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The phrase “God our Saviour” stands in nearly the same predicament. It is repeated three times in the frit epiftle to Timothy, as many in the epistle to Titus, and in no other book of the New Testament occurs at all, except once in the epistle of Jude.
Similar terms, intermixed indeed with others, are employed, in the two epiitles, in enumerating the qualifications required in those who should be advanced to stations of authority in the church.
" A bishop must be blameless, the husband “ of one wife, vigilant, fober, of good be“ haviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach, " not given to wine, no firiker, not greedy of
filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, q not covetous, one that ruleth well his “ own house, having his children in sub“ jection with all gravity *,” i Tim. chap. ili. ver. 2-4.
“ If any be blameless, the husband of one << wife, having faithful children, not accused
* “ Δεν εν τον επισκοπον ανεπιληπτον ειναι, μιας γυναικος ανδρα, νηφαλεον, σωφρονα, κοσμιον, φιλοξενον, διδακτικον, μη παροινού, μη πληκτην, μη αισχροκερδη· αλλ' επιεική, η μαχν, α. ιλαργυρον και τα ιδια δικο καλως προισαμενον, τεκια εχοντα εν υποταγη μετα πασης σεμνοτητος.”
“ of riot, or unruly ; for a bishop must be “ blameless as the steward of God, not self“ willed, not soon angry, not given to wine,
no striker, not given to filthy lucre, but a “ lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, “ fober, just, holy, temperate*" Titus, ch. i. ver. 6-8.
The most natural account which can be given of these resemblances, is to suppose that the two epistles were written nearly at the same time, and whilst the same ideas and phrases dwelt in the writer's mind. Let us enquire therefore, whether the notes of time, extant in the two epistles, in any manner favour this supposition.
We have seen that it was necessary to refer the first epistle to Timothy to a date subsequent to St. Paul's first imprisonment at Rome, because there was no journey into Macedonia prior to that event, which accorded with the circumstance of' leaving
Timothy behind at Ephesus.” The jour
* "Ει τις εσιν ανεγκληλος, μιας γυναικος ανη, τεκνα εχων αιγα, μη 21 κατηγορια ασυλιας, η ανυποτακια. Δει γαρ τον επισκοπον ανεγκληίον ειναι, ως Θεε οικονομον, μη αυθαδη, μη οργιλον, μη παροιον, μη αλη Την, με αισχροκερδη" αλλα φιλοξενον, φιλαγαθον, σωφρονα, δικαιον, οσιον, εγκρατη.
ney of St. Paul from Crete, alluded to in the epistle before us, and in which Titus “ left in Crete to set in order the things " that were wanting,” must, in like manner, be carried to the period which intervened between his first and second imprisonment. For the history, which reaches, we know, to the time of St. Paul's first imprisonment, contains no account of his going to Crete, except upon his voyage as a prisoner to Rome; and that this could not be the occasion referred to in our epistle is evident from hence, that when St. Paul wrote this epistle, he appears to have been at liberty ; whereas after that voyage, he continued for two years at least in confinement. Again, it is agreed that St. Paul wrote his first epistle to Timothy from Macedonia : “ As I be
sought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when “ I went (or came) into Macedonia.” And that he was in these parts, i. e. in this peo ninsula, when he wrote the epistle to Titus, is rendered probable by his directing Titus to come to him to Nicopolis : “ When I “ Thall send Artemas unto thee or Tychicus, “ be diligent (make haste) to come unto
“ me to Nicopolis; for I have determined “ there to winter. The most noted city of that name was in Epirus, near to Adium. And I think the form of speaking, as well as the nature of the case, renders it probable, that the writer was at Nicopolis, or in the neighbourhood thereof, when he dictated this direction to Titus.
Upon the whole, if we may be allowed to suppose that St. Paul, after his liberation at Rome, failed into Asia, taking Crete in his way;
that from Asia, and from Ephesus, the capital of that country, he proceeded into Macedonia, and crosfing the peninsula in his progress, came into the neighbourhood of Nicopolis; we have a route which falls in with every thing. It executes the intention expressed by the apostle of visiting Coloffe and Philippi as soon as he should be set at liberty at Rome. It allows him to leave * Titus at Crete," and “ Timothy at Ephe" sus, as he went into Macedonia:" and to write to both not long after from the peninfula of Greece, and probably the neighbourhood of Nicopolis: thus bringing together the dates of these two letters, and thereby
accounting for that affinity between them, both in subject and language, which our remarks have pointed out. I confess that the journey which we have thus traced out for St. Paul, is, in a great measure, hypothetic ; but it should be observed, that it is a species of consistency, which seldom belongs to falsehood, to admit of an hypothesis, which includes a great number of independent circumstances without contradiction.