Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern
J. N. Postgate
British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007 - Foreign Language Study - 187 pages
For all five thousand years of its history Iraq has been home to a mixture of languages, spoken and written, and the same is true today. In November 2003, to celebrate the country's rich diversity and long history as a centre of civilisation the British School presented a series of talks by experts on each of the major languages of Iraq and their history, and this illustrated volume brings these now to a wider public. Iraq's languages come from different linguistic families - Semitic, Indo-European, and agglutinative languages like Sumerian, Hurrian and Turkish. Some, although long dead, have a prime place in the history of the Old World: Sumerian, probably the first language to be written and the vehicle of cuneiform scholarship for more than two millennia, and Akkadian, the language of Hammurapi and the Epic of Gilgamesh, and used across the Near East for administration and diplomacy. The history of Aramaic is even longer, stretching back to overlap with Akkadian before 1000 BC. It survives, precariously, in both written and spoken forms, being one of four languages spoken in Iraq today. Of these Arabic as a major world language has often been described, but here we have an account of the vernacular Iraqi Arabic dialects, and the descriptions of Iraqi Kurdish and Turkman are unique, detailed and authoritative.
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Introduction Nicholas Postgate Professor of Assyriology University of Cambridge
A history of Akkadian Andrew George
Early Aramaic Alan Millard Emeritus Rankin Professor of Hebrew and Ancient
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1st millennium A.D. 20th century 2nd millennium administrative Akkade Alalah Alter Orient Altes Testament Amarna Anatolia ancient Arabic Aramaic dialects Aramaic speaking Babylon Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic Baghdad bilingual Christian dialects communities cultural cuneiform dialects dynasty early East Semitic eastern Ebla enclitic ergative excavated fieldwork gelet grammar Hassanpour Hattusa Hittite Hurrian influence inscriptions Iran Iran-Turkic Iranian Iranian languages Iraq Iraqi Turkman Jewish dialects king Kirkuk Kurdish language Kurdistan Kurds Kurmanji letters linguistic literary language literature Mandaic Mesopotamia Middle Assyrian Middle Babylonian Mittani modern Mosul Muslim Neo-Aramaic Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian nouns Nuzi Old Akkadian Old Babylonian Orient und Altes Ottoman period Persian phonology population reading tradition region royal Sargonic scribal tradition script Semitic languages Sorani southern Iraq speakers spoken Standard Babylonian Studies suffix Sumerian Syriac tablets Tell Tell Mozan Text sample Tigris Turkey Turkic Turkish Urkis verb verbal vernacular village vocabulary vowel West Semitic writing written language