Irish English: History and Present-Day Forms

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Cambridge University Press, Nov 8, 2007 - Language Arts & Disciplines
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English has been spoken in Ireland for over 800 years, making Irish English the oldest variety of the language outside Britain. This 2007 book traces the development of English in Ireland, both north and south, from the late Middle Ages to the present day. Drawing on authentic data ranging from medieval literature to authentic contemporary examples, it reveals how Irish English arose, how it has developed, and how it continues to change. A variety of central issues are considered in detail, such as the nature of language contact and the shift from Irish to English, the sociolinguistically motivated changes in present-day Dublin English, the special features of Ulster Scots, and the transportation of Irish English to overseas locations as diverse as Canada, the United States, and Australia. Presenting a comprehensive survey of Irish English at all levels of linguistics, this book will be invaluable to historical linguists, sociolinguists, syntacticians and phonologists alike.
 

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Contents

VI
9
VII
10
VIII
11
IX
13
X
15
XI
16
XII
17
XIII
19
LXXIII
150
LXXIV
153
LXXV
155
LXXVI
161
LXXVII
163
LXXVIII
164
LXXIX
169
LXXX
181

XIV
22
XV
24
XVI
25
XVII
26
XVIII
27
XIX
29
XX
30
XXI
32
XXII
34
XXIII
37
XXIV
38
XXV
39
XXVI
41
XXVII
42
XXVIII
45
XXIX
49
XXX
53
XXXI
56
XXXII
57
XXXIII
58
XXXIV
60
XXXV
62
XXXVI
63
XXXVII
67
XXXVIII
70
XXXIX
74
XL
75
XLI
77
XLII
78
XLIII
80
XLIV
90
XLV
93
XLVI
95
XLVII
98
XLVIII
99
XLIX
100
L
101
LI
102
LII
104
LIII
107
LIV
108
LV
111
LVI
116
LVII
118
LVIII
120
LIX
121
LX
122
LXI
127
LXII
129
LXV
131
LXVI
133
LXVII
134
LXVIII
137
LXIX
141
LXX
142
LXXI
146
LXXII
149
LXXXI
245
LXXXII
254
LXXXIII
259
LXXXIV
262
LXXXV
267
LXXXVI
286
LXXXVIII
287
XC
289
XCI
292
XCII
293
XCIII
297
XCIV
300
XCV
304
XCVII
305
XCVIII
307
XCIX
308
C
309
CI
311
CII
317
CIII
324
CIV
326
CV
330
CVI
333
CVIII
334
CIX
340
CX
350
CXI
352
CXII
353
CXIII
370
CXIV
378
CXV
379
CXVI
382
CXVII
384
CXVIII
387
CXIX
392
CXX
393
CXXI
395
CXXII
397
CXXIII
398
CXXV
399
CXXVI
401
CXXVII
402
CXXVIII
404
CXXIX
406
CXXX
407
CXXXI
410
CXXXII
413
CXXXIII
415
CXXXIV
417
CXXXV
418
CXXXVI
419
CXXXVII
422
CXXXVIII
425
CXXXIX
427
CXL
435
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Page 29 - Therefore, although the Irish language is connected with many recollections that twine around the hearts of Irishmen, yet the superior utility of the English tongue, as the medium of all modern communication, is so great, that I can witness without a sigh the gradual disuse of the Irish.
Page xvi - Northern Ireland Since 1921 a state within the United Kingdom. It consists of six of the nine counties of the province of Ulster and was created as an option for the Protestant majority in the north-east of Ireland, descended from original Scottish and English settlers, to remain within the British union. Old English A reference to the English settlers in pre-Reformation Ireland, ie the descendants of the late medieval settlers who came at the end of the 12th century.
Page xiii - What ails you so melancholy," quoth John, " so cross ? You seem all snappish, uneasy, and fretful. Lie with us on the clover, 'tis fair and sheltered: Come nearer; you're rubbing your back; why so ill tempered?
Page xiii - Well, gossip, it shall be told; you ask what ails me, and for what; You have put us in talk, 'till the sun goes to set. I am a fool and a dunce; we'll idle out the day. The more we spend here, the less in the churchyard.
Page xiii - Zong.") But with all their boasting, they were soon y-taught That their errand was for them in their anguish y-heightened, Such driving and struggling, till then we ne'er saw, Nor such never will, no, nor never may. Hey-ho ! by my conscience thou hast y-paid it quoth John ; Give over with thy croaking, and give me thy hand. He that knows what to say, mischief fetch the man Twixt thee and Tommie and the emmet-hill (knockan) (From an
Page xii - Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid; mot thee fartoo, an fade; Ha deight ouse var gabble, tell ee zin go t'glade. Ch'am a stouk, an a donel; wou'll leigh out ee dey. Th' valler w'speen here, th
Page xiii - Yesterday we had a goal just in our hand Their gentry were quaking, themselves could not stand, If Good-for-little had been buried it had been my Tommy Who by misluck was placed to drive in. Throngs and crowds from each quarter were at the Lough, Such vapouring and glittering when stript in their shirts; Such bawling and shouting, when the ball was thrown. I saw their intent was to give us ne'er a stroke.
Page ix - ... and ek in fote . and how pe stremis ernip . of is swet blode . be-ginne at is heued. and loke to is to. pou ne findest in is bodi . bot anguis and wo . 15 turne him uppe . turne him doune . pi swete lemman . oner al pou findist him.