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Pace .LETTER LXVII. TO EUPHRONIUS. On the Death and Character of the Author's Father,

LETTER LXVIII. TO PHILOTES. Reflections on the moral Character of Mankind,

go LETTER LXIX. TO THE SAME. Concerning the Difficulties that attend our fpeculative Enquiries

. Mr. Boyle's Moderation instanced and recommended,

go LETTER LXX. TO PALAMEDES, In Disgrace,

97 LETTER LXXI. TO PHILOTES. The Author's Inability to do- Justice to the Character of Eusebes,

93 LETTER LXXII. . TO THE SAME. The Author's Situation of Mind on-the Loss of a Friend,

94 LETTER LXXIH. TO. PALAMEDES. On Thinking,

95 LETTER LXXIV. TO ORONTES. Refle&ions on the Advantages of Conversation. With a Tranflation of the

celebrated Dialogue concerning the Rise and Decline or Eloquence among the Romans,

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LONDON:
Printed for HARRISON and Co. No 18, Paternoster Row.

M "CC LXXXVII.

• Every fingle observation that is published by a man of genius, be it • ever so trivial, should be esteemed of importance; because he speaks

from his own impreffions: whereas common men 'mon things, which they have perhaps gleaned from frivolous (writers.'

ESSAY XXVI. N® LXIV.

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MIS no: unamusing to consider the excuses often substituted in place of the make when they commence authors. It The most allowable reasons for apis taken for granted that, on every pub- pearing thus in public are, either the lication, there is at least a seeming vio- advantage or amusement of our fellowlation of modeity; a presumption on the creatures, or our own private emolument writer's fide, that he is able to instruct and reputation. or to entertain the world; which implies A man possessed of intellectual taa supposition that he can communicate lents would be more blameable in conwhat they cannot draw from their own fining them to his own private use, than reflections.

the mean-spirited mifer, that did the To remove any prejudice this might same by his money. The latter is inoccasion, has been the general intent of deed obliged to bid adieu to what he prefaces. Some we find extremely folie communicates; the former enjoys his citous to claim acquaintance with their treasures, even while he renders others reader; addresling him by the most ten. the better for them. A composition der and endearing appellations. He is that enters the world with a view of in general styled the most loving, can improving or amusing it, (I mean only, did, and courteous creature, that ever amusing it in a polite or innocent way) breathed; with a view, doubtless, that has a claim to our utmost indulgence, he will deserve the compliment; and that even though it fail of the effect intended. his favour may be secured at the ex- When a writer's private interest apa pence of his better judgment. Mean pears the motive of his publication, the and idle expectation! The accidental reader has a larger scope for acculation, elopements and adventures of a compo. if he be a sufferer. Whoever pays for fition; the danger of an imperfect and thoughts, which this kind of writers may furreptitious publication; the pressing be said to vend, has room enough to com and indiscreet instances of friends; the plain, if he be disappointed of his barpious and well-meant frauds of ac- gain. He has no revenge, but ridicule; quaintance; with the irresistible com- and, contrary to the practice in other mands of persons in bigh life; have been cases, to make the worst of a bad bargain.

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When the love of fame acts upon a previous test on this occasion, he has no man of genius, the case appears to stand room to hesitate, or need to make apothus. The generality of the world, dis- logy. When felf-interest inclines a man tinguished by the name of readers, ob- to print, he should consider that the purServe with a reluctance not unnatural, chaser expects a penny-worth for his a person raising himself above them. penny; and has reason to afperle his ho. All men have some desire of fame, and nesty if he finds himself deceived. Al. fame is grounded un comparison. Every so, that it is possible to publith a book one then is somewhat inclined to dispute of no value, which is too frequently the his title to a superiority; and to difallow product of such mercenary people. his pretenfions upon the discovery of a When fame is the principal object of flaw. Indeed, a fine writer, like a lu.' our devotion, it should be considereit minous body, may be beneficial to the whether our character is like to gain in person he enlightens; but it is plain, he point of wit, what it will probably lose render's the capacity of the other more in point of modesty: otherwise, we shall discernible. Examination, however, is be censured of vanity more than famed a sort of turnpike in the way to fame, for genius; and depress our character where, though a writer be a while de- while we strive to raise it. tained, and part with a trifle from his After all, there is a propensity in some pocket, he finds in return a more com- to communicate their thoughts without modious and easy road to the temple. any view at all: the more fanguine of

When, therefore, a man is conscious these employ the press; the less lively of ability to serve his country, or believes are contented with being impertinent in himself possessed of it, (for there is no conversation.

ESSAY II:

ON THE TEST OF POPULAR OPINION.

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'a CitizenCourtier, and an Aca • on the skill their superiors demic.

" and this has sometimes been strangely Says the Citizen- I am told contia effectual in making thein imagine they (nually of tatte, refinement, and po- 4 relish perfection. In short, if ever « liteness; but methinks the vulgar and " they judge well, it is at the time they • illiterate generally approve the same " lealt prelune to frame opinions for

productions with the connoilleurs. " themselves. • One rarely finds a landskip, a build- “ It is true they will pretend to taste • ing, or a play, that has charms for "an object which they know their bete

the critic exclusive of the mechanic, ters do. But then they confider some • But, on the other hand, one readily • person's judgment as a certain stan• remarks students who labourto be dull, "dard or rule; they find the object ex

depraving their native relish by the • actly tally; and this demonstrated apa

very means they use to refine it. The pearance of beauty affords them fome • vulgar may not indeed be capable of • Imall degree of satisfaction,

giving the reasons why a composition • It is the same with regard to the

pleases them; that mechanical ditu. appetite, from which the metaphor of • tin&tion they leave to the connoifleur: taite is borrowed. “ Such a loup or • but they are at all times, methinks, “ olio,”. fay they," is much in vogue;

judges of the beauty of an effect, a " and if you do not like it, you must

part of knowledge in most respects " learn to like it." . allowedly more genteel than that of . But in poetry, for instance, it is « the operator.'

urged that the vulgar discover die Says the Courtiers I cannot answer • fame beauties with the man of read. ( for every individual instance: but I * think, moderately Ipeaking, the vul. Now half or more of the beauties

gar are generally in the wrong. If of poetry depend on metaphor or al. * they happen to be otherwise, it is • lusion, neither of which, by a mind

• uncultivated,

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