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This is my fault: as for the rest appeal'd,

K.Rich. We were not born to sue, but to comIt issues from the rancuur of a villain,

mand: A recreant and most degenerate traitor:

Which since we cannot do to make you friends, Which in myself I buldly will defend;

Be ready, as your lives shall answer it, And interchangeably burl down my gage 5 At Coventry, upon St. Lambert's day; Upon this over-weering traitor's foot,

There shall your swords and lances arbitrate To prove myself a loyal gentleman

The swelling difference of your settled bale; Even in the best blood chamber'd in his bosom: Since we cannot atone you, you shall see In haste whereof, most beartily I pray

Justice decide the victor's chivalry.Your highness to assign our trial-day. [me; 10 Lord marshal, command our officers at arms

K.Rich. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be ruld by Be ready to direct these home-alarms. (Exeunt. Let's purge this choler without letting blood :

SCENE II. This we prescribe, though no physician;

The Duke of Lancaster's Palace. Deep malice makes too deep incision:

Enter Gaunt, and Dutchess of Gloster. Forget, forgive; conclude, and be agreed; 15 Gaunt. Alas! the part* I had in Gloster's blood Our doctors say, this is no time to bleed. Doth more solicit me, than your exclaims, Good uncle, let this end where it begun;

To stir against the butchers of his life:. We'll calm the duke of Norfolk, you your son. But, since correction lieth in those hands, Gaunt. Tobe a make-peace shall become my age: Which made the fault thai we cannot correct, Throw down, my son, the duke of Norfolk's gage. 20 Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven;

K. Rich. And, Norfolk, thrown down his. Who, when they see the hours ripe on earth, Gaunt. When, Harry? when?

Will rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads. Obedience bids, I should not bid again.

Dutch. Finds brotherhool in thee no sharperspur? K. Rich. Norfolk, throw down; we bid; there Hath love in thy old blood no living tire? is no boot'.

[foot :25 Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one, Mowb. Myself, I throw, dread sovereign, at thy Were as seven phials of his sacred blood, My life thou shalt command, but not my shame: Or seven fair branches, springing from one root: The one, my duty owes; but my fair name, Some of those seven are dry'd by nature's course, (Despight of death, that lives upon my grave) Some of those branches by the destmies cut. To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have. 30!But Thomas, my dear lord, my life, my Gloster,-I am disgrac'd, impeach'd, and balleda here; One phial full of Edward's sacred blood, Pierc'd to the soul with slander's venom'd spear; One ilourishing branch of his most royal root,-The which no balın can cure, but his heart's blood Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt; Which breath'd this poison.

Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded, K. Rich. Rage must be withstood:

35 By envy's hand, and murder's bloody axe. Give me his gage:-lions make leopards tame. Ah, Gaunt! his blood was thine; that bed, that Mowb. Yea, but not change their spots: take

womb, but my shame,

That metal, that self-mould, that fashiou'd thee, And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord, Made him a man; and though shou liv'st, and The purest treasure mortal times afford,


breath'st, Is-spotless reputation; that away,

Yet art thou slain in him: thou dost consent Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay. in some large measure to thy father's death, A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest

In that thou seest thy wretched brother die, Ismea bold spirit in a loyal breast.

Who was the model of thy father's life. Mine honour is my life; both grow in one; 45 Call it not patience, Gaunt, it is despair: Take honour from me, and my life is done : In suffering thus thy brother to be slaughter'd, Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try; Thou shew'st the naked path-way to thy life, In that I live, and for that will I die.

Teaching stern murder bow to butcher thee: K. Rich. Cousin, throw down your gage; do That which in mean men we entitle-patience, you begin.

50|1s pale cold cowardice in poble breasts. Boling. Oh, heaven defend my soul from such What shall I say? to safeguard thine own life, foul sin!

The best way is to renge my Gluster's death. Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's sight? Gaunt. Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's Or with pale beggar face'impeach nry height

substitute, Before this out-dar'd dastard? Ere my tongue 55 His deputy auointed in his sight, Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong, Hath caus'd his death: the which if wrongfully, Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear Let heaven revenge ; for I may never lift The slavish motive of recanting fear;

An angry armi against his minister. And spit it bleeding, in his high disgrace,

Dutch. Wheretben, alas! may I complain myself Where shanie doth harbour, eren in Mowbray's 60f Gaunt. To heaven, the widow's champion and face. [Exit Guunt.

defence. 'i.e. no advantage in delay or refusal. * Baffled, in this, as has been noted in a former place, means, treated with

the greatest ignominy imaginable. i. e. with a face of supplication. *i.e. my relation of consanguinity to Gloster.


Dutch. Why then, I will. Farewel, old Gaunt! And by the grace of God, and this mine arm,
Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold To prove hin, in defending of myself.
Our cousin Hereford and fell Mowbray fight: A traitor to my God, my king, and me:
O, sit my husband's wrongs on Hereford's spear, And, as I truly tight, defend me heaven!
That it may enter butcher Mowbray's breast! 5 Trumpets sound. Enter Bolingbroke, appellant,
Or if misfortune miss the first career,

in armour Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom,

K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms, That they may breaki bis foaming courser's back, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither And throw the rider headlong in the lists, Thus plated in habiliments of war; A caitill recreant to my cousin Hereford ! 10 And formally according to our law Farewel, old Gaunt; thy sometime brother's wife Depose him in the justice of his cause. With her companion griet must end her life. Mar. What is thy name? and wherefore com'st Gaunt. Sister, farewel: I must to Coventry :

thou hither, As much good stay with thee, as go with me! Before king Richard, in his royal lists? [To Boling. Dutch. Yet one word inore;-Griet boundėth 15 Against whom comestthou? and what's thy quarrel where it falls,

speak the a true knight, so defend thee heaven! Not with the empty hollowness, but weight: Boling: Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and I take my leave before I have began;

Derby, For sorrow ends not, when it seemeth done. Am I; who ready here do stand in arms, Commend me to my brother, Edmund York. 20To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's valour, Lo, this is all :-Nay, yet depart not so;

In lists, on Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, Thougl this be all, do not so quickly go;

That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous, I shall remember more. Bid him-Oh, what? To God of heaven, king Richard, and to me; With all good speed at Plashy visit me.

And, as I truly tight, viefend me heaven ! Alack, and what shall good old York there see, 25 Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold, But empty lodgings, and unfurnish'd walls, Or daring-hardy, as to touch the lists; Unpeopled oilices, untrodden stones ?

Except the marshal, and such officers And what hear there for welcomie, but my groans? Appointed to direct these fair designs. Therefore commend me; let bim not come there, Boling. Lord marshal, let me kiss my soreTo seek out sorrow, that dwells every where: 301

reign's hand, Desolate, desolate, will I hence, and die, And bow my knee before his majesty: The last leave of thee takes my weeping eye.

For Mowbray, and myself, are like two men

[Escunt. That vow a long and weary pilgrimage; S CE N E


Then let iis tahe a ceremonious leave,
The Lists at Coventry.

35 And loving farewel, of our several friends. Enter the Lord Ilarshal and dumerle.

Alur. The appellant in all duty greets your Mar. My lord Aumerle, isHLarryllereford armi'd:


To K. Rich. Aum. Yea, at all points; and longs to enter in. And craves to kiss your hand, and take bis leave. Mar. The duke of Nortolk, sprightfully and bold, K.Rich. We will descend and fold him in our Stays but the summon of the appellant's trumpet. 40 dum. Why then, the champions are prepar'd, Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,

So be thy fortune in this royal right! For nothing but his majesty's approach. [Flourish. Farewel, my blood; which if to-day thou shed, The trumpets sound, and the King onions with Lament we may, but not revenge thee dead.

Gaunt, Bushy, Bugot, and others: when they ure 45 Boling. Oh, let no noble eye profane a tear set, enter the Duche of Norfoll: in armour.

For if I be gor'd with Mowbray's spear: K.Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion As confident, as is the faulcon's fight The cause of his arrival here in arms:

Against a bird, do I with Mowbray tight.Ask bim his name; and orderly proceed

My loving lord, I take my leave of you;To swear him in the justice of his cause.

50 of you, my noble cousin, lord Aumerle ;Mur. In God's name, and the king's, say who Not sick, although I have to do with death; thou art,

[Tolozebray. But lusty, young, and chearly «Irawing breath. --' And why thou com’st, thus knightly clad in arms; Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet Against what man thou comist, and what thy quar Che dainties i last, to make the end most sweet: Speak truly,on thy knighthood, and thy path, (rel: 35 Oh thou, the earthly author of my blood, And so defend the heaven, and thy valour!

[To Gaunt. Mowb. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate, Who hither comme engaged by my oath, (Norfolk; Doth with a two-fold vigour lift ine up (Which heaven detend a knight should violate!) To reach at victory above my head, Both to defend my lovalty and truth,

60 Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers; To God, my king, and his succeeding issue, And with thy blessings steel my lance's point, Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me; That it inay enter Mowbray's waxen 'coat,

· Mr. Stecvens observes on this passage, that "maren may mean either soft, and consequently penetrable, or fiexible. The brigandines or coats of mail, then in use, were conposed of small pieces of steel quilted over one another, and yet so flexible as to accommodate the dress they form to every motion of the body,"


and stay



And furbish new the name of John of Gaunt, And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect (swords; Even in the lusty 'haviour of his son.

Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbours, Gaunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee [And for we think, the eagle-winged pride prosperous !

Of sky.aspiring and ambitious thoughts, Be swift like lightning in the execution; 5 With rival-hating envy, set you on And let thy blows, doubly redoubled,

To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle Fall like amazing thunder on the casque

Draws the sweet infant breath of gentie sleep ;] Of thy adverse pernicious enemy:

Which so rouz'd up with boisterous untun'd drums, Rouze up thy youthful blood, bé valiant and live. And harsh-resounding trumpets' dreadful bray, Boling. Mine innocency, and saint George to 10 And grating shock of wrathful iron arms, thrive!

Might from our quiet contines fright fair peace, Mowb. However heaven, or fortune, cast my And make us wade even in our kindred's blood,lot,

[throne, Therefore, we banish you our territories.There lives, or dies, true to king Richard You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death, A loyal, just, and upright gentleman:

15) Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields, Never did captive with a freer heart

Shall not regreet our fair dominions,
Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace But tread the stranger paths of banishment.
His golden uncontroul'd entranchisement,

Boling. Your will be done: This must my More than my dancing soul doth celebrate

comfort be,

[me; This feast of battle with mine adversary.— 20 That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on Most mighty liege,--and ny companion peers, And those his golden beams, to you here lent, Take froni my mouth the wish of happy years: Shall point on me, and gild my banishment. As gentle, and as jocund, as to jest',

K.Rich. Norfolk, forthee remains a heavierdoom, Go I to tight; truth hath a quiet breast.

Which I with some unwillingness pronounce: K. Rich. Farewel, my lord: securely I espy 125 The fly-slow hours shall not determinate Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.

The dateless limit of thy dear exile;Order the trial, Marshal, and begin.

The hopeless word of-never to return,
Mar. Harryof Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Breathe I against thee, upon pain of lite.
Receive try lance ; and heaven defend the right! Moxb.Aheavy sentence,my mostsovereign liege,

Boling. Strong as a tower in hope, I cry- Amen. 30 And all unlook'd for from your highness' mouth:
Mar. Go bear this lance to Thomas dule of A dearer merit", not so deep a maim

[by, As to be cast forth in the common air,
I Fler. Harry of Ilereford, Lancaster, and Der Have I deserved at your highness' hand.
Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself,

The language I have learnú these forty years, On pain to be found false and recreant,

35 My native English, now I must forego: To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, And now my tongue's use is to me no more A traitor to his God, his king, and him,

Than an unstringed viol, or a harp ;
And dares him to set forward to the fight.

Orlike a cunning instrument cas'd up,
Her. Here standelh Thomas Mowbray,dukeo Or, being open, put into his hands
On pain to be found false and recreant, (Nortolk, 40 That knows no touch to tune the larmony.
Both to defend himself, and to approve

Within my mouth you have evgaol'd my tongue,
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Doubly pórtculis’d with my teeth and lips;
To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal ; And dull, unfeeling, burren ignorance
Courageously, and with a free desire,

Is made my gaoler to attend on me. Attendingbuithesignallobegin. [ Achargesoundled. 451 an too old to fawn upon a nurse, Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, com Too far in years to be a pupil now; batants.

What is thy sentence then, but speechless death, Stay, the king has thrown his warder? down. Whichrobsinytonguefrem breathing nativebreath? K. Rich. Let thein lay by their helmets, and

K. Rich. It boots thee not to be compassionate ;

50 After our sentence, plaining comes too late. And both return back to their chairs again:

Morrb. Then thus I turumc from my country's Withdraw with us;- and let the trumpets sound,

light, While we return these dukes what we decree. To dwell in solemn shades of endless night.

[1 long flourish; after which, the king K. Rich. Returnagain, and takean oath with thee. spiuks to the combatants.

55 Lay on our royal sword your banish'd hands;

Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven, And list, what with our council we have done. (Our part therein we banish with yourselves) For that our kingdom's earth should not be soildi To keep the oath that we adıninister:With the dear blood which it hath fostered, You never shall (so help you truth and heaven!)

'Mr. Farmer remarks, that to jest sometimes signifies in old language to play a part in a mask. "A warder appears to have been a kind of truncheon carried by the person who presided at these single combats. Mr. Pope restored these five verses froin the first edition of 1598." "Instead of merit Dr. Jolunson proposes to read," a dearer meed,” or rewurd-have I deserved, &c. Compassionate for pluintive,



their spears,

Draw near,

Embrace each other's love in banishment; JBut

you gave leave to my unwilling tongue, Nor ever look upon each other's face ;

Against my will, to do myself this wrong: Nor ever write, regreet, nor reconcile

A partial slandersought'I to avoid, This lowering tempest of your home-bred hate; And in the sentence my own life destroy'd. [so; Nor never by advised purpose meet,

5 K. Rich. Cousin, farewel:-and, uncle, bid him To plot, contrive, or conplot any ill,

Six years we banish him, and he shall go.[Flourish. 'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land.


. Boling. I swear.

Aum.Cousin, farewel: what presence must not Morcb. And I, to keep all this.

Froin where you do remain, let papershow.[knox, Boling. Norfolk,

, --so far as to mine enemy';- 10 Mar. My lord, no leave take I; for I will ride, By this time, had the king permitted us,

As far as land will let me, by your side. (words, One of our souls had wanderd in the air,

Gaunt.Oh, to what purpose dost thou hoard thy Banish'd this frail sepulchre of our flesh,

That thou returu'st no greeting to thy friends ? As now our flesh is banish'd from this land: Boling. I have too few to take my leave of you, Confess thy treasons, ere thou fly this realm ; 15 When the tongue's office should be prodigal Since thou hast far to go, bear not along

To breathe the abundant dolour of the heart. The clogging burthen of a guilty soul.

Gaunt. Thy grief is but thy absence for a time. Mowb. No, Bolingbroke; ifever I were traitor, Boling. Joy absent, grief is present for that time. My name be blotted from the book of life,

Gaunt. What is six winters they are quicklygone. And I from heaven banislı'd, as from hence! 20 Boling: To men in joy; but grief makes one But what thou art, heaven, thou, and I do know;

hour ten.

[sure. And all too soon, Í fear, the king shall rue.- Gaunt. Call it a travel that thou tak'st for pleaFarewel, my liege:-Now no way can I stray; Boling. My heart will sigh, when I miscall it so, Save back to England, all the world's my way. Which finds it an enforced pilgrimage.

[Erit.25. Guunt. Tlie sullen passage of thy weary steps K. Rich. Uncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes Esteem a foil, wherein thou art to set I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect

The precious jewel of thy home-return. Hath from the number of his banish'd years Boling. Nay, rather everytedious stride Imake Pluck'd four away ;-Six frozen winters spent, Will but remember me, what a deal of world

[To Boling. 30 | wander from the jewels that I love. Return with welcome home from banishinent. Must I not serve a long apprenticehood

Boling. How long a time lies in one little word! To foreign passages; and in the end,
Four lagging winters, and four wanton springs, Having my freedom, boast of nothing else,
End in a word: Such is the breath of kings. But that livas a journeyman to griet?

Gaunt. I thank my liege, that in regard of me, 35 Gaunt. All places that the eye of heaven visits,
He shortens four years of my son's exile : Are to a wise man ports and happy havens :
But little vantage shall I reap thereby;

Teach thy necessity to reason thus; For, ere the six years that he hath to spend, There is no virtue like necessity. Canchange their moons, and bringtheirtinesabout, Think not, the king did banish thee; My oil-dry'd lamp, and time-bewasted light, 40 But thou the king: Woe doth the heavier sit, Shall be extinct with age, and endless night; Where it perceives it is but faintly borne. My inch of taper will be burnt and done, Go say-I sent thee forth to purchase honour, And blindfold death not let me see my son.

And not-the king exil'd thee : or suppose, K. Rich. Why, uncle, thou hast many years to live. Derouring pestilence hangs in our air, Gaunt. But nota minute,king, that thou canstgive. 45 And thou art flying to a fresher clime. Shorten my days thou can'st withi sullen sorrow, Look, what thy soul holds dear, imagine it And pluck nights from me, but not lenda morrow: Tolethat waythou go'st, not whence thou com'st: Thou can't help time to furrow me with age, Suppose the singing birds, musicians; (strow'd ; But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage;

The grass whereon thou tread'st, the presence Thy word is current with bim for my death; 50 The flowers, fair ladies; and thy steps, no more But, dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. Than a delightful measure or a dance:

K. Rich. Thy son is banish'd upon good advice, For gnarling sorrow hath less power to bite Whereto thy tongue a party-verdict gave; The man that mocks at it, and sets it light. Why at our justice seem'st thou then to lour? [sour. Boling. Oh, who can hold a fire in his hand,

Gaunt. Things sweet to taste, prove in digestion 55 By thinking on the frosty Caucasus?
You urg'd me as a judge ; but I had rather, Or cloy the hungry edge of appetite,
You would have bid me argue like a father: By bare imagination of a feast?
O, had it been a stranger, not my child,

Or wallow naked in December snow,
To smooth his fault I would have been more mild; By thinking on fantastic summer's heat?
Alas, I look’d, when some of you should say, 60 Oh, no! the apprehension of the good
I was too strict, to make mine own away; Gives but the greater feeling to the worse:

• Dr. Johnson understands this passage thus : « Norfolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to mine enemy, I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness, confess thy treusons.” .i. e. the reproach of partiality.



bim so,

Fell sorrow's tooth doth never rankle more, How he did seem to dive into their hearts,
Than when it bites, but lanceth not the sore. With humble and familiar courtesy;
Gaunt. Come, come, my son, I'll bring thee on AV hat reverence he did throw away on slaves;
thy way:

Wooing poor craftsmen with the craft of smiles,
Had I thy youth and cause, I would not stay. 5 And patient underbearing of his fortune,
Boling: Then, England's ground, farewel; sweet As 'twere, to banish their effects with him.
soil, adieu;

Off goes his bonnet to an oyster-wench; My mother and my nurse, that bears me yet! A brace of dray-men bid-God speed him well, Where-e'er I wander, boast of this

I can,

And had thetribute of his supple knee,[friends;"Though banisl’d, yet a true-born Englishman. 10 With "Thanks, my countryinen, my loving

[Exeunt. As were our England in reversion bis, S CE N E IV.

And he our subjects' next degree in hope.

Green. Well, he is gone; and with bim go The Court.

these thoughts. Enter King Richard, and Bagot, &c. at one door, 15 Now for the rebels, which stand out in Ireland;and the Lord Aumerle at the other.

Expedient manage must be inade, my liege; K. Rich. We did ob erve.-Cousin Aumerle, Ere further leisure yield them further means, How far brought you high Hereford on his way? For their advantage, and your highness' loss. Aum. I brought high Hereford, if you call K. Rich. We will ourselt in person to this war.

20 And, for our coffers—with too great a court, But to the next high-way, and there I left him. And liberal largess—are grown somewhat light, K. Rich. And say, what store of parting tears We are enforc'd to farm our royal realm; were shed

(wind, The revenue whereof shall furnish us Aum. 'Faith, none by me: except the north-east For our affairs in hand: If that come short, Which then blew bitterly against our faces, 25 Our substitutes at home shall have blank charters; Awak'd the sleepy rheum; and so, by chance, Whereto, when they shall know what men are Did grace vur hollow parting with a tear.

rich, K. Rich. What said our cousin, when you

They shall subscribe them for large sums of gold, parted with him?

And send them after to supply our wants; Aum. Farewel :

30 For we will make for Ireland presently. And for my heart disdained that my tongue

Enter Bushy.
Should so prophane the word, that taught me craft
To counterfeit oppression of such grief,

K. Rich. Bushy, what news?

flord: That word seein'd buried in my sorrow's grave. Bushy. Old John of Gaunt is grievous sick, my Marry, would the word farewel have lengthen’a 35 Suddenly taken; and hath sent post-haste, hours,

To intreat your majesty to visit him. And added years to his short banishment,

K. Rich. Where lies he? He should have had a volume of farewels;

Bushy. At Ely-house.

[mind, But since it would not, he had none of me.

K. Rich. Now put it, heaven, in his physician's K. Rich. He is our cousin, cousin; but 'tis 40 To help him to his grave immediately! doubt,

The lining of his coffers shall make coats
When time shall call him home from banishment, To deck our soldiers for these Irish wars.
Whether our kinsman come to see his friends. Come, gentlemen, let's all go visit him:
Ourself, and Bushy, Bagot here, and Green, Pray heaven, we may make haste, and come too
Observ'd his courtship to the common people:



[blocks in formation]



Gaunt. On, but they say the tongues of dying

Inforce attention, like deep harmony:
A room in Ely-house.

55 Where words are scarce they are seldom spent in Gaunt brought in sick: with the Duke of York.

vain ; Gaunt. WİLL the king come that I may

For they breathe truth, that breathe their words in

He, that no more must say, is listen’d more (pain. In wholesome counsel to his unstay'd youth. Than they whom youth and ease have taught to York. Vex not yourself, nor strive not with 60 glose;

[tore: your breath;

More are men's ends mark’d, than their lives bee For all in rain comes counsel to his ear.

The setting sun, and music at the close,
Mi.e. expeditious.
Ee ?


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