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ed at least, that great talents have been ployed in perperuating the resemblances sometimes loft to this art, by being con. of that part of our fpecies, who have dja fined to the dull, though profitable, la- ftinguished themselves in their respective bour of fenfeless portraits ; as I should generations. To be defirous of an ac. not doubt, if the method I am speaking quaintance with the persons of those who of were to take effect, to see that very have recommended themselves by their promising genius, who, in consequence writings or their actions to our esteem of your generous offices, is now forming and applause, is a very natural and reahis hand by the noblest models in Rome, sonable curiosity, For myself, at least, I prove a rival to those great master's whose have often found much fatisfa&tion in works he is tudyiog.

contemplating a well-chosen collection It cannot, I think, be denied, that the of the portrait kind, and comparing the prevailing fondness of having our per. mind of a favourite character, as it was fons copied out for posterity, is, in the either expressed or concealed in it's exprefent application of it, a most absurd ternal lineaments. There is fomething and useless vanity; as, in general, no- likewise extremely animating in chele thing affords a more ridiculous scene, lively representations of celebrated merits than those grotesque figures which usus and it was an observation of one of the ally line the mansions of a man who Scipio's, that he could never view the is fond of displaying his canvass-an- figures of his ancestors without finding cestry :

his bosom glow with the moft arden Good Hear'n! that fots and knaves should

passion of imitating their deeds. Howe

ever, as the days of exemplary virtue To with their vile resemblance may remain; of us, disposed to transmit the most in,

are now no more, and we are not, many To future times a libel or a jeft. Deydin. iaming models to fùture times; it would

be but prudence, methinks, if we are. You must by no means, however, ima. resolved to make pofterity acquainted gine that I absolutely condemn this lower with the persons of the present age, that application of one of the nobleft arts. It it should be by viewing them in the achas certainly a very just use, when em. tions of the past. Adieu. I am, ks.

be so vain,

LETTER III.

TO PALAMEDAS.

JULY 4, 1739. Otwithstanding the fine things you believe, consider them with respect to

alledge in favour of the Romans, foreign kingdoms, without the utmost I do not yet find myself disposed to be abhorrence and indignation. come a convert to your opinion : on the But there is nothing which places these contrary, I am itill obstinate enough to fons of Romulus lower in my estimation, maintain that the fame of your admired than their unmanly conduct in the article nation is more dazzling than folid, and of their triumphs. I must confess, at owing rather to those false prejudices the same time, that they had the sanction which we are early taught to conceive of of a god to jultify them in this

practice. them, than to their real and intrinsic me- Bacchus, or (as Sir Isaac Newton has dit. 1f conqueft indeed be the genuine proved) the Egyptian Sesoftris, after his glory of a ftate, and extensive dominions return from his Indian conquests, gave the most infallible test of national virtue; the first instance of this ungenerous cerei muf be acknowledged that no people mony. But though his divinity was in all history have so juft a demand of confeffed in many other parts of the our admiration. But if we take an im- world, his exampledoes not seem to have panial view of this telebrated nation, been followed till

we find it copied out perhaps much of our applaufe may

abate. in all it's infolent pomp at Rome. When we contemplate them, for instance, It is impossible to read the descripwithin their own walls, what do we see tions of these arrogant exhibitions of but the dangerous convulfions of an ill prosperity, and not be truck with in regulated policy? as we san feldom, * dignation at this barbarove method of

B insulting infulting the calamities of the unfortu. the perfidious monarch was overlooked nate.. One would be apt, at the first in the suffering Perseus; and a spectacle glance, to suspect that every sentiment so affecting checked the joy of conquest of humanity must be extinguished in a even in a Roman breaft. For Plutarch people, who could behold with pleasure assures us, when that worthless, but un. the moving instances, which these folem- happy, prince was obferved, together nities afforded, of the caprice of fortune; with his two sons and a daughter, marchand could see the highest potentates of ing amidst the train of prisoners, nature the earth dragged from their thrones, to was too hard for custom, and many of fill up the proud parade of these ungene- the spectators melted into a flood of tears. rous triumphs." But the prevailing But with what a generous tenderness dir! maxim which ran through the whole the British hero conduct himself upon an system of Roman politics was, to en- occasion of the same kind ? He employ. courage a fpirit of conquest; and these ed all the artful address of the most rehonours were evidently calculated to fined humanity, to conceal from his un. awaken that unjust principle of miltaken happy prisoner every thing that could repatriotism. Accordingly, by the fun- mind him of his disgrace; and the whole damental laws of Rome, no general was pomp that was displayed upon this ocentrtled to a triumph, unless he had added cafion, appeared lingly as intended to some new acquisition to her possessions. lighten the weight of his misfortunes, To suppress a civil infurrection, how- and to do honour to the vanquished moever dangerous; to recover any former narch. member of her dominions, however im. You will remember, Palamedes, I am portant; gave no claim to this fupreme only considering the Romans in a polimark of ainbitious distinction. For it tical view, and Ipeaking of them merely was their notion, it seems, (and Valerius in their national character. As to in Maximus is my authority for saying fo) dividuals, you know, I pay

the highest that there is as much difference between veneration to many that rose up agintt adding to the territories of a common- them. It would not indeed be juft to wealth, and restoring those it has lok, involve particulars in general reflections as between the actual conferring of a of any kind: and I cannot but acknowbenefit, and the mere repelling of an in. ledge ere I close my letter, that though, jury. It was but of a piece, indeed, in the article I have been mentioning, that a ceremony conducted in defiance the Romans certainly acted a most unof humanity, should be founded in con. worthy part towards their public enemies, tempt of justice; and it was natural yet they seem to have inaintained the enough that they should gain hy op- most exalted notions of conduct with repreffion, what they were to enjoy by spect to their private ones. That noble infult.

(and may I not add, that Christian) fer · If we consider Paulus Æmilius, after timent of Juvenal, his conquelt of Macedonia, making his

minuti public entry into Rome, attended by the Semper et infirmi eft ar imi exiguique voluptas, unfortunate Perleus and his infant fa.

Ulrio. unily; and at the same time reflect upon our Black Prince when he passed through was not merely the refined precept of London with his royal captive, after the their more improved philofophers, but a glorious battle of Poictiers; we cannot general and popular maxim among them: fail of having the proper sentiments of a and that generous sentiment so much Roman triumph. What generous mind and so deservedly admired in the Roman who saw the Roman conful in all the orator ; Non pænitet me mortales inimi. giddy exaltation of unfeeling pride, but citias, sempiternas amicitias habere, would rather (as to that single circum- was, as appears from Livy, so univer: Stance) have been the degraded Perseus, Sally received as to become even a prosthan the triumphant Æmilius? There is verbial expression. Thus Salluft liketoniething indeed in distress that reflects wise, I remember, fpeaking of the vira sort of merit upon every object which tues of the antient Romans, mentions it is lo fituated, and turns off our attention as theix principal characteristic, that upfrom those blemishes that stain even the on all occasions they thered a disposition molt vitious characters. Accordingly, rather to forgive than revenge an injury: in the instance of which I am speaking, But the falle notions they had embraced

concerning

concerning the glory of their country, however, in return and by a very just taught them to subdue every affection consequence, that proved at length the of humanity, and extinguish every dic. means of their total deltruction. °Farttate of justice which oppoled that de. wel. I am, &c. ftructive principle. It was this fpirit,

LETTER IV.

TO PHILOTES.

JULY 4, 1743. HILST you are probably en- vinities, that they seem to require a con. grots, I am thivering here in the midit allow them to be so much as women. of summer. The molles sub arbore fom- It was mentioned to me the other day, ni, the fpelunca vivique lacus, are plea-' that there is some probability we may sures which we in England can seldom see you in England by the winter. When taste but in description. For in a cli- I considered only my private satisfaction, mate, where the warmest sealon is fre. I heard this with a very sensible plea. quently little better than a milder fort sure. But as I have long learned to of winter, the sun is much too welcome fubmit my own interests to yours, I a guest to be avoided. If ever we have could not bụt regret there was a likelioccafion to complain of him, it must be hood of your being fofoon called off from for his absence: at least I have seldom one of the most advantageous opportuni, found his visits troublesome. You see ties of iinprovement that can attend a I am still the same cold mortal as when sensible mind. An ingenious Italian you left me. But whatever warmth I author of your acquaintance compares a may want in my conftitution, I want judiciuus traveller to a river, which in none in my affections, and you have not creases it's stream the farther it flows a friend who is more ardently yours from it's source; or to certain springs, than I pretend to be. You have indeed which running through rich veins of such a right to my heart from mere gra- mineral, improve their qualities as they titude, that I almost wish I owed you pafsalongIt were pity then you should lefs upon that account, that I might be checked in so useful a progress, and give it you upon a more disinterested diverted from a course, from whence you principle. However, if there is any may derive so many noble advantages. part of it which you cannot demand in You bave hitherto, I imagine, been able justice, be assured you have it by affection; to do little more than lay in materials so that, on one or other of these titles, for your main design. But fix months you may always depend upon me as now, would give you a truer notion of wholly yours. Can it be necessary after what is worthy of observation in the this to add, that I received your letter countries through which you pass, than with fingular satisfaction, as it brought twice that time when you were less acme an account of your welfare, and of quainted with the languages. The truth the agreeable manner in which you pass is, till a man is capable of conversing your time? If there be any room to with with ease among the natives of any you an increase of pleasure, it is, perhaps, country, he can never be able to form a that the three virgins you mention, were just and adequate idea of their policy and a few degrees handsomer and younger. manners. He who sits at a play without But I would not desire their charms understanding the dialect, may indeed should be heightened, were I not sure discover which of the actors are belt dressthey will never lefsen your repose ; fored, and how well the scenes are painted knowing your Stoicism, as I do, I dare or disposed; but the characters and contruft your ease with any thing less than a duet of the drama must for ever remain goddess; and those females, I perceive, a secret to him. Adieu. I am, &c. are so fas removed from the order of di

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