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flowery, yet both elegant and lively. The wit, or rather These are thy glorious works, Parent of Good !
Circle his throne rejoicing. You in heaven, vehemence or severity, it is only when his country, or Him first, him last, him midst, and without end. the rights of men, are attacked, or when the sacred ties
Fairest of stars, last in the train of night, of humanity are violated by unfeeling or insane rulers. If rather thou belong'st not to the dawn, There is nothing more delightful than the constancy with Sure pledge of day, that crown'st the smiling morn which those amiable feelings, those sound principles, those with thy bright circlet ! praise him in thy sphere truly profound views of human affairs, make their ap- While day arises, that sweet hour of prime. pearance at every opportunity, whether the immediate Thou sun, of this great world both eye and soul, subject be speculative or practical—of a political, or of Acknowledge him thy greater, sound his praise a more general, description. It is refreshing to find in thy eternal course! both when thou climb'st, such a mind as Franklin's—worthy of a place near to And when high noon hast gain'd, and when thou fall'st. Newton and to Washington-filled with those pure and Moon, that now meet'st the orient sun, now fly'st exalted sentiments of concern for the happiness of With the fix?d stars, fixʼd in their orb that flies!
five other wand'ring fires that move mankind, which the petty wits of our times amuse
In mystic dance, not without song, resound themselves with laughing at, and their more cunning His praise, that ont of darkness call'd up light. and calculating employers seek by every means to dis- Air! and ye elements ! the eldest birth courage, sometimes by ridicule, sometimes by invective, of nature's womb, that in quaternions run as truly incompatible with all plans of misgovernment. Perpetual circle, multiform, and mix’d,
The benevolent cast of his disposition was far from And nourish all things ! let your ceaseless change confining itself to those sublimer views. From ear-Vary to our great Maker still new praise. nest wishes, and active, victorious exertions for the Ye mists and exhalations ! that now rise prosperity of the species, he descended perpetually From hill or streaming lakes dusky or grey, to acts of particular kindness. He seems to have Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold, felt an unwearied satisfaction in affording assistance, whether to deck with clouds th' uncolour'd sky,
In honour to the world's great Author rise ! instruction, or amusement, to all who stood in need Or wet the thirsty
earth with falling show'rs, of it. His letters are full of passages which bear Rising or falling still advance his praise. testimony to this amiable solicitude for the
happiness His praise, ye winds! that from four quarters blow, of his fellow-creatures individually; it seems the Breathe soft or loud; and wave your tops, ye pines ! chief cause of his writing, in most cases: and if he With every plant, in sign of worship wave. ever deviates from his habit of keeping out all super- Fountains! and ye that warble as ye flow fluous matter, whatever be the subject, it is when he Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise. seems tempted to give some extra piece of knowledge Join voices all, ye living souls, ye birds, or entertainment. So, if ever the serene and well-na- That singing, up to heaven's high gate ascend ! tured cast of his temper appears ruffled by anger, or Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. even soured for the moment, it is when some enormi- Ye that in waters glide ! and ye that walk ties have been committed which offend against the The earth! and stately tread; or lowly creep ;
Witness if I be silent, ev'n or morn, highest principles which he professes. If the example of this eminent person may well Made vocal by my song, and taught his praise,
To hill or valley, fountain or fresh shade, teach respect for philanthropic sentiments to one set of scoffers, it may equally impress upon the minds of
Dr Franklin's person, as seen at the period of the another class the important lesson, that veneration for revolution, was square-built and fat. He wore his religion is quite compatible with a sound practical un- own hair, which was thin and grey. His head was derstanding. Franklin was a man of a truly pious remarkably large in proportion to his figure, and his turn of mind. The great truths of natural theology countenance was mild, firm, and expressive. He looked were not only deeply engraven on his mind, but con- healthy and vigorous, which may be ascribed both to stantly present to his thoughts. As far as can be a good constitution and a temperate mode of living. collected from his writings, he appears to have been a He was friendly and agreeable in conversation, which Christian of the Unitarian school; but if his own faith he readily suited to his company, with a seeming wish had not gone so far, he at least would greatly have re- to benefit his hearers, and at the same time possessing spected the religion of his country and its professors, a rare talent of profiting by the conversation of others, and done every thing to encourage its propagation, as and turning their hints to such purposes as he desired. infinitely beneficial to mankind, even if doubts had ex; He left, to deplore his loss, one daughter, Mrs Bache, ** isted in his own mind as to some of its fundamental who attended him on his death-bed. Mrs Bache, as we doctrines.
have heard, was a woman of strong mind and amiable It is not, indeed, in set dissertations alone that we dispositions, in which respects she bore a resemblance are to look for the evidence of his sincere and habitual to her father. The present Professor Bache, President piety. Feelings of a devotional cast everywhere break of Gerard College, Philadelphia, is a grandson of this forth. The ideas connected with this lofty, matter, gifted lady. William Franklin, the illegitimate son of seem always to have occupied his mind. He is to the Dr Franklin, and who had at one time been governor full as habitually a warm advocate of religion, as he is of New Jersey, died in 1813. a friend of liberty. The power, the wisdom, and the The practice of frugality and industry which Dr beneficence of the Deity, are as much in his thoughts Franklin pursued through life, and the success which as the happiness and rights of mankind.”*
attended his efforts, placed him in a condition of conAmong the papers which he left behind him, and siderable affluence in his later years. His wealth which have been published by his grandson, there was enabled him to assist in alleviating individual distress, found one entitled “ Articles of Religion,” which in- and also to further public improvements, of which he cludes a form of daily prayer, adoration, and thanks was an unreinitting patron. That, in his latest thoughts, giving. In this species of liturgy, he lays it down as he consulted the public benefit, is testified by the tenor å rule, that after offering up his humble tribute of of his last will and testament, from which we present gratitude to the Almighty, he should spend a few mi- the following extracts :nutes in serious silence, and then sing Milton's Hymn “With regard to my books, those I had in France, to the Creator :
and those I left in Philadelphia, being now assembled
* Edinburgh Review, vol. xxviii.
of Pronounced Baitch.
LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT.
together here, and a catalogue made of them, it is my intention to dispose of the same as follows:
I, Benjamin Franklin, in the foregoing or annexed My • History of the Academy of Sciences,' in sixty last will and testament, having further considered the or seventy volumes quarto, I give
to the Philosophical same, do think proper to make and publish the following Society of Philadelphia, of which I have the honour to codicil, or addition thereto :be president. My collection in folio of “Les Arts et It having long been a fixed and political opinion of les Metiers," I give to the American Philosophical So- mine, that in a democratical state there ought to be no ciety, established in New England, of which I am a offices of profit, for the reasons I have given in an member. My quarto edition of the same, ' Arts et les article of my drawing in our constitution, it was my Metiers,' I give to the Library Company of Philadelphia. intention, when I accepted the office of president, to Such and so many of my books as I shall mark, in the devote the appointed salary to some public use : accorsaid catalogue, with the name of my grandson, Benjamin dingly I had already, before I made my last will, in Franklin Bache, I do hereby give to him; and such July last, given large sums of it to colleges, schools, and so many of my books as I shall mark in the said building of churches, &c. and in that will I bequeathed catalogue with the name of my grandson, William two thousand pounds more to the state, for the purpose Bache, I do hereby give to him; and such as shall be of making the Schuylkil navigable; but understanding marked with the name of Jonathan Williams, I hereby since, that such a sum would do but little towards aegive to my cousin of that name. The residue and re- complishing such a work, and that the project is not mainder of all my books, manuscripts, and papers, I likely to be undertaken for many years to come and do give to my grandson William Temple Franklin. having entertained another idea, which I hope may be My share in the Library Company of Philadelphia, I more extensively useful, I do hereby revoke and annul give to my grandson Benjamin Franklin Bache, confid- the bequest, and direct that the certificates I have for ing that he will permit his brothers and sisters to what remains due to me of that salary, be sold towards share in the use of it.
raising the sum of two thousand pounds sterling, to be I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my disposed of as I am now about to order. first instructions in literature to the free grammar- It has been an opinion, that he who receives an schools established there. I therefore give one hundred estate from his ancestors, is under some obligation to pounds sterling to my executors, to be by them, the transmit the same to posterity. This obligation lies survivors or survivor of them, paid over to the mana- not on me, who never inherited a shilling from any gers or directors of the free schools in my native town ancestor or relation. I shall, however, if it is not diof Boston, to be by them, or the person or persons minished by some accident before my death, leave a who shall have the superintendence and management considerable estate among my descendants and relaof the said schools, put out to interest, and so continued tions. The above observation is made merely as some at interest for ever; which interest annually shall be apology to my family, for making bequests that do not laid out in silver medals, and given as honorary rewards appear to have any immediate relation to their adannually by the directors of the said free schools, for vantage. the encouragement of scholarship in the said schools I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my belonging to the said town, in such a manner as to the first instructions in literature to the free grammardiscretion of the select men of the said town shall seem schools established there. I have therefore considered meet.
those schools in my will. Out of the salary that may remain due to me, as But I am also under obligations to the state of president of the state, I give the sum of two thousand Massachusetts for having, unasked, appointed me pounds to my executors, to be by them, the survivors formerly their agent, with a handsome salary, which or survivor of them, paid over to such person or per- continued some years; and although I accidentally sons as the legislature of this state, by an act of Assem- lost in their service, by transmitting Governor Hutbly, shall appoint to receive the same, in trust, to be chinson's letters, much more than the amount of what employed for making the Schuylkil navigable.
they gave me, I do not think that ought in the least to During the number of years I was in business as a diminish my gratitude. I have considered that, among stationer, printer, and post-master, a great many small artizans, good apprentices are most likely to make good sums became due to me, for books, advertisements, citizens; and having myself been bred to a manual postage of letters, and other matters, which were not art, printing, in my native town, and afterwards as, collected when, in 1757, I was sent by the Assembly sisted to set up my business in Philadelphia by kind to England as their agent, and by subsequent appoint-loans of money from two friends there, which was the ments continued there till 1775--when, on my return, foundation of my fortune, and of all the utility in life I was immediately engaged in the affairs of Congress, that may be ascribed to me I wish to be useful even and sent to France in 1776, where I remained nine after my death, if possible, in forming and advancing years, not returning till 1785; and the said debts not other young men, that may be serviceable to their being demanded in such a length of time, have become country in both these towns. in a manner obsolete, yet are nevertheless justly due. To this end I devote two thousand pounds sterling, These as
are stated in my great folio ledger E, I which I give, one thousand thereof to the inhabitants bequeath to the contributors of the Pennsylvania hos- of the town of Boston, in Massachusetts, and the other pital, hoping that those debtors, and the descendants thousand to the inhabitants of the city of Philadelphia, of such as are deceased, who now, as I find, make some in trust, to and for the uses, intents, and purposes, difficulty of satisfying such antiquated demands as just hereinafter mentioned and declared. debts, may, however, be induced to pay or give them The said sum of one thousand pounds sterling, if as charity to that excellent institution. I am sensible accepted by the inhabitants of the town of Boston, shall that much must be inevitably lost; but I hope some- be managed under the direction of the select men, thing considerable may be recovered. It is possible, united with the ministers of the oldest episcopalian, too, that some of the parties charged may have existing congregational, and presbyterian churches in that old unsettled accounts against me: in which case the town, who are to let out the same upon interest, at five managers of the said hospital will allow and deduct the per cent. per annum, to such young married artificers, amount, or pay the balance, if they find it against me. under the age of twenty-five years, as have served an
I request my friends, Henry Hill, Esq. John Jay, apprenticeship in the said town, and faithfully fulfilled Esq. Francis Hopkinson, and Mr Edward Duffield, of the duties required in their indentures, so as to obtain Bonfield, in Philadelphia county, to be the executors a good moral character from at least two respectable of this my last will and testament, and I hereby nomi- citizens, who are willing to become sureties in a bond, nate and appoint them for that purpose.
with the applicants, for the repayment of the money so I would have my body buried with as little expense lent, with interest, according to the terms hereinafter or ceremony as may be.
prescribed---all which bonds are to be taken for Spanish Philadelphia, July 17, 1788.
milled dollars, or the value thereof in current gold LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT.-EPITAPH.
coin; and the manager shall keep a bound book or inhabitants, which I apprehend may be done without books, wherein shall be entered the names of those great difficulty, the level of that creek being much who shall apply for and receive the benefit of this in- above that of the city, and may be made higher by a stitution, and of their sureties, together with the sums dam. I also recommend making the Schuylkil comlent, the dates, and other necessary and proper records pletely navigable. At the end of the second hundred respecting the business and concerns of this institution: years, I would have the disposition of the four millions and as these loans are intended to assist young married and sixty-one thousand unds divided between the inartificers in setting up their business, they are to be habitants of the city of Philadelphia and the governproportioned by the discretion of the managers, so as ment of Pennsylvania, in the same manner as herein not to exceed sixty pounds sterling to one person, nor directed with respect to that of the inhabitants of Bosto be less than fifteen pounds.
ton and the government of Massachusetts. It is my And if the number of appliers so entitled should be desire that this institution should take place, and begin so large as that the sum will not suffice to afford to every to operate, within one year after my decease; for which one some assistance, these aids may therefore be small purpose due notice should be publicly given, previous at first; but as the capital increases by the accumulated to the expiration of that year, that those for whose interest, they will be more ample. And in order to benefit this establishment is intended, may make their serve as many as possible in their turn, as well as to respective applications; and I hereby direct my exemake the repayment of the principal borrowed more cutors, the survivors and survivor of them, within six easy, each borrower shall be obliged to pay with the months after my decease, to pay over the said sum of yearly interest one-tenth part of the principal; which two thousand pounds sterling to such persons as shall sums of principal and interest so paid in, shall be again be appointed by the select, men of Boston, and the corlet out to fresh borrowers. And it is presumed, that poration of Philadelphia, and to receive and take charge there will be always found in Boston virtuous and of their respective sums of one thousand pounds each benevolent citizens, willing to bestow a part of their for the purpose aforesaid. Considering the accidents time in doing good to the rising generation, by super- to which all human affairs and projects are subject in intending and managing this institution gratis: it is such a length of time, I have perhaps too much flathoped, that no part of the money will at any time lie tered myself with a vain fancy, that these dispositions, dead, or be diverted to other purposes, but be continu- if carried into execution, will be continued without inally augmenting by the interest, in which case there terruption, and have the effects proposed; I hope, howmay in time be more than the occasion in Boston may ever, that if the inhabitants of the two cities should not require; and then some may be spared to the neigh- think fit to undertake the execution, they will at least bouring or other towns in the said state of Massachu- accept the offer of these donations, as a mark of my good setts, which may desire to have it, such towns engaging will, token of my gratitude, and testimony of my desire to pay punctually the interest, and the proportions of to be useful to them even after my departure. "I wish, the principal annually, to the inhabitants of the town of indeed, that they may both endeavour to undertake the Boston. If this plan is executed, and succeeds, as execution of my project, because I think, that, though projected, without interruption, for one hundred years, unforeseen difficulties may arise, expedients will be found the sum will be then one hundred and thirty.one thou- to remove them, and the scheme be found practicable. sand pounds; of which I would have the managers of If one of them accepts the money with the conditions, the donation to the town of Boston then lay out, at their and the other refuses, my will then is, that both sums discretion, one hundred thousand pounds in public works, be given to the inhabitants of the city accepting; the which may be judged of most general utility to the in- whole to be applied to the same purposes, and under the habitants : such as fortifications, bridges, aqueducts, same regulations directed for the separate parts; and public buildings, baths, pavements, or whatever may if both refuse, the money remains of course in the mass make living in the town more convenient to its people, of my estate, and it is to be disposed of therewith, acand render it more agreeable to strangers resorting cording to my will made the 17th day of July 1788. thither for health, or a temporary residence. The re- My fine crabtree walking-stick, with a gold head maining thirty-one thousand pounds I would have con- curiously wrought in the form of the cap of liberty, I tinued to be let out to interest, in the manner above give to my friend, and the friend of mankind, General directed, for one hundred years; as I hope it will have Washington. If it were a sceptre, he has merited it, been found, that the institution has had a good effect on and would become it." the conduct of youth, and been of service to many The body of Franklin was buried in the cemetery of worthy characters and useful citizens. At the end of Christ's Church, in Philadelphia. His request had this second term, if no unfortunate accident has pre- been, that he should, if convenient, be buried beside vented the operation, the sum will be four millions and his wife; and that a plain marble slab should be placed sixty-one thousand pounds sterling, of which I leave over their joint grave, with an inscription simply of their one million and sixty-one thousand pounds to the dis- names and dates of their interments. When a young position and management of the inhabitants of the man, he wrote an epitaph on himself, which was found town of Boston, and three millions to the disposition of among his papers after his decease. It has often been the government of the state-not presuming to carry printed, and is as follows: my views farther. All the directions herein given respecting the dispo
THE BODY sition and management of the donation to the inhabitants of Boston, I would have observed respecting that to the inhabitants of Philadelphia; only as Philadelphia
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, is incorporated, I request the corporation of that city
Printer, to undertake the management, agreeable to the said
(like the cover of an old book, directions and I do hereby vest them with full and
its contents torn out, ample powers for that purpose. And having considered
and stript of its lettering and gilding) that the covering its ground plat with buildings and pavement, which carry off most rain, and prevent its
lies here, food for the worms; soaking into the earth, and renewing and purifying
yet the work itself shall not be lost, the springs, whence the water of the wells must gradu- for it will (as he believed) appear once more, ally grow worse, and in time be unfit for use, as I find
in a new has happened in all old cities--I recommend, that, at
and more beautiful edition, the end of the first hundred years, if not done before, the corporation of the city employ a part of the hun
corrected and amended dred thousand pounds in bringing by pipes the water of Wiffahickon creek into the town, so as to supply the
naturally inclined to be meddling with things that
do not concern me) perhaps I may sometimes talk of [The following papers with this title, are those "humorous politics. And if I can by any means furnish out a pieces” which in the year 1728-9 Franklin wrote in Bradford's weekly entertainment for the public, that will give a newspaper, at Philadelphia, with the object of turning the pro- rational diversion, and at the same time be instructive spectus of Keimer's paper into ridicule. They afford a speci- to the readers, I shall think my leisure hours well emmen of the stylo of Franklin in early life.]
ployed; and if you publish this, I hereby invite all
ingenious gentlemen, and others (that approve of such The Busy-Body.—No. I.
an undertaking), to my assistance and correspondence.
It is like, by this time, you have a curiosity to be MR ANDREW BRADFORD,
acquainted with I design this to acquaint you, that I, who have long aim at public praise, I design to remain concenled;
name and character. As I do not
my been one of your courteous readers, have lately enter- l and there are such numbers of our family and relatained some thought of setting up for an author myself ; tions at this time in the country, that, though I have not out of the least vanity, I assure you, or desire of signed my name at full length, I am not under the showing my parts, but purely for the good of my least apprehension of being distinguished and discocountry. I have often observed with concern, that your Mer
vered by it. My character, indeed, I would favour cury is not always equally entertaining. The delay of lest I should be told my trumpeter's dead; and I can
you with, but that I am cautious of praising myself, ships expected in, and want of fresh advices from
not find in my heart, at present, to say any thing to my Europe, make it frequently very dull; and I find the
own disadvantage. freezing of our river has the same effect on news as trade.
It is very common with authors in their first perWith more concern have I continually observed formances, to talk to their readers thus :- If this meets the growing vices and follies of my country folk: and with a suitable reception, or, if this should meet with though reformation is properly the concern of every due encouragement, I shall hereafter publish, &c.man-that is, every one ought to mend one-yet it is This only manifests the value they put on their own too true in this case, that what is every body's business is no body's business, and the business is done accord-yritings, since they think to frighten the public into
their applause, by threatening, that unless you approve ingly. I therefore, upon mature deliberation, think what they have already wrote, they intend never to fit to take no body's business wholly into my own hands; write again ; when, perhaps, it may not be a pin matter and, out of zeal for the public good, design to erect whether they ever do or no. As I have not observed myself into a kind of censor morum; purposing, with the critics to be more favourable on this account, I your allowance, to make use of the Weekly Mercury shall always avoid saying any thing of the kind; and as a vehicle in which my remonstrances shall be con- conclude with telling you, that if you send me a bottle veyed to the world. I am sensible I have, in this particular, undertaken depend on hearing further from, Sir, your most humble
of ink and a quire of paper by the bearer, you may a very unthankful office, and expect little besides my
The Busy-Body. labour for my pains. Nay, it is probable, I may displease a great number of your readers, who will not very well like to pay ten shillings a-year for being told
The Busy-Body.—No. II. of their faults. But as inost people delight in censure, All fools have still an itching to deride, when they themselves are not the objects of it, if any And fain would be upon the laughing side.-POPE. are offended at my publicly exposing their private vices, Monsieur Rochefocault tells us somewhere in his I promise they shall have the satisfaction, in a very Memoirs, that the Prince of Condé delighted much in little time, of seeing their good friends and neighbours ridicule, and used frequentiy to shut himself up for in the same circumstances.
half a day together in his chamber, with a gentleman However, let the fair sex be assured that I shall that was his favourite, purposely to divert himself with always treat them and their affairs with the utmost examining what was the foible, or ridiculous side, of decency and respect. I intend now and then to dedi- every noted person in the court. That gentleman said cate a chapter wholly to their service; and if my lec- afterwards in some company, that he thought nothing tures any way contribute to the embellishment of their was more ridiculous in any body than this same huminds, and brightening of their understandings, with mour in the prince; and I am somewhat inclined to be out offending their modesty, I doubt not of having of this opinion. The general tendency there is among their favour and encouragement.
us to this embellishment (which I fear has too often It is certain, that no country in the world produces grossly imposed upon my loving countrymen instead of naturally finer spirits than ours, men of genius for wit), and the applause it meets with from a rising geneevery kind of science, and capable of acquiring to per- ration, fill me with fearful apprehensions for the future fection every qualification that is in esteem among reputation of my country: a young man of modesty mankind. But as few here have the advantage of (which is the most certain indication of large capacities) good books, for want of which good conversation is is hereby discouraged from attempting to make any still more scarce, it would, doubtless, have been very figure in life: his apprehensions of being outlaughed acceptable to your readers, if, instead of an old out-of- will force him to continue in a restless obscurity, withdate article from Muscovy or Hungary, you had en- out having an opportunity of knowing his own merit tertained them with some well-chosen extract from a himself, or discovering it to the world, rather than good author. This I shall sometimes do, when I hap- venture to expose himself in a place where a pun or a pen to have nothing of my own to say that I think of sneer shall pass for wit, noise for reason, and the more consequence. Sometimes, I purpose to deliver strength of the argument be judged by that of the lungs. lectures of morality or philosophy, and (because I am | Among these witty gentlemen, let us take a view of
THE BUSY-BODY. Ridentius: what a contemptible figure does he make, nice observer some notion of his mind. Methought he with his train of paltry admirers? This wight shall rapped in such a peculiar manner, as seemed of itself give himself an hour's diversion with the cock of a to express there was one who deserved as well as deman's hat, the heels of his shoes, an unguarded expres- sired admission. He appeared in the plainest country sion in his discourse, or even some personal defect; and garb; his greatcoat was coarse, and looked old and the height of his low ambition is to put some one of the thread-bare; his linen was home-spun ; his beard, percompany to the blush, who perhaps must pay an equal haps, of seven days' growth; his shoes thick and heavy ; share of the reckoning with himself. If such a fellow and every part of his dress corresponding. Why was makes laughing the sole end and purpose of his life, if this man received with such concurring respect from it is necessary to his constitution, or if he has a great every person in the room, even from those who had desire of growing suddenly fat, let him eat; let him never known him or seen him before? It was not an give public notice where any dull, stupid, rogues may exquisite form of person, or grandeur of dress, that get a quart of fourpenny for being laughed at; but it struck us with admiration. I believe long habits of is barbarously unhandsome, when friends meet for the virtue have a sensible effect on the countenance: there benefit of conversation, and a proper relaxation from was something in the air of his face that manifested business, that one should be the butt of the company, the true greatness of his mind; which likewise apand four men made merry at the cost of the fifth. peared in all he said, and in every part of his beha
How different from this character is that of the good- viour, obliging us to regard him with a kind of veneranatured gay Eugenius, who never spoke yet but with a tion. His aspect is sweetened with humanity and bedesign to divert and please, and who was never yet nevolence, and at the same time emboldened with rebaulked in his intention? Eugenius takes more delight solution, equally free from diffident bashfulness and an in applying the wit of his friends, than in being admired unbecoming assurance. The consciousness of his own himself: and if any one of the company is so unfortunate innate worth and unshaken integrity, renders him calm as to be touched a little too nearly, he will make use of and undaunted in the presence of the most great and some ingenious artifice to turn the edge of ridicule powerful, and upon the most extraordinary occasions. another way, choosing rather to make himself a public His strict justice and known impartiality make him the jest than be at the pain of seeing his friend in confu- arbitrator and decider of all differences that arise for sion.
many miles around him, without putting his neighbours Among the tribe of laughers, I reckon the pretty to the charge, perplexity, and uncertainty of law-suits. gentlemen that write satires, and carry them about in He always speaks the thing he means, which he is never their pockets, reading them themselves in all company afraid or ashamed to do, because he knows he always they happen into; taking an advantage of the ill taste means well; and therefore is never obliged to blush, of the town, to make themselves famous for a pack of and feel the confusion of finding himself detected in the paltry, low nonsense, for which they deserve to be meanness of a falsehood. He never contrives ill against kicked rather than admired, by all who have the least his neighbour, and therefore is never seen with a lowertincture of politeness. These I take to be the most in- ing, suspicious aspect. A mixture of innocence and corrigible of all my readers ; nay, I expect they will be wisdom makes him ever seriously cheerful. His genesquibbing at the Busy-body liimself. However, the rous hospitality to strangers according to his ability, only favour he begs of them is this, that if they cannot his goodness, his charity, his courage in the cause of control their overbearing itch of scribbling, let him be the oppressed, his fidelity in friendship, his humility, his attacked in downright biting lyrics; for there is no honesty and sincerity, his moderation and his loyalty satire he dreads half so much as an attempt towards a to the government, his piety, his temperance, his love pauegyric.
to mankind, his magnanimity, his public-spiritedness, and, in fine, his consummate virtue, make him justly
deserve to be esteemed the glory of his country.
The brave do never shun the light,
Just are their thoughts, and open are their tempers;
Freely without disguise they love and hate,
Still are they found in the fair face of day,
And heaven and men are judges of their actions.-Rows.
Who would not rather choose, if it were in his choice, It is said that the Persians, in their ancient consti- to merit the above character, than be the richest, the tution, had public schools in which virtue was taught most learned, or the most powerful man in the proas a liberal art or science: and it is certainly of more vince without it? consequence to a man, that he has learnt to govern his Almost every man has a strong natural desire of passions in spite of temptation, to be just in his deal- being valued and esteemed by the rest of his species ; ings, to be temperate in his pleasures, to support him- but I am concerned and grieved to see how few fall self with fortitude under his misfortunes, to behave into the right and only infallible method of becoming with prudence in all his affairs, and in every circum- so. That laudable ambition is too commonly misapstance of life--I say, it is of much more real advantage plied, and often ill employed. Some, to make themto him to be thus qualified, than to be a master of all selves considerable, pursue learning; others grasp at the arts and sciences in the world besides.
wealth ; some aim at being thought witty; and others Virtue alone is sufficient to make a man great, glori- are only careful to make the most of an handsome ous, and happy. He that is acquainted with Cato, as person: but what is wit, or wealth, or form, or learnI am, cannot help thinking, as I do now, and will ac- ing, when compared with virtue? It is true we love knowledge, he deserves the name, without being ho- the handsome, we applaud the learned, and we fear noured by it. Cato is a man whom fortune has placed the rich and powerful; but we even worship and adore in the most obscure part of the country. His circum- the virtuous. Nor is it strange; since men of virtue stances are such, as only put him above necessity, are so rare, so very rare, to be found. If we were as without affording him many superfluities: yet who is industrious to become good as to make ourselves great, greater than Cato? I happened but the other day to be we should become really great by being good, and the at a house in town, where, among others, were met number of valuable men would be much increased ; men of the most note in this place; Cato had business but it is a grand mistake to think of being great withwith some of them, and knocked at the door. The out goodness; and I pronounce it as certain, that there most trifling actions of a man, in my opinion, as well as was never yet a truly great man that was not at the the smallest features and lineaments of the face, give a same time truly virtuous.
O Cretico! thou sour philosopher, thou cunning * (Nor urgent tyrant's angry brow,
statesman, thou art crafty, but far from being wise ! Nor Jove's own thunderous arm, can make
When wilt thou be esteemed, regarded, and beloved The firm, undaunted mind to shake.]
like Catu? When wilt thou, among thy creatures,
Nor storins that bid the wild waves bow,