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Jaul, and in present times I think I am wise than clandestinely and by night. -authorised to say, the British one. As Whenever she is allowed to appear here, a brave man is not suddenly either'elated and ren begin to compromile the dif. by prosperity or depresied by adversity, ference - night, gothicilin, confusion, So the oak displays not it's verdure on and absolute chaos, are come again. the sun's first approach; nor drops it, To fee one's urns, obelisks, and waon his first departure. Add to this it's terfalls laid open; the nakedness of our majestic appearance, the rough grandeur beloved mistresses, the Naiads and the of it's bark, and the wide protection of Dryads, exposed by that ruflian Winter it's branches.

to universal oblervation; is a severity A large, branching, aged cak, is per- fcarcely to be supported by the help of haps the inolt venerable of all inaniinate blazing hearths, chearful companions, objects,

and a bottle of the molt grateful BurUrns are more solemn, if large and gundy. plain; more beautiful, if less and orna. The works of a person that builds, mented. Solemnity is perhaps their begin immediately to decay; while those point, and the situation of them (hould of him who plants begin directly to imitill co-operate with it,

prove. In this, planting promises a By the way, I wonder that lead fta- more lasting pleasure than building; les are not more in vogue in our mo- which, were it to remain in equal per dern gardens. Though they may not fection, would at beit begin to moulder express the finer lines of an human and want repairs in imagination. Now body, yet they seem perfectly well cal- trees have a circumstance that suits our culated, on account of their duration, tafte, and that is annual variety. It is to embellish landskips, were they some inconvenient indeed, if they cause our degrees inferior to what we generally love of life to take root and flourih with behold. A statue in a room challenges them; whereas the very fameness of our examination, and is to be examined cric structures will, without the help of diLically as a ftatue. A statue in a gar- lapidation, serve to wean us from our den is to be considered as one part of a attachment to them. scene or landskip; the minuter touches It is a custom in some countries to are no more effential to it, than a good condemn the characters of those (after Tandikip-painter would esteem them death) that have neither planted a tree, were he to represent a ftatue in his nor begot a child. picture.

The taste of the citizen and of the Apparent art, in it's proper province, mere peasant are in all respects the same. is almolt as important as apparent na- The former gilds his, balls; paints his ture. They contrast agreeably; but stonework and statues white; plants his. their provinces ever Thould be kept ditrees in lines or circles; cuts his yew. itin&t.

trees four-square or conic; or gives Some artificial beauties are so dex- them what he can of the resemblance of teroully managed, that one cannot but , birds, or bears, or men; squirts up his conceive them natural; fome natural rivulets in jetteaus; in short, admires ones so extremely fortunate, that one is no part of nature, but her ductility; ready to swear they are artificial. exhibits every thing that is glaring, that

Concerning scenes, the more uncom- implies expence, or that effects a surmon they appear, the better, provided prize because it is unnatural. The they form a picture, and include no- peasant is his admirer. thing that pretends to be of nature's It is always to be remembered in gar-production, and is not. The shape of dening, that sublimity or magnificence, ground, the site of trees, and the fall and beauty or variety, are very different of water, natwe's province. Whatever things. Every scene we see in nature is thwarts her is trealon.

either tame and insipid, or compounded On the other hand, buildings and of those. It often happens that the same the works of art need have no other re. ground may receive from art, either ference to nature than that they afford the certain degrees of fublimity and mag. avertjener with which the human mind is , nificence, or certain degrees of variery delighted.

and beauty; or a mixture of each'kind. Art Thould never be allowed to set a In this case it remains to be confidered soat in the province of nature, ottiere in which light they can be rendered most

remarkable,

remarkable, whether as objects of beauty imagined space is indeterminate, if your er inagnificence. Even the temper of building bedım-coloured, it will not ap. the proprietor should not perhaps be pear inconsiderable. The imagination wholly disregarded: for certain com- is a greater magnifier than a microscopic plexions of fuul will prefer an orange- glass. And on this head, I have known tree or a myrtle, to an oak or cedar. some inttances, where, by thewing interHowever, this should not induce a gar. mediate ground, the dilance has apdener to parcel out a lawn into knots of peared lefs, than while an ledge or grove i frubbery; or invest a mountain with a concealed it. garb of roles. This would be like drett. Hedges, appearing as such, are uni ing a giant in a sarsenet gown, or a Sa- versally bad." They discover art in naracen's head in a Brussels nightcap. In- ture's province. deed the small circular clumps of firs, Trees in hedges partake of their artiwhich I see planted upon some fine large ficiality, and become a part of them. swells, put me often in mind of a coro. There is no more sudden and obvious net placed on an elephant or camel's improvement, than an hedge removed, back. I say, a gardener Mould not do and the trees remaining; yet not in such this, any more than a poet should at. manner as to mark out the former hedge. , tempt to write of the king of Prullia in Water Mould ever appear as an irrethe Qyle of Philips. On the other side, gular lake, or winding stream. what would hecome of Lelbia's sparrow, Islands give beauty, if the water be fhould it be treated in the same language adequate; but leffen grandeur through with the anger of Achilles?

variety. Gardeners may be divided into three It was the wise remark of some sagaSarts, the landskip gardener, the parterre cious observer, That familiarity is, for gardener, and the kitchen gardener, the most part, productive of contempt. agreeably to our first division of gar- Graceless offspring of to amiable a padens.

rent! Unfortunate beings that we are, I have ufed the word landskip-gar- whole enjoyments must be either checkdeners; becaute, in pursuance of our pre- ed, or prove destructive of themselves. fent taste in gardening, every good Our passions are permitted to fip a little painter of landskip appears to me the pleasure; but are extinguished by indulmost proper designer. The misfortune gence, like a lamp overwhelmed with of it is, that these painters are apt to oil. Hence we neglect the beauty with regard the execution of their work which we have been intimate; nor would much more than the choice of subject. any addition it could receive, prove an

The art of dittancing and approxi- equivalent for the advantage it derived mating comes truly within their sphere: from the first impression. Thus, neglia the former by the gradual diminution of gent of graces that have the merit of ditinctness, and of size; the latter by reality, we too often prefer imaginary the reverse. A straight-lined avenue ones that have only the charm of novelthat is widened in front, and planted ty: and hence we inay account, in gene- / there with ewe-trees, then firs, then with ral, for the preference of art to nature, trees more and more fady, till they end in our old-fashioned gardens. in the almond-willow, or silver clier; Art, indeed, is often requisite to colwill produce a very remarkable decep- lect and epitomize the beauties of nature; foon of the former kind; which decep- but should never be luffered to set her tion will be encreased, if the nearer dark mark upon them: I mean, in regard to - frees-ate proportionable and truly larger those articles that are of nature's pro. than those at the end of the avenue that vince; the shaping of ground, the plant. are more fady.

ing of trees, and the disposition of lakes To distance a building, plant as near and rivulets. Many more particulars as you can to it, two or three circles of will soon occur, which, however, she is different-coloured greens. Ever-greens allowed to regulate, foniewhat clandesare best for all fuch purposes. Suppose tinely, upon the following account the outer one of holly, and the next of Man is not capable of coinprehending lagrel, &c. the consequence will be that the universe at one survey. Had he fathe imagination immediately allows à culties equal to this, he might well be Space betwint these circles, and another censured for any minute regulations of betwixt the house and them; and as the his own. It were the same, as if, in his

present

present situation, he trove to find amuses to confer a benefit which nature, on her ment in contriving the fabric of an ant's fide, will not repay. seit, or the partitions of a bee-hive. But A rural scene, to me, is never perfeet, we are placed in the corner of a sphere; without the addition of some kind of endued neither with organs, nor allowed building: indeed I have known a scar of a station, proper to give us an universal rock-work, in great measure, fupply the view; or to exhibit to us the variety, the deficiency. orderly proportions, and dispositions of In gardening, it is no small point to the system. We perceive many breaks enforce either grandeur or beauty by and blemishes, several neglected and un- surprize; for initance, hy abrupt transivariegated places in the part; which, in tion from their contraries--but to lay a the whole, would appear either imper- ttress upon surprize only; for example, ceptible, or beautiful. And we might on the surprize occasioned by an aha! as rationally expect a snail to be satisfied without including any nobler purpose; with the heauty of our parterres, slopes, is a symptom of bad taste, and a violent and terrasses; or an ant to prefer our fondness for mere concetto. buildings to her own orderly range of Grandeur and beauty are so very opgranaries; as that man shall be satisfied, posite, that you often diminish the one as without a single thought that he can im- you encrease the other. Variety is most prove the spot that falls to his Mare. But, a-kin to the latter, limplicity to the for though art be necessary for collecting mer. nature's beauties, by what reason is the Suppose a large bill varied by art authorized to thwart and to oppose her? with large patches of different coloured Why fantastically endeavour to human. clumps, scars of rock, chalk quarries, ize those vegetables, of which nature, villages, or farm - houses; you will have, discreet nature, thought it proper to make perhaps, a more beautiful scene, but trees? Why endow the vegetable bird much less grand than it was before. with wings, which nature lias made mo- In many instances, it is moft eligible 'mentarily dependent upon the toil? Here to compound your scene of beauty and art seems very affectedly to make a dif- grandeur-Suppose a magnificent (well play of that industry, which it is her arising out of a well-variegated valley; it glory to conceal. The stone which re- would be disadvantageous to encreafe it's presents an asterisk, is valued only on beauty, by means deltructive to it's magaccount of it's natural production: nor nificence. do we view with pleasure the laboured There may possibly, but there feldom carvings and futile diligence of Gothic happens to be any occasion to fill up valartists. We view, with much 'more fa. leys, with trees or otherwise. It is for tisfaction, some plain Grecian fabric, the most part the gardener's business to where art, indeed, has been equally, but remove trees, or aught that fills up the less visibly, industrious. It is thus we, low ground; and to give, as far as naindeed, admire the shining texture of the ture allows, an artificial eminence to the silk-worm; but we loath the puny au- high. thor, when the thinks proper to emerge, The hedge-row apple trees in Hereand to disgust us with the appearance of fordshire afford a moit beautiful scenery, so vile a grub.

at the time they are in blossom: but the But this is merely true in regard to prospect would be really grander, did it the particulars of nature's province; consist of Imple foliage. For the same wherein art can only appear as the molt reason, a large oak (or beech) in auabject vassal, and had, therefore, better tumn, is a grander object than the fame not appear at all. The case is different in spring. The sprightly green is then where she has the direction of buildings, obfuscated. useful or ornamental: or, perhaps, claims Smoothness and easy transitions are no as much honour from temples, as the small ingredients in the beautiful; abrupt deities to whom they are inscribed. Here and rectangular breaks have more of the then it is her interest to be seen as much nature of the sublime. Thus a tapering as possible: and, though nature appear spire is, perhaps, a more beautiful obdoubly beautiful by the contrast her jest than a tower, which is grander. structures furnish, it is not easy for her Many of the different opinions relat

ing ing to the preference to be given to seats, unvaried with objects, is gránder than villas, &ci are owing to want of distinc. one with infinite variety: but then it's cion betwixt the beautiful and the mag- beauty is proportionably less. nificent. Both the former and the lat- However, I think a plain space near ter please: but'there are imaginations the eye gives it a kind of liberty it loves : particularly adapted to the one, and to and then the picture, whether you chule the other.

the grand or beautiful, should be held Mr. Addison thought an open, unin- up at it's proper diltance. Variety is the closed champaign country, formed the principal ingredient in beauty; and fimbeit landskip. Somewhat here is to be plicity is essential to grandeur. confidered. Large unvariegated, limple Offensive objects, at a proper diftance,' objects, have the belt preventions to lubacquire even a degree of beauty: for inlimity; a large mountain, whose lides are stanice, stubble fallow ground

ESSAY XXIII.

ON POLITICS.

catch at every witticism ina

ent sects and parties very frequently discriminately. think the same; only vary in their phrase Indolence'is a kind of centripetal and language. At least, if one examines force. their first principles, which very often It seems idle to rail at ambition mere. coincide, it were a point of prudence, as ly because it is a boundless passion; or well as candour, to consider the rest as rather is not this circumstance an argunorhing more.

ment in it's favour? If one would be A courtier's dependent is a beggar's employed or amured through life, should dog.

we not make choice of a pallion that If national reflections are unjust, be. will keep one long in play? cause there are good men in all nations, A sportiman of vivacity will make are not national wars upon much the choice of that game which will prolong same footing?

his diversion: a fox, that will support A government is inexcusable for em- the chace till night, is better game than ploying foolish ministers; because they a rabbit, that will not afford him half an may examine a man's head, though they hour's entertainment. cannot bis heart.

The submission of Prince Hal to the I fancy, the proper means of encreas. civil magiftrate that committed him, was ing the love we bear our native country, more to his honour than all the conqueits is to reside fome time in a foreign one. of Henry the Fifth in France.

The love of popularity seems little The most animated focial pleasure, cife than the love of being beloved; and that I can conceive, may be, perhaps, is only blameable when a person aims at felt by a general after a fuccelsful en. the affections of a people by means in gagement, or in it: I mean, by fuch appearance honest, but in their end per- commanders as have fouls equal to their nicious and destruētive.

occupation. This, however, leems paThere ough, no doubt, to be heroes radoxical, and requires fome explanain fociety as well as butchers; and who tion. knows but the necessity of butchers (in- Resistance to the reigning powers is Aaming and stimulating the passions with justifiable, upon a conviction that their aniinal food) might at first occasion the government is inconsistent with the good necessity of heroes? Butchers, I believe, of the subject; that our interpofition tends were prior.

to establith better measures; and this The whole mystery of a courtly be. without a probability of occafioning haviour feems included in the power of evils that may over-balance them. But making general favours appear particu. tiefe confiderations must never be sepa. lar ones.

rated. A man of remarkable genius may af- People are, perhaps, more vicious in furd to pass by a piece of wit, if it hap- towns, because they have fewer natural pens to border on abuse. A little genius objects there, to employ their attention

pr

or admiration:' likewise, because one vie not been owing to any vicious defre of cious character tends to encourage and indulging his appetites in thort, if his keep another in countenance. However own realon, liable to err, have billed it he, excluding accidental circumstances, his will, rather than his will any way I believe tie largest cities are the most vio contributed to biafs and deprave his reacious of all others.

fon, he will, perhaps, appear guilty be. Laws are generally found to be nets fore none belide an earthly tribunal. of such a texture, as the little creep A person's right to rehk depends upthrough, the great break through, and on a conviction that the government is the middle-sized are alune entangled in. ill-managed; that others have more claim

Though I have no fort of inclination to manage it, or will adminifter it bete to vindicate the late rebellion, yet I am ter: that he, by his resistance, can in. led hy candour to make some distinction troduce a change to it's advantage, and between the immorality of ii's abettors, this without any consequential evils that and the illegality of their offence. My will bear proportion to the said advanLord Hardwick, in his condemnation- tage. {peech, remarks, with great propriety, Whether this were not in appearance that the laws of all nations have ad. the cale of Balmerino, I will not presume judged rebellion to be the worst of crimes. to say: how conceived, or from what de And in regard to civil societies, I be. lufion (prung. But as, I think, he was leve there are none but madmen will reputed an honest man, in other respects, dispute it. But surely, with regard to one may guess his behaviour was rather conicieuće, erroneous judgments, and owing to the misrepresentations of his ill-grounded convictions, may render it realon, chan to any depravity, perverse. fome people's dury. Sin does not consist ness, or disingenuity of his will. in any deviation from received opinion; If a person ought heartily to stickle it does not depend upon the understand for any cause, it should be that of moing, but the will. Now, if it appears deration. Moderation should be his that a man's opinion has happened to party, misplacę his duty; and this opinion has

ESSAY XXIV.

EGOTISM3.
FROM MY OWN SENSATIONS.

1.

Hate maritime expressions, fimiles,

I loved Mr. Somervile, because he

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VI.

11.

TII.

proceeds from the unnaturalnets of ship- Aocci-nauci-nihili-picification of money. ping; and the great Mare which art ever claims in that practice.

It is with me in regard to the earth it.

self, as it is in regard to those that walk I am thankful that

my
name is ob.

upon it's 11:1face. I love to pass by poxious to no pun.

crowds, and to catch diftant views of the

country as I walk along; but I inseniiMay I always have an heart superior, bly chute to fit where I cannot fee two with @conomy suitable, to my fortune! 'yaids before me.

Inaniinatis, toys, utensils, seem to I begin, too fuon in life, to fight the merit a kind vf afti tion from us, when world inore than is continent with inakthey have been our companions through ing a figure in it. The soufflanti of various viciffitudes. I have often viewed Ovid grows upon me so fast that in a few my watch, ftandish, fnuff-box, with this years I shall have no paflion. kind of tender regard; allotting them a degree of friendship, which there are I am obliged to the person that speaks Some men who do not deferve:

me fair to my face. I am only more, • Midæ many faithless only faithful found!" obliged to the man who speaks well of

VII.

VIII.

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