (where usually churches were nearest hand) should for three Lord's-days absent himself from the church, he should for some time be suspended the communion, that he might appear to be corrected for his fault.

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253.-CHARACTER OF COLONEL HUTCHINSON.

Mrs. HUTCHINSON. [THE Life of Colonel Hutchinson,' one of the Parliamentary leaders in the time of Charles I., written by his widow Lucy, is one of the most delightful of our English Memoirs. In those days of strife and domestic anxiety, it is touching to know what solace there was for the good men of either party, in the deep affection for their husbands of such wives as Mrs. Hutchinson and Lady Fanshawe. The following extract is an address entitled, “Mrs. Hutchinson to her Children, concerning their Father.')

To number his virtues is to give the epitome of his life, which was nothing else but a progress from one degree of virtue to another, till in a short time he arrived to that height, which many longer lives could never reach ; and, had I but the power of rightly disposing and relating them, his single example would be more instructive than all the rules of the best moralists, for his practice was of. a more divine extraction, drawn from the word of God, and wrought up by the assistance of his Spirit ; therefore, in the head of all his virtues, I shall set that which was the head and spring of them all, his Christianity-for this alone is the true royal blood that runs through the whole body of virtue, and every pretender to that glorious family, who hath no tincture of it, is an impostor and a spurious brat. This is that sacred fountain which baptizeth all the gentle virtues that so immortalize the names of Cicero, Plutarch, Seneca, and all the old philosophers; herein they are regenerated, and take a new pame and nature ; digged up in the wilderness of nature, and, dipped in this living spring, they are planted, and flourish, in the Paradise of God.

By Christianity I intend that universal habit of grace which is wrought in a soul by the regenerating Spirit of God, whereby the whole creature is resigned up into the divine will and love, and all its actions designed to the obedience and glory of its Maker. As soon as he had improved his natural understanding with the acquisition of learning, the first studies he exercised himself in were principles of religion, and the first knowledge he laboured for was a knowledge of God, which, by a diligent examination of the Scripture and the several doctrines of great men pretending that ground, he at length obtained. Afterward, when he had laid a sure and orthodox foundation in the doctrine of the free grace of God given us by Jesus Christ, he began to survey the superstructures, and to discover much of the hay and stubble of man's inventions in God's worship which his Spirit burnt up in the day of their trial. His faith being established in the truth, he was full of love to God and all his saints. He hated persecution for religion, and was always a champion for all religious people against all their great oppressors. He detested all scoffs at any practice of worship though such a one as he was not persuaded of. Whatever he practised in religion was neither for faction nor advantage, but contrary to it, and purely for conscience' sake. As he hated outsides in religion, so could he worse endure those apostasies and those denials of the Lord and baso

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compliances with his adversaries, which timorous men practise under the name of prudent and just condescensions to avoid persecution.

Christianity being in him as the fountain of all his virtues, and diffusing itself into every stream, that of his Prudence falls into the next mention. He from a child was wise, and sought to by many that might have been his fathers for council, which he could excellently give to himself and others, and, whatever cross event in any of his affairs may give occasion to fools to overlook the wisdom of the design, yet he had as great a foresight, as strong a judgment, as clear an apprehension of men and things as no man more. He had rather a firm impression than a great memory, yet he was forgetful of nothing but injuries. His own integrity made him credulous of other men's, till reason and experience convinced him, and as unapt to believe cautions which could not be received without entertaining ill opinions of men, yet he had wisdom enough never to commit himself to a traitor, though he was once wickedly betrayed by friends whom necessity and not mistake forced him to trust. He was as ready to hear as to give council, and never pertinacious in his will when his reason was convinced. There was no opinion which he was most settled in either concerning divine or human things but he would patiently and impartially have it debated. In matters of faith his reason always submitted to the word of God, and what he could not comprehend he would believe because it was written; but, in all other things, the greatest names in the world could never lead him without reason : he would deliberate when there was time, but never lost an opportunity of anything that was to be done by tedious dispute. He would hear as well as speak, and yet never spoke impertinently or unseasonably. He very well understood himself his own advantages, natural parts, gifts and acquirements, yet so as neither to glory of them to others, nor overvalue himself for them, for he had an excellent virtuous modesty, which shut out all vanity of mind, and yet admitted that true understanding of himself which was requisite for the best improvement of all his talents; he no less understood and was more heedful to remark his defects, imperfections, and disadvantages, but that too only to excite his circumspection concerning them, not to damp his spirit in any noble enterprise. He had a noble spirit of government, both in civil, military, and ecumenical administrations, which forced even from unwilling subjects a love and reverence of him, and endeared him to the souls of those rejoiced to be governed by him. He had a native majesty that struck an awe of him into the hearts of men, and a sweet greatness that commanded love. He had a clear discerning of men's spirits, and knew how to give every one their just weight, he contemned none that were not wicked, in whatever low degree of nature or fortune they were otherwise : wherever he saw wisdom, learning, or other virtues in men, he honoured them highly, and admired them to their full rate, but never gave himself blindly up to the conduct of the greatest master.. Love itself, which was as powerful in his as in any soul, rather quickened than blinded the eyes of his judgment in discerning the imperfections of those that were most dear to him. His soul ever reigned as king in the internal throne, and never was captive to his sense; religion and reason, its two favoured councillors, took order that all the passions, kept within their own just bounds, there did him good service and furthered the public weal. He found such felicity in that proportion of wisdom that he enjoyed, as he was a great lover of that which advanced it, learning and the arts, which he not only honoured in others, but had by his industry arrived to be a far greater scholar than is absolutely requisite for a gentleman. He had many excellent attainments, but he no less evidenced his wisdom in knowing how to rank and use them, than in gaining them. He had wit enough to have been both subti? and cuyning, but he so abhorred dissimulation that I cannot say he was either Greatness of courage would not suffer him to put on a vizard, to secure him from

any ; to retire into the shadow of privacy and silence was all his prudence could effect in him. It will be as hard to say which was the predominant virtue in him, as which is so in its own nature. He was as excellent in justice as in wisdom the greatest advantage, nor the greatest danger, nor the dearest interest or friend in the world could not prevail on him to prevent justice even to an enemy. He never professed the thing he intended not, nor promised what he believed out of his own power, nor failed the performance of anything that was in his power to fuifil. Never fcaring anything he could suffer for the truth, he never at any time would refrain a true or give a false witness ; he loved truth so much that he hated even sportive lies and gulleries. He was so just to his own honour that he many times forebore things lawful and delightful to him, rather than he would give any one occasion of scandal. Of all lies he most hated hypocrisy in religion, either to comply with changing governments or persons, without a real persuasion of conscience, or to practise holy things to get the applause of men or any advantage. As in religion, so in friendship, he never professed love when he had it not, nor disguised hate or aversion which indeed he never had to any party or person, but to their sins : and loved even his bitterest enemies so well, that I am witness how his soul mourned for them, and how hcartily he desired their conversion. If he were defective in any part of justice, it was when it was in his power to punish those who had injured him, when I have so often known him to recompense with favours instead of revenge, that his friends used to tell him, if they had any occasion to make him favourably partial to them, they would provoke him by an injury. He was as faithful and constant to his friends as merciful to his enemies : nothing grieved him more than to be obliged when he could not hope to return it. He that was a rock to all assaults of might and violence, was the greatest casy soul to kindness, that the least warm spark of that melted him into anything that was not sinful.

* * * · * * * Nor was his soul less shining in honour than in love. Piety being still the bond of all his other virtues, there was nothing he durst not do or suffer, but sin against God, and therefore, as he never regarded his life in any noble or just enterprise, so he never staked it in any rash or unwarrantable hazard. He was never surprised, amazed, or confounded with great difficulties and dangers, which rather served to animate than distract his spirits : he had made up his accounts with life and death, and fixed his purpose to entertain both honourably, so that no accident cver dismayed him, but he rather rejoiced in such troublesome conflicts as might signalize his generosity. A truer or more lively valour there never was in any man, but, in all his actions, it ever marched in the same file with wisdom. He understood well, and as well performed when he undertook it, the military art in all parts of it: he naturally loved the employment, as it suited with his active temper, more than any, conceiving a mutual delight in leading those men that loved his conduct; and, when he commanded soldiers, never was man more loved and reverenced by all who were under him ; for he would never condescend to them in anything they mutinously sought, nor suffer them to seek what it was fit for him to provide, but prevented them by his loving care ; and, while he exercised his authority no way but in keeping them to their just duty, they joyed as much in his commands as he in their obedience: he was very liberal to them, but ever chose just times and occasions to exercise it. I cannot say whether he were more truly magnanimous or less proud ; he never disclaimed the meanest person nor flattered the greatest : ho had a loving and sweet courtesy to the poorest, and would often employ many spare hours with the commonest soldiers and poorest labourers, but still so ordering his familiarity as it nerer raised them to a contempt, but entertained still at the same time a reverence with love of him; he ever preserved himself in his own rank, neither being proud of it so as to despise any inferior, nor letting fall that just decorum which his honour obliged him to keep up. He was as far from envy of superiors as from contemning them that were under him : he was above the ambition of vain titles, and so weil contented with the even ground of a gentleman, that no invitation could have prevailed upon him to advance one step that way; he loved substantial not airy honour: as he was above seeking or delighting in empty titles for himself, so he neither denied nor envied any man's due precedency, but pitied those that took a glory in that which had no foundation of virtue. As little did he seek after popular applause or pride himself in it, if at any time it cried up his just deserts ; he more delighted to do well than to be praised, and never set vulgar commendations at such a rate as to act contrary to his own conscience or reason for the obtaining them, nor would forbear a good action which he was bound to, though all the world disliked it, for he ever looked on things as they were in themselves, not through the dim spectacles of vulgar estimation. As he was far from a vain affectation of popularity, so he never neglected that just care that an honest man ought to have of his reputation, and was as careful to avoid the appearances of evil as evil itself; but, if he were evil spoken of for truth or righteousness' szkc, he rejoiced in taking up the reproach; which all good men that dare bear their testimony against an evil generation must suffer. Though his zeal for truth and virtue caused the wicked, with the sharp edges of their malicious tongues, to attempt to shave off the glories from his head, yet his honour, springing from the fast root of virtue, did but grow the thicker and more beautiful for all their endeavours to cut it off. He was as free from avarice as from ambition and pride. Never had any man a more contented and thankful heart for the estate that God had given, but it was a very narrow compass for the exercise of his great heart. He loved hospitality as much as he hated riot: he could contentedly be without things beyond his reach, though he took very much pleasure in all those noble delights that exceeded not his faculties. In thoso things that were of mere pleasure, he loved not to aim at that he could not attain : he would rather wear clothes absolutely plain, than pretending to gallantry, and would rather choose to have none than mean jewels or pictures, and such other things as were not of absolute necessity: he would rather give nothing than a base .reward or present; and, upon that score, lived very much retired, though his nature was very sociable, and delighted in going into and receiving company, because his fortune would not allow him to do it in such a noble manner as suited with his mind. He was so truly magnanimous, that prosperity could never lift him up in the least, nor give him any tincture of pride or vain glory, nor diminish a general affability, courtesy, and civility, that he had always to all persons. When ho was most exalted, he was most merciful and compassionate to those that were humbled. At the same time that he vanquished any enemy, he cast away all his ill will to him, and entertained thoughts of love and kindness as soon as ho ceased to be in a posture of opposition. He was as far from meanness as from pride, as truly generous as humble, and showed his noblo spirit more in adversity than in his prosperous condition : he vanquished all the spite of his enemies by his manly suffering, and all the contempts they could cast upon him were their, not his, shame.

254.—THE DEATH OF SOCRATES.
(FROM TAYLOR'S TRANSLATION OF THE "PHÆDON.']

PLATO.

WHEN he had thus spoken, “Be it so, Socrates,” said Criton; “but what orders do you leave to those who are present, or to myself, either respecting your children, or anything else, in the execution of which we should most gratify you ?" “ What I

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