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whom the condu&ed, united to make ! ning of her government ; lhe hoped way for her unlimited authority. Now, it would be attributed to inexperience indeed, a more limited rule might have in the fubtle wiles of her fellow-trasecured obedience, and maintained a re- i vellers. She flattered herself, that her gularity. The ladies were but little • severity towards the conclusion of her itruck with the glare of objects on each • journey might in some fort make atonetide the way. One alone I must except, inent for her misbehaviour in the bewhom I beheld look wishfully, with a ginning.. Lally, that the sometimes retorted eye, towards the golden ore found it impoflible to hear the dictates washed down by the torrents. The go, of the goddess amid the clamours of verels represented, inthe strongest terms, her pupils, and the din of their per; that these materials could not be import- ' fuasions.' ed into the realns they were about to To this the goddess made reply enter. That, were this even the case, • You have heard,' said the, no they could be there of no importance. doubt, that the favours I below, are However, the had not extirpated the by no means consistent with a state of bias of this craving dame, when they inactivity. The only time when you approached the temple to which I fors were allowed an opportunity to demerly alluded.

« serve them, was the time when your The temple stood upon a lofty hill, • pupils were the most refractory and half encircled with trees of, never-fading perverse. The honours you expe&t in verdure. Between the milk-white co- my court are proportioned to the diftilumns (which were of the Doric order, culty of a good undertaking. May the bases gilt, as also the capitals) a blaze you, hereafter, partake thein, in reof glory issued, of such superior lustre, ' ward of your more vigorous conduct: that none beside the governels was able for the present, you are little entitled to approach it. She, indeed, with a de

to any recompence from ine. As to jected countenance, drew near unto the your pupils, I observe, they have goddess; who gently waved her hand passed sentence upon themselves.' in the way of salutation,

At this inftant of time the bell rung The matron seemed less dazzled, than for supper, and awaked me : I found delighted, with her excessive beauty. She the gardener by my side, prepared to accosted her with reverence, and with plant a parcel of trees ; and that I had much diffidence began to mention their numbered away the hours, in which ! pretension to her favour. “She must own, hould have given him suitable direc

he had been too remiss in the begin. tions.

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ESSAY XXII.

UNCONNECTED THOUGHTS ON GARDENING. VARDENING may be divided into other authors. See Burke, Hutchin

three fpecies-kitchen-gardening fon, Gerard, the Theory of agreeable --parterre-gardening

and landskip, or Sensations, &c*. picturesque-gardening: which latteris the There seem however to be some ob. fubjet intended in the following pages. jects, which afford a pleasure not reduIt consists in pleasing the imagination by cible to either of the foregoing heads. sienes of grandeur, beauty, or variety. A ruin, for instance, may be neither Convenience merelyphas no share here,any new to us, nor majeftic, nor beautiful, farther than as it pleases the imagination yet afford that pleasing melancholy which

Perhaps the division of the pleafures proceeds from a reflection on decayed of imagination, according as they are magnificence. For this reason, an able truck by the great, the various, and the gardener should avail himself of objects; beautiful, may be accurate enough for perhaps, not very striking; if they ferve my present purpose : why each of thein, io connect ideas, that convey reflections affeás us with pleasure may be traced in of the pleasing kind.

Garden-scenes may perhaps be divided into the fublime, the beautiful, and the mee, lancholy or penfive; to which lat i know not but we may asign a middle place betwixt the former two, as being in some fort composed of both. See Burke's Sublimg.

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Objects

Obje&ts should indeed be less calcu. In designing a house and gardens, it lated to strike the immediate cye, than is happy when there is an opportunity the judginent or well-formed imagina- of maintaining a subordination of parts; tion; as in painting.

the house fo luckily placed as to exhibit It is no objection to the pleasure of a view of the whole design. I have somenovelty, that it makes an ugly object times thought that there was room more disagrecable. It is enough that for it to resemble an epic or dramatic it produces a superiority betwixt things poem. It is rather to be wished than in other refpects equal. It feems, on required, that the more striking scenes Somnę occasions, to go even farther. Are may succeed those which are less fo. there not broken rocks and rugged Taste depends much upon temper, grounds, to which we can hardly attri. Some prefer Tibullus to Virgil, and bute either beauty or grandeur ; and Virgil to Homer-Hagley to Persfield, yet, when introduced near an extent and Persfield to the Welsh mountains, of lawn, impart a pleasure equal to This occasions the different preferences more shapely scenes ? Thus a leries of that are given to situations. ' A garden lawn, though ever so beautiful, may Atrikes us mott, where the grand and satiate and cloy, unless the eye palles to the pleasing succeed, not intermingle them from wilder scenes; and then they with, each other. acquire the grace of novelty.

I believe, however, the fublime has Variety appears to me to derive good generally a deeper effect than the merely part of it's effect from novelty; as the beautiful. eye, passing from one form or colour, to I use the words Landskip and Proa form or colour of a different kind, finds spect, the former as expressive of home a degree of novelty in it's present object, Scenes, the lateer of dittant images. which affords immediate satisfaction. Prospects should take in the blue diltant

Variety however, in some inttances, hills; but never so remotely, that they may be carried to such excess as to lose be not distinguithable from clouds. Yet it's whole effect. I have observed ceil. this mere extent is what the vulgar value. ings so crammed with stucco ornaments, Landskip thould contain variety that, although of the inost different enough to forin a picture upon canvas; kinds, they have produced an unifor- and this is no bad test, as I think the mity. A sufficient quantity of unde. landskip-painter is the gardener's best corated space is necessary to exhibit such defigner.' The eye requires a fort of decorations to advantage.

balance here; but not so as to encroach Ground mould first be considered upon probable nature. A wood, or with an eye to it's peculiar character; hill, niay balance a houle or obelilk; for whether it be the grand, the savage, the exactness would be displeasing. We sprightly, the melancholy, the horrid, form our notions from what we have or the beautiful. As one or other of seen; and though, could we comprethese characters prevail, one may fome. hend the universe, we might perhaps what itrengthen it's effect, by allowing find it uniformly regular; yet the pore every part fome denomination, and then tions that we see of it, habituate our fupporting it's title by suitable appen. fancy to the contrary, dages. For instance, The lover's walk The eye should always look rather may have allignation seats, with proper down upon water: customary nature moitoes-urns to faithful lovers--tro- makes this requisite. I know nothing phies, garlands, &c. by means of art. more sensibly displeating thian Mr. T-s

What an a Ivantage must some Italian Mat ground berwixt his terras and his seats, derive from the circumstance of water. being situate on ground mentioned in It is not easy to account for the fond. the classics! And even in England, ness of former times for straighe-lined wherever a park or garden happens to avenues to their houses; Straight-lined have been the scene of any event in hif. walks through their woods; and, in tory, one would surely avail one's self mort, every kind of fraight line; where of that circumstance, to make it more the foot is to travel over, what the eye intereking to the imagination. Mottoes has done hefore. This circumstance is Thould allude to it; columns, &c. re- one objection. Another, somewhat of cord it; verses moralize upon it; and the same kind, is the repetition of the Curiosity receive it's thare of pleasure,

fame object, tree after tree, for a length

of

of way together. A third is, that this A cottage is a pleasing object, partly identity is purchased by the loss of that on account of the variety it may introvariety, which the natural country fup- duce; on accorint of the tranquillity plies every where, in a greater or less that leems to reign there; and perhaps degree. To stand still and survey such (I am somewhat afraid) on account of avenues, may afford some dender satis. the pride of human nature: faction, through the change derived froin perspective; but to move on con

Longi alterius fpe&are leborom. tinually and find no change of scene in In a scene presented to the eye, objets the least atrendant on our change of fhould ever lie so much to the right or place, muit give actual pain to a person left, as to give it any uneasiness in the of taste, For such an one to be con- examination. Sometimes, however, it demned to pass along the famous vista may be better to admit valuable objects from Moscow to Petersburg, or that even with this disadvantage. They other froin Agra to Lahor in India, Mould else never be seen beyond a cermuft be as dilagreeable a sentence, as to tain angle. The eye must be easy, bebe condemned to labour at the gallies. fore it can be pleafedo I conceived some idea of the sensation No mere llope from one side to the he muft feel, from walking but a few other can be agreeable ground: the eye minutes, immured, betwixt Lord D-s requires a balance, is és a degree of high horn yew-hedges; which run ex- uniformity; but this may be otherwise actly parallel, at the distance of about 'effected, and the rule should be underten feet; and are contrived perfectly to stood with some limitation. exclude all kind of objects whatsoever.

- Each alley has it's brother, When a building, or other object, has teen once viewed from it's proper point,

And half the platform just reflects the other. the foot should never travel to it by the Let us examine what may be said in -fame path which the eye has travelled favour of that regularity whith Mr. over before. Lose the object, and draw Pope exposes. Might he not seemingly Digh, obliquely.

as well object to the disposition of an The fide-trees in viitas Mould be so human face, because it has an eye or circumstanced as to afford a probability cheek that is the very picture of it's that they grew by nature.

companion? Or does not Providence, Ruinated structures appear to derive who has observed this regularity in the their power of pleasing from the irre- external Structure of our bodies and difgularity of surface, which is VARIETY; regarded it within, seein to consider it and the latitude they afford the imagi. as a beauty? The arms, the limbs, and nation, to conceive an enlargement of the several parts of them correspond, but their dimensions, or to recollect any it is not the same case with the thorax events or circumitances appertaining to and the abdomen. I believe one is getheir pristine grandeur, so far as con- nerally solicitous for a kind of balance cerns grandeur and folemnity. The in a landskip; and, if I am not misbreaks in them should be as bold and taken, the painters generally furnish abrupt as possible. If mere beauty be

one: a building for instance on one side, aimed at, (which however is not their contrasted by a group of trees, a large chief excellence) the waving line, with oak, or a 'rifing hill, on the other. more easy transitions, will become of Whence then does this taste proceed, greater importance. Events relating to but from the love we bear to regularity them may be simulated by numberless in perfection? After all, in regard to little artifices; but it is ever to be re- gardens, the Thape of ground, the dirmembered, that high bills and sudden position of trees, and the figure of wadescents are most suitable to castles; and ter, must be lacred to natures and no fertile vales, near wood and water, most forms must be allowed that make a dirimitative of the usual situation for ab.

covery of art. beys and religious houses; large oaks, All trees have a character analogous : ; particular, are essential to these latter ; to that of men: oaks are in all relpeets whose branching arms, and reverend height, the perfect image of the manly chaAdmis à dim religious light.

racter: in former times I should have la Montesquieu, on Taste,

Gaid,

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