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in the train of thought which in each epistle leads up to this sentiment, and upon the suitableness of that train of thought to the circumstances under which the epistles purport to have been written. This, I conceive, bespeaks the production of the same mind, and of a mind operating upon real circumstances. The sentiment is in both places preceded by the contemplation of imminent personal danger. To the Philippians he writes, in the twentieth verse of this chapter, “. According to my earnest expectation “ and my hope, that in nothing I shall be " ashamed, but that with all boldness, as
always, so now also, Christ shall be mag“ nified in my body, whether it be by life
or by death." To the Corinthians, " Troubled on every fide, yet not distressed; “ perplexed, but not in despair ; perse"cuted, but not forsaken ; cast down, but “ not destroyed; always bearing about in “the body the dying of the Lord Jesus.” This train of reflection is continued to the piace from whence the words which we compare are taken.
The two epistles, though written at different times, from dif
ferent places, and to different churches, were both written under circumstances which would naturally recal to the author's mind the precarious condition of his life, and the perils which constantly awaited him. When the epistle to the Philippians was written, the author was a prisoner at home, expecting his trial. When the second epistle to the Corinthians was written, he had lately escaped a dangér in which he had given himself over for lost. The epistle opens with a recollection of this subject; and the impression accompanied the writer's thoughts throughout.
I know that nothing is easier than to transplant into a forged epistle a sentiment or expression which is found in a true one; or, supposing, both epistles to be forged by the same hand, to insert the same sentiment or expression in both. But the difficulty is to introduce it in just and close connection with a train of thought going before, and with a train of thought apparently generated by the circumstances under which the epistle is written. In two epistles, purporting to be written on different occasions,
and in different periods of the author's history, this propriety would not easily be managed.
Chap. i. 29, 30; ii, 1, 2. “For unto you “ is given in the behalf of Christ, not only " to believe on him, but also to suffer for “ his fake, having the same conflict which
ye faw in me, and now hear to be in me. “ If there be, therefore, any consolation in
Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if
bowels and “ mercies : fulfil ye my joy ; that ye
be “ like minded, having the same love, being “ of one accord, of one mind."
With this compare Acts xvi. 22 : “ And “ the multitude (at Philippi) rose up against " them (Paul and Silas); and the magistrates “ rent off their clothes, and commanded “ to beat them ; and when they had laid
many stripes upon them, they cast them “ into prison, charging the jailer to keep “them safely; who, having received such
" a charge,
a charge, thrust them into the inner
prison, and made their feet fast in the 66 stocks.”
The passage in the epistle is very remarkable. I know not an example in any
writing of a juster pathos, or which more truly represents the workings of a warm and affectionate mind, than what is exhibited in the quotation before us *. The apostle reminds his Philippians of their being joined with himself in the endurance of persecution for the sake of Christ. He conjures them by the ties of their common profession and their common sufferings, to “ fulfil his “ joy ;” to complete, by the unity of their faith, and by their mutual love, that joy with which the instances he had received of their zeal and attachment had inspired his breast. Now if this was the real effusion of St. Paul's mind, of which it bears the strongest internal character, then we have
* The original is very spirited': E6 TIS XV taparanois er Χριση, ει τι παραμυθιον αγαπης, ει τις κοινωνια πνευματος, ει τινα, σπλαγχνα και οικτιρμοί, πληρωσατε με την χαραν.