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extractor calls the prince of this single society," the prince of heaven;" as if Swedenborg held that the whole of heaven was subject to some prince other than the Lord. Watts also supposes there to be "governments,” and various “ ranks” and “statious" in heaven.

4. Heavenly Music; and the Exalted Nature of all External Enjoyments in Heaven. The extractor heads his next selection (T. C. R. n. 745), “Amusco ments, pastimes, &c. in heaven. All the particulars it mentions, we have vindicated in Section VI. Part II., except that we have not noticed what it states respecting angelic music and singing; for this, surely, can be thought by none to require vindication. Who that is not quite destitute of “music in his soul;" who that is at all capable of being "moved by concord of sweet sounds," or by the heavenly affections to which they correspond, can help being affected by the following description, and feeling that such singing is truly heavenly ? “Every morning, from the houses round the public buildings, are heard the most sweet songs of virgins and young girls, which penetrate through the whole city. Some one affection of spiritual love is sung every morning ; that is, is expressed in sound by modifications of the singing voice, or modulations; and that affection expressed in the singing is perceived as the affection itself, flowing into the minds of the hearers, and exciting them to a correspondence with it. Such is the nature of heavenly singing.” Did the accuser cite this to convince the reader, that Swedenborg's ideas of heaven are unheavenly, or his own? The extract here given is from a discourse with the strangers respecting “such of the joys of heaven as affect the bodily senses," considered distinctly from “what renders those joys satisfactory and happy.” The latter subject is treated of both in the paragraph preceding, and in that following, the one presented; which is thus a carefully sundered scrap indeed. As what is there delivered is most undeniably and sublimely heavenly, wherefore it did not suit an accuser's purpose to quote from it, we will in some degree supply the deficiency. The visiting strangers were persons who had previously suppused the joys of heaven to consist chiefly in bodily pleasures; wherefore in the prince's discourse with them, he is represented as making these remarks: “ What are the delights of the bodily senses without the delights of the soul ? It is the soul which inspires them with delight. The delights of the soul (or inmost part of the human and angelic nature) are in themselves imperceptible beatitudes; but as they descend into the thoughts of the mind, and thence into the sensations of the body, they become more and more perceptible. In the thoughts of the mind they are perceived as satisfactions (faustitates), in the sensations of the body as delights (jucunda), and in the body itself as pleasures (voluptates). Eternal happiness is derived from the latter and the former taken together, but from the latter alone a happiness results, which, not being eternal, but temporary, quickly ended, and passes away, and sometimes is turned into unhappiness. 'Ye have now seen that all your joys are joys of neaven too, and far more excellent than you could possibly have conceived ; but yet such joys do not inwardly affect our minds. "There are three principles which enter, by influx from the Lord, as a one, into our souls: these three as one, or this trine, are love, wisdom, and use. Love and wisdom, of themselves, only exist ideally, being confined to ihe affections and thoughts of the mind: but in use they exist really, because they are then together in the act and operation of the body: and where they exist really, they also subsist. Since then love and wisdom exist and subsist in use, it is use which affects us : and use consists in a faithful, sincere, and diligent discharge of the duties of our functions. The love of use, and the consequent application to so keep together the powers of the mind as to prevent their dissipation : thus the mind is secured from wandering about at random, and imbibing all the lusts which flow in, with their enchanting delusions, through the senses, from the body and surrounding objects, by which the truths of religion and morality, with all that is good in either, become the sport of every wind: but an application of the mind to use, keeps in and binds together those truths, and arranges the mind into a form receptible of the wisdom thence derived; when it extirpates from its. outer circumference the idle ridiculous sports of falsities and vanities” (n. 744). Are not these the dictates of solid heavenly wisdom ? And connected as it is by the writer with this account of the true source of heavenly joy, and of that which imparts to external joys their capacity of affecting the angels with delight, does not all that is said of the latter become also truly rational and heavenly ?

5. Immaculate Purity of Heavenly Society. The extractor gives this (T. C. R. n. 749) under the title of " A Curious Case in Heaven." The ten visitors who, it is to be remembered are not angels, and, as yet, far from being such, are introduced to six virgins, who like all in heaven, were of indescrible beauty. On approaching the strangers, however they instantly withdrew; and on being questioned as to the reason by the angel who attended the strangers, they said, “We do not know: but we perceived something which repelled and drove us back again.” The strangers then confessed, that on the sight of such bealities they had felt somewhat as men are too apt to do at the presence of beautiful females on earth: and this it was which was perceived by the angelic virgins, and which repelled them, though they themselves knew not the cause. Is the anecdote ridiculous? Does not rather this little incident give a more exalted idea of the purity of heavenly society than could have been conveyed by the most labored description? The beauty of the female angels immensely exceeds all that imagination can conceive: the male angels freely enjoy their society: yet were the least improper emotion to arise in their bosoms, the innocence of the females would instantly perceive it, and it would drive them away! What innocence and chastity must reign where this never happens ! Yet he who paints such innocence and chastity as inhabiting the breasts of angels, is charged, by the grossness of his accusers, with giving gross ideas of heaven! (It is to be observed, in addition, that, owing to the statement's being given as a mere sundered scrap, the parties who had the improper feelings might be supposed to be angels themselves, which is contrary to the truth.)

6. An Account of a Marriage in Heaven (T. C. R. n. 747) (so headed by the Extractor), being one of the scenes to which the visitors were admitted. To this narrative, when it is believed that the institution of marriage really does exist in heaven, as has been shown in Sect. VI. Part IV., it will be difficult to raise any objection. Every thing related is in the highest degree becoming, and suitable to the place and the occasion. In the relation from which the account is taken, it is followed by a paragraph in which the significant circumstances are explained: but this, with his usual caution, the extractor omits.

7. Conjugiat Cold. Some of the statements in the writings of Swedenborg are thought objectionable, merely because the terms used for expressing them are with difficulty translated into the English language, in such a manner as to retain the idea intended and yet be agreeable to the idiom of our tongue. “Conjugial Cold,” a translation of the Author's frigus conjugiale, is a phrase which certainly does not sound very agreeably to our ears. The term conju gial was adopted by the translator of the work De Amore Conjugiali, in preference to Conjugal, for reasons which he has assigned in his preface, and which we need not here consider. But whether the phrase “conjugial cold" be pleasing or not to our ears, the thing meant by it has unhappily, but too certain an existence; as many a neglected wife can testify. By it, the author means, that feeling of coldness or indifference towards their wives, which too often invades the breasts of men in the married state. The extract is a relation from the Appendix to one of the chapters in the work on Conjugial Love (n. 270), to illustrate the question, “In what region of the human mind doth love truly conjugial reside ; and thence in what region doth conjugial cold reside ?" "In it, the mind is representatively exhibited under the image of a house or palace with its various apartments; and the subject of inquiry is beautifully illustrated by other symbolic appearances. The whole conveys a highly pleasing idea of the delightful manner in which instruction on the most recondite subjects is communicated by corresponding appearances in the spiritual world ; and the appropriateness of the images to the things intended to be expressed is adapted to strike every mind, not disposed to scoff at every thing truly heavenly and angelic. That a house is constantly mentioned in the Word of God as an appropriate symbol of the mind, must be obvious to every attentive reader of the sacred pages.

8. Of the Jews in the Spiritual World. (T. C. R. n. 841). The relation, of which a part is extracted under this title, is such as must be allowed to wear the most striking aspect of truth, by all who are aware, that man after death is still a man, and that the circumstances in which he finds himself are in exact accord with the state of his heart and mind. By those who have had opportunity of observing what the Jews are in this world ; and who also believe, what reason and Scripture would teach all to believe, that the habits of think ing and feeling whichi a man has confirmed in himself by the whole course of

his life in this world follow him into the other, and that death does not miracu lously transform a man into a being altogether dissimilar to his former self, but only strips off all that does not properly belong to hiin, and displays him such as, in his veriest self, he is ; – by all who are acquainted with these facts, the account of the Jews in the spiritual world must be allowed to be as truly reasonable as it is faithfully characteristic. It is to be observed, however, to prevent misconception, that nearly all which is here related of the Jews refers to their state in the world of spirils, where all first appear after death, and not to their final states in heaven or hell. Nothing also, can be more reasonable, than the means affirmed to be employed, to bring them, where practicable, to the acknowledgment of the Lord, particularly respecting the occasional appearance to them of an angel, whom they believe to be Moses, who "admonishes them to desist from the folly of expecting the Messiah, as if he were still to come among them ; representing to them that Christ, who governs them and all other creatures, is the Messiah ; that he, Moses, knows this to be true, and that, while in the world, he had knowledge of him.” In short, the whole evinces, that, though man cannot but remain after death such as he had made himself by his life here, means are there provided by Divine Mercy to lead all, who by their life here, have acquired any capacity for it, to heaven and the Lord; and that even Jews, low as their rank is among the families of the human race, are not, by the mere circumstance of their being Jews, excluded from salvation. In the orig. inal, two paragraphs are added which are omitted by the extractor, but which greatly add to the verisimilitude of the relation. They exhibit the manner in which the unconverted Jews adhere, in the other life, to their notions about the future coming of their Messiah and their own return to the land of Canaan. In the Intellectual Repository, vol. iv. p. 210, &c., is an account of an interview which Mr. Hindmarsh once had with a party of Jews; and the answers he obtained from them, on the subjects respecting which the sentiments held by them in the spiritual world are here related, present a coincidence with the statements of our author which is not a little remarkable.

9. Of Divine Influx into Man. (H. & H. n. 251). This extract states, that the influx from the Lord into man passes through the forehead, and so into the whole face (meaning, the fore head and face of his spirit); and that of the spir. itual angels (or those in whom intellect predominates) takes place into that part of the head which is occupied by the cerebrum, that being the portion of the brain which is the seat of the intellectual faculties; whereas the celestial angel (or those in whom love predominates) act upon the part of the head which is occupied by the cerebellum, that being the portion of the brain which is the chief seat of man's will and love. The statement may probably appear rather strange to those who do not seriously think that man is the subject of any “influx” at all: but those who, in agreement with the Scriptures, believe that man lives by an influx or communication of life flowing into his soul from moment to moment from the Lord, and that the Lord employs the angels in dispensing his gifts, who are “ sent forth to minister unto them who are heirs of salvation;" will see no reason to ridicule the statement. Many philosophers have now adopted the belief, that the distinct faculties of the mind have distinct parts of the brain as their proper organs; if this be true, if it be at the same time admitted that man is the subject of influences from 'angelic beings; and if it be believed also that there are distinct classes of heavenly beings, suited to the “many mansions" of our heavenly Father's house;" it then becomes certain, that the good influences experienced in each of our various mental facalties must come immediately from that class of angelic beings in whom that faculty, in all its excellence, forms the predoininant characteristic. It cannot, indeed, be reasonably doubted, that the “many mansions” of our heavenly “Father's house” are equal in number to the distinct faculties of the angelic mind, which is the same as the human mind; that they exactly, in fact, correspond to each other; and hence that the “influx" by which each faculty of the human mind is directed to its proper use comes from the specific heavenly “ mansions" which corresponds to it, and the inhabitants of which are preeminently distinguished by it. As then all the human faculties are distinguishable into two general classes, those of the understanding and will, - it will follow, that the same is the case with the angelic hosts in general, and that it is not without meaning that the Scripture speaks of the Lord's“ angels” who " spirits,"

" and of "his ministers" who are "a flame of fire” (Ps. civ. 4): and it follows again, that the one class of angels operates chiefly on man's will,

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and the other chiefly on his understanding, and thus upon those organs of his frame which are the seats of those faculties of the mind. As to the influx from the Lord into man's forehead and face, this is stated in the extract to be, because the forehead corresponds to man's love, and the face to the interiors of his mind;" and that they have such a correspondence, and thence have such a signification in Scripture, will appear to any one who examines the passages where they are mentioned. Now whether from this correspondence and signification of the forehead and face, the influx from the Lord does or does not affect in a peculiar manner the face of man's spirit, let those judge who recollect what stress is laid in the Word of God on a man's setting the Lord before his face. Every one intuitively has an idea of a good man as having his face turned towards the Lord, or having the Lord before his face, and of the contrary as being the case with a wicked man; and this is the origin of the numerous phrases in use among religious people respecting conversion and being converted. Whence can all this be, but because the influx of the Lord with his divine life of love and wisdoin into man, in a peculiar manner affects the face of his spirit, and thus turns it, in those who receive that influx, towards himself? And to ridicule this, is in reality to ridicule the numerous passages of the Word of God which speak according to the appearances derived from this fact. Swedenborg does not mean to state that the face of man, considered as to his spirit, is the seat, or receptacle, of the influx of life, which flows into him from the Lord; but that, because the face corresponds to the interiors of his mind, the influx from the Lord into the interiors of the mind in a peculiar manner affects his face, and gives it the aspect of being turned towards Him. As the Lord is omnipresent; and as, also, in the spirtual world, there is no real space, but only the appearance of it: this perpetual turning of the angel's face to the Lord, so as to be in the direct reception of the rays of love and wisdom which beam from Him as the Sun of righteousness, by no means restrains the freedom of his motions ; he can change the position of his motions; he can change the position of his body as he pleases; but in whatever direction he turns it, he still has a perception of the Lord as being before him. Thns what Swedenborg says respecting the influx from the Lord into man's forehead and face, is clearly founded in Scripture, and in the very nature of things.

10. Origin of the Uncomfortable Mental Feelings attendant on Indigestion: quoted under the title of “ Curious Account of Anxiety and Grief." (H. & H. n. 299). This is a paragraph from a most instructive chapter « On the Conjunction of Heaven with the Human Race," and on man's connection with spiritual beings in general: but to understand some things contained in it, two former chapters also should be studied, in which it is shown, “ That there is a Correspondence between all things of Heaven and all things of Marl," and, “ There is a Correspondence between Heaven and all things of the Earth.” Viewed in connection with what is there developed, the present scrap, “curious" as it may appear in its sundered state, would be found in agreement with reason and truth. Its purport is, that when undigested food lies long in the stomach, certain spirits of an evil nature, who are of a quality corresponding to such impure substances, are capable of being near the man as to his spiritual part, from whose presence, though unperceived, arises a sense of anxiety and melancholy. Thus simply propounded, the statement may perhaps appear “curious ;' yet, even thus, it assuredly is not more curious than the persuasion of the medical faculty in general and of most others; who believe that the state of the stomach exercises a direct influence on the state of the mind, and this without the interference of any spiritual agency whatever! What rank materialism is this! Yet many who are not favorers of materialism in other respects cannot fail to adopt it, when they advert to a well known fact, and yet refuse to accept the explanation of it offered by Swedenborg. That protracted indigestion is accompanied with very distressing anxieties and depressions of mind, is universally known, and is experienced by multitudes in a very painful manner. Here is the indisputable fact. What can be the cause of it? Is the stomach the seat of the mind ? or is there an “influx" from the stomach into the mind ? — The thought is monstrous. Then how account for the fact, but by admitting the hypothesis of Swedenborg, being the only one by which the influence on the mind that undeniably operates in states of indigestion can be referred to a spiritual cause? According to his representation of the connection between the spiritual and natural worlds, every object and substance in the natural world affords a basis to such objects and actions of the spiritual

world as corresponds to its nature ; thus all clean and useful objects and sub stances yield a basis, in which, as it were, rest and terminate the spiritnul spheres proceeding from the heavenly worlds and their inhabitants; and all unclean and noxious objects and substances yield a basis, in which rest and terminate the spiritual spheres proceeding from the infernal worlds and their inhabitants. Consequently, when the work of digestion does not go on properly, but the contents of the stomach are in a disorderly state, they, like other unclean substances, will afford a basis in which rest and terminate the spiritual spheres proceeding from a certain class of evil spirits of a corr

orresponding nature; but as this is a basis within, and, in a degree, vitally adjoined to, the man himself

, the spirits from whom such spheres proceed, are at the same time brought near to his spirit, whence they, and not his stomach itself, exercise an influence on his mind, and produce in him the sense of melancholy and anxiety. This is Swedenborg's view of the subject. By those who disbelieve the existence of any spiritual world, or of any connection between the spiritual world and the natural, or of any influence exercised by spiritual beings on the mind of man, it may be laughed at; but by those who do not venture to contradict both Scripture and reason, by denying such things, it will be differently regarded. In any case it must be allowed, that to account for the otherwise unaccountable changes in the state of the human mind, from a spiritual cause, though states of the body may draw that spiritual causo into operation, is more philosophical than to reject the spiritual cause altogether, and to suppose a direct operation of matter upon mind.

11. Public Worship, Preaching, &c. in Heaven. (H. & H. n. 223). That Swe. denborg's assertion, that there are public worship and preaching in heaven, should appear ridiculous to a preacher and conductor of public worship on earth, seems not a little extraordinary. We have seen above (p. 357) that the truly pious and judicious Watts fully believed that in heaven there must be both. On the supposition that such is the fact, what our author has said respecting it must be allowed to be worthy of the subject, and to require no vindication.

12. Concerning the Hollanders in the Spiritual World. (T. C. R. n. 804, 805). What was said on the extraet respecting the Jews above, will in great part apply to this and to the next. It is to be rembered, that this description of the Dutch in the spiritual world only relates to their state in the world of spirits, soon after they have left this world by death, and before they are prepared for their final states in heaven and in hell. In the world of spirits, as is expressely affirmed in the first extract, all are arranged according to their natural affections ;" such as these had been on earth; hence their state in many respects is similar to what it had been on earth ; only they are then in the interiors of their natural affections respectively, whence their actions, circumstances, and the appearances about them, are all such as exactly correspond to their natural affections, such as these are in their intrinsic nature. Hence they exhibit there, and this by corresponding circumstances and actions, the very types of their natural characters, every thing extraneous thereto being removed. Let then any one, with this preliminary information, and possessing an accurate knowledge of the natural and national character of the Dutch, read what is here said of them, and, instead of deeming it ridiculous, any further than as some of the traits of that character itself may be deemed ridiculous, he will, I am satisfied, acknowledge it to be just, and to be characteristic in a very high degree. But, it is to be observed, that after a longer or shorter time, ali pass fron the state of their natural affections, or such as were proper to them in the world, into those properly belonging to their spirit, which are quite different from the former, though agreeing with them by correspondencc. All the appearances about them are then entirely changed ; and those who only knew them in their former state would know them no longer.

13. Concerning the English in the Spiritual World. (T. C. R. n. 809, 810, 811). All that is said in the last article is equally true of this, which therefore requires no further explanation. Of the truth of the painting here, every one may judge; and every one must acknowledge its exactness; though what is said of the preachers of the doctrine of justification by faith alone, though strikingly characteristic, will, for that very reason be unacceptable to the adhe. rents to that doctrine. The parts of the chapter which the extractor has suppressed are perhaps more obviously characteristic than what he has selected; in particular, he has withheld the handsome tribute which is paid to the superiority of the English character among the nations of Europe; which ought to afford

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