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escapes, is converted into steam of to ten-horse power. The cylinder is high elasticity; and as the pump is only two inches in diameter, and so contrived as to act with a steady 18 long, with a stroke of 12 inches, force, the water must escape in a and when in full power it consumes continuous stream; there is thus only two bushels of coal in a day. a constant supply to produce the The space occupied by it is only moping power, the motion of course six feet by eight; but Mr. Perkins being occasioned by the difference in considers that with the exception of the elasticity of the steam on the the piston and cylinder, the appara, opposite sides of the piston, that in- tus is sufficient for a 30-horse power troduced from the generator acting engine. Its operations have been with a force of 35 atmospheres, or witnessed, and minutely examined about 500lb. on the square inch, that by philosophers and engineers; and connected with the condenser acting the most unreasonable sceptics have with a pressure of five atmospheres, been compelled to acknowledge the or about 70lb.—the difference 430 justness of its principles, as well as being the power gained. When there the energy of its operations. Mr. Peris a surplus of water in the genera- kins has not, however, been content tor, occasioned by working the pump with this. He has discovered a mode too violently, or by the heat becom- of conveying the benefit of his origiing too high, part of it escapes nal principle to steam engines of the through the valve loaded with 37 old construction, which, when we atmospheres, and is conveyed into consider the enormous capital already the condenser. From the high elas- invested in steam engines, and the ticity of the steam, it has been sup skill and elegance with which they posed that this engine is very liable perform their functions, must be conto be burst: this is however a mis- sidered equal in value to his original take; for as the steam is generated discovery. For this the old engines with only in sufficient quantity to produce their boilers are retained unaltered; the each succeeding stroke of the piston, furnaces alone are removed. A gethere is no collection of it, as in the nerator is constructed consisting of common high pressure engines, ex three horizontal tubes of gun-metal posing a large surface to its expan- connected together, filled with wasive force, so that the ordinary source ter and supplied with fluid from a of danger is avoided. But in order forcing-pump, as in his own engine. to remove all apprehensions, the pipe This is exposed to heat in the same coming from the generator, and in manner; so that by means of a loadwhich the steam is formed, is made ed valve, the hot fluid may be con80 strong, as to sustain an internal strained till forced out of it into the pressure of four thousand pounds, water in the old boiler, and thus as which is eight times more powerful much low pressure steam of four than the force with which the engine pounds on the square inch may be works. This enormous superabun- generated by one bushel of coals, as. dance of strength is still farther sea could be produced in the old engine cured, by means of a safety pipe by nine. proceeding from the generator, and Mr. Perkins hậs lately made anprovided with a copper bulb, made other discovery, which promises to so as to burst at a pressure of 1000lb. be of great practical importance. He on the square inch; and owing to now dispenses with the condenser, the nature of this metal, it merely and works the engine against the attears like a piece of paper, so that mosphere alone; and by a method when it does burst, as Mr. Perkins which he has not yet thought it pruhas made it frequently do, it occa dent to disclose, he is enabled to arsions no injury whatever, either to rest the heat after it has performed its spectators or to the apparatus. This mechanical functions, and actually safety-tube is also made to commu- pump it buck to the generator, to unite nicate with an indicator, having a with a fresh portion of water, and re« dial plate and index, by which the new its useful labours. force of the steam is ascertained.

The engine we have now described There is every probability of Mr. is at present at work in Mr. Perkins's Babbage being enabled, by pecuniary manufactory. It is calculated as equal aid from parliament, to construct his

CALCULATING ENGINE.

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machinery for calculating and print- a hammer on a bar of soft iron, held ing mathematical tables. A com- vertically, gave it a strong action mittee of the most distinguished over a compass, the upper end bemembers of the Royal Society have coming a south, and the lower a transmitted the following report to north pole. On inverting the bar, the Lords Commissioners of His another blow was sufficient to change Majesty's Treasury, which, it is to the polarity. A remarkable circumbe hoped, will have the effect of stance discovered by Mr. Scoresby procuring the assistance required. was, that a blow on any part of a “ That it appears to the committee rod of iron, while held in the plane that Mr. Babbage has displayed of the magnetic equator, invariably great talent and ingenuity in thë destroys the magnetic action, so as construction of his machine for com to prevent it having any influence on putation, which the committee think a needle. These properties have been fully adequate to the attainment of applied to useful purposes ; thus to the object proposed by the inventor; free iron or steel from magnetism, all and that they consider Mr. Babbage that is necessary is to give it a few as highly deserving of public en- blows while held in the magnetic couragement in the prosecution of plane; a mode much more convenihis arduous undertaking.”

ent than the old one, of heating it, SCORESBY'S MAGNETICAL and allowing it to cool in a horizonDISCOVERIES.

tal position. Another useful appliMr. Scoreshy's attention was first cation is, the correction of the magdirected to the investigation of the netism usually found in the balances magnetic laws, in consequence of a of chronometers, which produces a series of experiments, undertaken in serious error in the rate of some inthe years 1815 and 1817, for deter- struments. Grinding, filing, polishing, mining the cause of the deviation of drilling, turning, twisting, bending, the compass on shipboard. The re &c. were all found to elicit magnesult of his inquiries was, that all tism, when performed on iron, in any ferruginous bodies become magnetic position out of the magnetic plane, by position; the upper parts acquir- but they were destructive of polarity ing a south, the under a north pola when the metal was in the plane of rity; but from this general law there the magnetic equator. The balances, is an apparent deviation, with re- therefore, ought to be turned and spect to slender bars, or thin plates polished in this position. The effects of iron, which, when placed in the of percussion next engaged the atmagnetic plane, exhibit no influence tention of Mr. Scoresby. He found over a compass, because the magnetic that soft steel received the greatest axis corresponding with their shortest degree of magnetic energy. In soft axis, the two poles are so near that iron the magnetism was strong, but they neutralize each other. As the evanescent; in hard steel and cast magnetic plane may be easily dis- iron, weak, but permanent. When covered with slender bars of iron, the bar is struck, resting on a ferruMr. Scoresby constructed his magnet- ginous body, it is also much more imeter, by which the exact angle, powerful ; a piece of steel could be where the polarity of iron disappears, made to lift only 64 gr. when hammay be discovered. By using this mered on a stone, but when subjectinstrument, he could ascertain if a ed to the same process resting on a piece of iron, by any treatment to poker, held erect, it raised 88 gr. which it was subjected, suffered a When the poker was previously hamchange in its state as to magnetism. mered in a vertical position, the bar The result of his trials was, that any became more strongly magnetic; a kind of mechanical action on it pro- single blow enabling it to suspend duced an alteration. He found that 188 gr.; a blow on the same rod, with a horizontal position in the magnetic the other end up, almost destroyed meridian was by no means the best its magnetism, and two more changed for the developement of magnetism its polarity. In another series of by percussion, but that the position experiments Mr. Scoresby found that of the dipping needle produced the small or slender bars acquired a highest effects. A single blow with much greater lifting power, in pro

portion to their weight, than large Rumker re-discovered in Gernini the ones; a piece of a knitting needle periodical comet of Encke, which has three inches long, and weighing 28 grs. excited so much notice, and from having been made to raise 54 grs. by which it appears that its revolution being repeatedly struck with a ham- in 1204 days is put beyond a doubt. mer, while held vertically on the top It had been previously observed in of a kitchen poker.

1786, 1795, 1801, 1805, and 1818, The practical applications of this and by a comparison of these obserdiscovery, are the formation of ar- vations, he calculated two sets of tificial magnets, and the ready con- elements, which represented the obstruction of a compass at sea, with- servations within two minutes of a out the use of a magnet. There are degree, and with these he computed numerous instances of compasses of at what time it would appear in ships being spoiled by lightning, in 1822. He announced that he had which case a magnetic influence may little hopes of its being seen in Eube given in a few seconds by ham- rope, as before June it would be exmering the needle in the manner tremely faint, and near the horizon; described ; and in those instances, but that in south latitude 34°, in the when, owing to shipwreck, the crew beginning of that month, it would be are obliged to put to sea without a 24° above the horizon, at sunset, and compass, polarity may be given to would then be as bright as a star of the blade of a knife, the limb of a pair the fourth magnitude. It is surprising of scissars, or to any piece of iron, to think how accurate he was in this which, when suspended by a thread, calculation, for on his voyage to would probably be sufficient to guide New South Wales he discovered the them in their perilous navigation. comet on the 2d of June, at Para

matta, in 33° 48' 45" S. lat. On the 2d of June, 1822, M.

COMET OF ENCKE.

can be

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. The accounts from Spain, coming on the very same authority. Thus as they do almost exclusively through situated, our safest course is to give the French papers, vary just as it the details which time and subsesuits the interests of the Stock Ex- quent accounts seem to have authenchange at Paris and London. Every ticated, in the order in which they week brings intelligence, which in its have occurred, leaving our readers to way would be quite conclusive, if it form their own conjectures as to the were not effectually contradicted by consequences. the news which succeeds it. The There

no doubt that Ministerial French press seems so there has been some severe fightshamelessly prostituted to private ing before Corunna. The French views, that the most decided, and at had occupied Ferrol, a very importthe same time the most groundless ant fortress in the neighbourhood, intelligence is sent forth to the world and advanced towards the town in as true, even under a demi-official considerable force, under General sanction. For instance, if we had Bourck. On the 15th, however, the had to close our summary a few days garrison, headed by Sir Robert Wil'ago, relying on this authority, the son, and it is said by Quiroga, made accounts would have brought the a sortie, and a sanguinary contest war completely to a termination, em was kept up until the 18th inclusive, bracing as they did the liberation of when the French, having suffered a Ferdinand, the embarkation of the considerable loss, retreated. On this Cortes, and the total defection of all occasion, the gallantry of the Engthe Constitutional forces! The first lish General was conspicuous—both paragraph, however, of our ensuing he and his Aide-de-Camp, Colonel summary, must have contained a full Light, were wounded, the latter it is refutation of all this decisive news, said, dangerously. Notwithstand

up to this

ing this success, however, and the From the commencement of the courage displayed in its attainment, struggle, up to this point, at all the protracted occupation of Corunna events, Quiroga will rank high aby the Constitutionalists is considered mongst men eminent for their public hopeless. The possession of Ferrol, virtue. When we say and more particularly of the heights point,” we would not wish to be unwhich command the town, renders its derstood as insinuating the slightest fall certain. It is quite plain that suspicion in our own breasts of the such was the opinion of Sir Robert fidelity of this estimable soldier-but Wilson, as he had subsequently de- the very atmosphere of Spain seems parted for Vigo, whence it was un redolent of perfidythere is somederstood to be his intention to pro- thing delusive in it which deceives ceed, if possible, to Cadiz. Indeed, our vision, and exhibits to us to-day events have occurred since, which the figure of a dwarf, which only render this, perhaps, his only prudent yesterday we mistook for that of a course. It is a curious fact, and giant. The Constitutional accounts, one indicative enough of the state of which seem the most candid, though the French press, that the Moniteur, they do not affect to dispute the their official journal, communicates eventual fall of Corunna, still reprenone of the operations þefore Co- sent its resistance as likely to be more runna, subsequent to the 15th, protracted than we were at first given though, of course, they must have to understand. It has, they say, long since been in their possession. three points of defence—the new They circulated, however, a report town, commanded by the heights in of its capture, and speculations were the vicinity--the old town, comeven entered into as to the probable manding the new, out of the range disposal of Sir Robert Wilson! Upon of the guns from the hills—and the this subject, however, there will be castle at the entrance of the harbour. abundant time to speculate when he In the event of the French bringing is in their custody. The report of up heavy artillery, the new town the fate of Corunna acquired some would be no longer tenable, but the currency in London, by the fact of old town is represented as being well Quiroga's actual arrival in England, supplied in every way, and capable in the Royal George steam packet. of an obstinate resistance; and, as a It seems he had been sent for by the dernier resort, the castle, which comMinistry at Cadiz, to take an im- mands all, is a place of very considerportant command in Andalusia, a. able strength. It was indeed added, point in which the presence of a trust that on the 31st, the French had a worthy officer was but too much battery of 24-pounders ready to play, wanted. Corunna, at the time, was upon the new town, so that it may be blockaded by a French frigate, and already considered as abandoned. If Quiroga took advantage of the de- treachery, does, not interfere, some parture of the Royal George for calculate that the other two points England. On his arrival here, he might be tenable even for six months; found that there was a packet at this, however, appears rather a sanFalmouth, under immediate sailing guine calculation, taking every thing orders for Gibraltar, for which place into consideration. The place was he instantly departed, having been well officered-Novella, the comaltogether only five hours in London, mandant, having four brigadier gewhich were consumed in consultation nerals under him, and some able arwith the Spanish Ambassador. It is tillery men and engineers. The very to be regretted that his visit was not best spirit is said to animate the sufficient in duration or publicity, to whole garrison, and Novella had isgive the people of our metropolis an sued a proclamation, declaring it : opportunity of evincing to him in death for any person to talk of or what estimation a genuine patriot is advise a capitulation. It was also held here. The vicissitudes of such ordered, to prevent treacherous coma contest as that in which he is en. munications with the enemy, that all gaged, and the disappointments ine- persons exhibiting signals of any kind vitably contingent on it, ought to be should be shot. The desperate accounterbalanced by all the encou. tion fought there in the late Peninragement which freedom can bestow. sular war, and the death of Sir Jolm

Moore, give this place a proud but which he had been personally so melancholy interest to Englishmen. treated, is any thing but dignified in

During Sir Robert Wilson's resi the negociator; still less can we exdence at Vigo, after the occurrences tenuate the use of complimentary before Corunna, a circumstance took language towards a traitor-the place which it is our duty as faithful curses of every friend of freedom chroniclers to notice. The traitor were ringing throughout Europe upon Morillo, whose unprincipled defec. Morillo's baseness, when Sir Robert tion from the Constitutional cause Wilson talked of the delicacy of his we recorded in our last number, charactert!We will venture to say having obtained an advantage over a that even those who have purchased small body of Constitutionalists at the profit of his crime despise the San Payo, addressed a letter from a criminal. As to the stupidity of Moplace called Redondilla, two leagues rillo in finding out so late what ought from Vigo, to the governor of the to have flashed on him in the very latter place, informing him that he commencement, namely, the official was determined on possessing that incompetence of his correspondent, town, and offering terms much more we heartily hope it may be the pregenerous, according to his statement, lude to many a blunder, by which his than the French might subsequently hostility may become as contemptible be disposed to grant. Sir Robert as his perfidy has been degrading. Wilson, upon this, proposed to open a

While these affairs were in procorrespondence with Morillo, which gress before Corunná, an event ocproposal, being approved of by the curred at Madrid, which caused in authorities at Vigo, he accordingly that place considerable commotion, forth with put in practice. The sum and exposed the Duke D'Angouleme to of the correspondence, on the part of the first fire which he has personally Sir Robert, amounted first to a de- encountered since his invasion. His sire for a personal conference, which, Royal Highness, it seems, was in the being acceded to, was found from habit of going regularly, at a certain the state of his wound, and other hour, to hear mass at the church of circumstances, to be impracticable— Espritu Santo, and on Sunday the he then proposed a basis for nego- 20th of July, just as the priest was ciation, stipulating for the mainte- quitting the sacristy, and the Prince nance of the representative system the church, a conflagration burst out for Spain, and declaring it to be the in three different quarters of the wish of the Cortes to negociate. In building, which very soon extended the course of the correspondence, Sir itself in the most alarming manner. Robert pays Morillo several personal No personal accident, however, occompliments, and even goes the curred; but the opportunity for a lelength of offering the “ mediation gitimate manifestation was too grand of England!!” After some letters to be lost; and, accordingly, adhad passed, Morillo found out that dresses of congratulation on his he himself was not empowered to Royal Highness's escape poured in treat, and that eren if he had been, Sir without number, from the Regency, Robert, being invested with no public and their adherents. Nor was this character, could not guarantee the all; as a primary measure of safety, performance of any of his propo- the Regency immediately ordered all sitions, and thus ended a negociation the voluntary militia, and the secuwhich on both sides proves that a larised monks who had taken refuge man may be a very good general, and in Madrid, to leave that capital a very poor diplomatist. The friends forth with. The strictest scrutiny of Sir Robert Wilson declare that was set on foot, and arrests to the the whole correspondence was amount of thirty-two consequently ruse on his part to gain time, in took place. The appearance in a which he eventually succeeded. Even few nights after, of a body of Conadmitting this, we cannot see, onstitutional troops, near the gates public grounds, any justification of St. Fernando and St. Vincent, headed, an unauthorised offer of British“ me as it was said, by the famous Empediation,” and certainly, on private cinado, confirmed the idea that the grounds this familiar use of the name fire was a design, intended to have of a government, by the members of co-operated with this attack, but

a

of

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