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(Too little kenned this gallant knight,

“Welcome! most welcome! gallant knight! That page's perfidie ;

Thrice welcome, noble chief! And how his black heart then conceived

“ Kind Heaven has sent thee here, to prove This doleful tragedie.)

“ Our sure and firm relief." The lady watched their little bark,

Right courteously the knight replied, Athwart the wave it flew,

And, ere he sought his tent, And o'er the billows faintly breathed

He lent himself a willing guest
Her fond, her last adieu.

To village merriment.
Ere Sve short hours their course had sped, The generous goblet circled round,
They reach the destined land,

And all with one accord,
And villagers in crowds collect,

The joyous bumper filled, and pledged To greet them on the strand.

“ To Hambye's noble lord.” With the authenticity of this relique, if relique it be, we have little to do beyond informing our candid reader that considerable doubts have been seriously entertained upon the subject. We insert it here simply as a quaint specimen of the crude poetry of the fifteenth century, the age to which it has, by some, been considered as peculiarly belonging.

Four years have elapsed since it was first discovered, and as no successful attempt has since been made to bring to light the remnants of the poem, of which this “ trouvaille” is evidently but the introduction, we are driven to one of two irresistible conclusions,-either that they never did exist, or, that they have mouldered in the ruins, — the popular, and perhaps the better, opinion leans towards the former conclusion of this logical alternative, and is supported by the probability that the author may have found more difficulty in killing the dragon with his pen, than did the “preux chevalier” in vanquishing him with his lance.


We have perused with great satisfaction the Annual Report of the proceedings in this educational establishment. The plan is extensive and judicious, and the course of study pursued is marked by sound discretion. Convinced, as we are, that the vast majority of private schools, particularly in the environs of London, are conducted by persons who ought to be pupils instead of teachers, we rejoice that the island of Jersey enjoys the advantage of possessing so able an instructor of youth, as the superintendent of Şion Honse Academy. He evidently does not teach his scholars by the rule of thumb; nor is he wedded to ancient routine, merely because it is ancient. He has the good sense to obey the spirit of the age, to adapt his system to the wants of existing society, and qualify children to appear with credit and usefulness on the future stage of manhood. The fundamental principle of the plan of education pursued at this academy is the principle of eduction, framed in accordance with the principles of the Baconian or inductive philosophy. We cannot convey a clearer notion of this mode of instruction than by quoting the words of the Report, and placing the ordinary and the new method in juxtaposition. TO TEACH

TO TEACH On the principle of eduction, is to lead a On the usual routine, is tell a pupil.

pupil. 1.-To obserre.

1.-To beliere. 2.- To observe with accuracy.

2.-To believe without examination. 3.-To erpress with correctness the re 3.–To learn by rote, and repeat with salt of his observations. (To state facts.) correctness the result of the observations

of others. (To learn rules by heart.) 4.-To compare his observations toge 4.-To make use of the rules he has ther, and note in which there is an learned with confidence, because if he agreement, and in which a disagreement, follows them with accuracy he will obtain and draw inferences. (To think.) results that will be true. (To work with

the precision of a machine.) 5.-To compare his inferences, induc 5.-To compare the result he obtains tions or conclusions (rules, with those of with those he should have obtained (with authors, and examine in what they agree the key), and if his conclusions be erroand in what they differ. If his conclusion neous, to retrace his steps and try to (rule) differs from the authors, to retrace discover where he has violated the role. his steps and find out the cause of the (Not to despair.) disagreement. (To investigate.)

6.-To embody in language the result 6.---That, seeing he obtained a false of his observations, with the utmost pre- result because he forgot one important cision the subject is capable of.

particular in the rule, he must use means to strengthen his memory, not to be exposed to similar mishaps in future, and that much practice therefore is indispensable to give him, at all times, a thorough

competency in every subject of study. Lastly.—To commit to memory all his Lastly.- To endeavour to find out the conclusions, for the purpose of being able reasons of the rules which he has been at all times readily to act in conformity observing, for many years past, for the with just principles. (To learn rules by purpose of satisfying his mind that they heart.)

have their foundation in reason. (To begin to think.)

The mere perusal of these two compartive statements shows, at a glance, the vast and essential difference between the principle of eduction, and the mechanical jog-trot, rule of thumb routine, pursued in most academies. In teaching arithmetic, for example, how seldom does a teacher explain to the pnpil the principle on which any rule is founded! The Tutor's Assistant is put into a child's hand, he reads the rule, learos it by rote as a parrot, proceeds to work out a sum, and when it is finished, the child is just as ignorant, as when he commenced, of the rationale of the operation. Take, for instance, the simple rule of multiplication : is it not a mere effort of memory, acquired after repeated trials? Does not every child, in the great majority of cases, consider it a perfectly new and independent rule, sui generis, and unconnected with any other rule? And yet, it is neither more nor less than addition, in condensed and abbreviated form; but how seldom is this fact made known to a pupil! The arithmetical books currently used in schools are quite unfit for children, and we are happy to find that Professor De Morgan's work, entitled “ Principles of Arithmetic,” is used at Sion House. Of this excellent publication Dr. Mayo thus speaks, and we fully concur in his eulogium :

“The simple, lucid, and well-arranged treatise of Professor De Morgan is among the happiest attempts to rescue arithmetic from its present degraded state, and to claim for it a place among other branches of rational education. It is peculiarly valuable for young persons, who having been, from their infancy, led hood - winked through the dark alleys of arithmetical rules, desire to take an intellectual view of operations which they have been taught to perform mechanically. It takes them as it where to an eminence, whence they can see the point from which they started, and that at which they have arrived, and, tracing all the windings of the dark passages which they were made to traverse, shews them that they were indeed the shortest, if not the best course they could have followed.”

There is a peculiarity in the method of teaching the French language adopted at Sion House Academy, which is excellent: it relates to commercial terms. The phraseology of the counting-house is in all countries dissimilar from that of the drawing-room. The style of a mercantile letter differs toto cælo from that of a literary epistle, so that an Englishman who can relish the beauties of Fenelon or Racine would be unable to understand a French price current. Of this variance between commercial terms and customary phraseology, the Report contains some striking examples, which we subjoin, as illustrations of technical language, and the importance of learning it. STATE OF MARKETS.

AVIS SUR LES COURS. Common boweds sell readily.

Le coton Georgie, courte soie, se vend

facilement. My dear Sir,

Monsieur et Ami, We have the pleasure to acknowledge Nous avons le plaisir de vous accuser the receipt of your favour of the 10th ult. réception de votre lettre du 10 de l'expiré. We are respectfully.

Agréez nos civilités respectueuses. Whilst writing the above, we have re Nous en sommes là de notre lettre, ceived your letter of the 22nd iost. quand on nous remet la vôtre du 22

courant. Our latest sales, within these few days, Les affaires ont été assez actives, ces have been very current.

jours-ci. This for your government.

Ceci pour votre gouverne. Buyers hold back.

Les acheteurs font peu d'offres. Sugars are much sought after.

Les sucres sout très-courus, et en hausse.

Peppers are abundant at 22 cts., long Le poivre est offert à 22c., droit comprice.

pris. Mind to prevent our running under a Ayez soin de ne pas nous laisser en cash disbursement.

avance de caisse. 5787 sticks of fustic,

5787 buches de bois jaune. A quantity of logwood, weighing Un grenier de campêche, pesant20 bundles of steel.

20 bottes d'acier. 375 pigs of lead, loose.

375 saumons de plomb, en vrac. 100 pipes of oil-proof brandy.

100 pipes d'eau-de-vie, de 22} deg. Connected with commercial instruction, the pnpils at Sion House Academy are initiated into the technicalities of trade, and learn to draw receipts, bills of exchange, accounts current, bills of lading, and so forth; a description of knowledge so rarely taught, that ninety-nine out of a hundred young men who have received what is termed a liberal education, are totally ignorant of the subject. We admit that book-keeping will be more readily learned in a counting house than at a school : bnt many never enter a counting house, who, nevertheless, onght to possess a general knowledge of mercantile routine and commercial terms.

We also notice with approbation the method adopted in teaching the higher branches of mathematics, as geometry, algebra, and trigonometry. “Our mode of teaching algebra,” says the Report, is that developed by Mr. Perry, which corresponds in its chief particular with that recommended by the Journal of Education, the great principle of which is to work an example before the pupil, stating the reasons of every step, and then requiring him to deduce laws,-note them, and afterwards compare them with the rule in his text book, &c. &c.” The plan of teaching land surveying is also deserving of praise. It is quite true that an object submitted to the eye makes a stronger impression than if the laws relating to that object are merely communicated to the ear. Horace told us so long ago : Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem, quam quæ sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus. This is particularly the case with practical subjects. The Report says, “the papils of the land surveying class frequently go out with a teacher, to survey some adjoining piece of land. They take notes in a regular field book, and work the survey on their return."

The discipline of the school is modelled on a sound basis. The appointment of school officers froin among the boys, as the magistrate, the conservators of school property, the librarian, and the dormitorial police, teaches the pupils to legislate for themselves, and they are thus initiated, in early life, in some general ideas of political government. On the whole, we cannot but accord very high praise to Sion House Academy, and if the practice really corresponds with the Report, of which we have no doubt, the establishment richly merits the patronage of parents and guardians. One thing is certain, that all is open and above board; for the principal, Mr. Elias Neel, by printing his system of education and entering into every minute detail, affords every person fall opportunity of forming an accurate judgment of the merits or demerits of his establishment, and there is no better guarantee of truth and fair dealing than publicity.



Channel Islands, and that justice, administered The Right Honourable the Lords of the Com.

by upright magistrates of their choice, will ever mittee of Council, having granted the prayer of preside over them. the petition of Peter Le Pelley, esq., to resign

“For this purpose, you will please to commu. the office of jurat of the Royal Court of Guern

nicate the present notice of convocation to your sey, the Bailiff issued a Billet d'Etat, ordering Rector and Douzaine, and bring a correct list of

the latter. a new election to supply the vacancy, worded in the following terms.

(Signed) “DANIEL DE LISLE BROCK, “ The choice of a successor to Mr. Le Pelley, Guernsey, 9th March, 1836.”

“ Bailiff. whom we regret under so many circumstances, A variety of candidates were proposed for the can be safely entrusted to the good sense of the vacant office, by the local papers, but when the electors. They have, on all occasions, shewn hour of contest arrived, all excitement had to. proofs of their intelligence, independence, and tally subsided. Mr. John Harvey bad announlove of their country, and they will feel, as ced his intention not to canvass : Mr. Valrent myself, that it is the most noble and important followed his example; so that the trial of strength of their duties. They who wish to refuse the was merely nominal, and Mr. Harry Dobrée, people every thing, see perbaps vith pain, but jun., Beau - Séjour, was chosen by a vast are nevertheless bound to confess, that the inha majority. Mr. Valrent is well known as a genbitant of Guernsey possesses great and just tleman deeply versed in the customs and instirights, and that he is worthy of exercising them. tutions of the island, possessing a vast fund of Honour to the liberty and dignity of man ! mercantile knowledge, and enjoying an irreShould these attributes be despised every where proachable public and private character. These else, let us hope that they will ever form an qualifications would have justly entitled him to essential characteristic of the iphabitants of the a seat on the beach, which he would unques

tionably have honoured by his presence; but as comprehensive survey of man, his motives, and he retired from the Town Douzaine, in conse his actions. We believe Mr. Dobrée to possess quence of being more than sixty years of age, these requisites, and as he is now in the vigour the electors appear to have considered, that if of his age, possessing considerable talents, and he was too old to attend to the affairs of the enjoying the command of his time, we have no parish, a fortiori, he was too old to undertake doubt of his proving himself worthy of the high the laborious and fatiguing duties of a Magis. honour conferred upon him by the unasked and trate, In that opinion we concur, and we free suffrages of his constituents. believe that Mr. Valrent himself took the same view of the subject.

GRANGE ROAD. We consider that the electors made a very This beautiful avenue to the town is now to proper choice, when they selected Mr. Harry be macadamized, and improved by a granite Dobrée, jun. It was with pain that we read a foot-way. We congratulate the public on this letter from one of the correspondents of the decision ; but we cannot forbear remarking, that Star, recommending the rejection of this gentle. the order itself emanated from an authority man. Appreciating, as we highly do, the talents which we deem to be upconstitutional. The and liberal mind of our excellent contemporary, subject was brought before the Court, when we were the more disappointed and astonished sitting in its judicial capacity, and composed of at his suffering his sound discretion to be sur the Bailiff and eight Magistrates. The proprie. prised. For our part, we are delighted at seeing tors of houses situate in the road were heard at on the bench a gentleman, who has associated the bar, and a great difference of opinion at in the innocent recreations of the ball-room and first prevailed among them; but, at length, a the race-course, for he must there have learned compromise took place, the result of which was, some knowledge of the world, the better quali that the road is to be macadamized; that in fying him to decide on the value of evidence. future the proprietors should pay the equivalent, Surely a Judge is not to be taken from the and also half the expense that may be required section of recluses and ascetics, who, making no in repairing the present footpath. Now, what allowance for the fra ilti or indiscretions of we complain of is, that the Bailiff and eight their fellow-creatures, condemn without mercy, Magistrates should assume a power which is and sentence with unmitigating vengeance ! really vested in the States, and by their votes No, no; let us have Magistrates who have bind all the absent representatives of the people. mixed with all classes of society; who never We readily admit the goodness of the measure take a one-eyed view of a question ; who are about to be adopted; but we protest against the not wedded to the ruling prejudices of a coterie ; means employed for its enforcement. Surely but who can take an enlarged, liberal, and this state of things requires an immediate reform.

JERSEY TESTIMONIAL TO THE BAILIFF OF GUERNSEY. Ar a convocation of the States of Jersey, on the pure joy of our success was, certainly, for me 9th March, Sir John De Veulle stated that Mr. a sufficient reward ; but you add to my own Dupré, the solicitor-general, had been to Guern. feelings the expression of the interesting island sey, and presented the Bailiff of that island with of which you are the representatives. I feel the piece of plate voted to him by the States of deeply for your high favour of gratitude, but I Jersey, for his eminent services rendered to the cannot find terms adequate to express my feelings people of the Channel Islands in the celebrated for the language which accompanies it. affair of the Corn Question. The Attorney “Let me be allowed to add my wishes for the General then read the following letter from Mr. continued good understanding which has shown Brock, acknowledging this mark of esteem and itself in our last meeting. respect :

“All men have a right to our good will; but "To the Members of the States of the Island nature, reason, and religion, impose on us the of Jersey.

duty to concentrate more particularly our at. Gentlemen,- I have received, with the live. tachment towards our neighbours. The Channel liest emotion, the Act which the States of Jersey Islands, those beautiful daughters of the sea, thought proper to pass, the 29th June last, form one family, one country, united in their together with the piece of plate which accom. welfare, by their mutual origin, their wants, panied it; and which they beg me to accept, to and the necessity to give each other a helping prove, as they say, how sensible they are of the hand. The brightest blood of England and important services which I have rendered toge. France has sprung from those Normans who ther with the Deputies of Jersey, towards the acquired so great a renown with such trifling common good of the Channel Islands, in defend. means; who contributed so largely to European ing the privilege for the free importation of their civilization, and whose princes governed with agricultural produce into England. This unex. that wisdom and justice before unknown, and pected honour would more than reward him which has ever been so rare. who would have distinguished himself by the “May we prove their worthy descendants; most generous dévouement, and the greatest and may the Author of all good deign to shed sacrifices. How could I aspire to it for the part his blessings on the island of Jersey and the which I have taken in those services which it is other Channel Islands ! your pleasure to acknowledge in so flattering a “ Such is the sincere prayer of him who has manner?

the honour to subscribe himself, “Our mission required neither dévouement

“The obedient and humble Servant nor sacrifices. It went only to show the truth,

of the States of the Island of Jersey. -to ask for justice,-and when the one appeared, (Signed) "DANIEL DE LISLE BROCK. it was certain that the other would be adminis

Guernsey, 1st February, 1836." tered by a wise government, and a parliamen. tary committee composed of men of honour. Mr. Constable Godfray proposed that this

"It is impossible to conceive sweeter occupa- letter, alike creditable to the head and heart of tions than those which, under such favourable the worthy Bailiff of Guernsey, should be regis. circumstances, had for their chief end the good tered in the books of the States ; a proposition fame and the welfare of our country, The which was carried unanimously.




MAY, 1836.


All wealth is the effect of the application of physical and intellectual labour to raw materials. The earth is the depository of all raw materials, and the genius and industry of man 'may be considered as the animated machine by which they are manufactured into articles, adapted to our necessities and comforts. Value is originally bestowed on every thing by appropriation, for so long as it remains in common, it has no value, but only the capacity of being converted into value. In this sense, the whole earth was valueless before the creation of man; for we can form no notion of property independently of a proprietor, and no notion of value abstractedly from human labour. Value in use cannot exist without, at least, one consumer, and value in exchange requires, at least, the presence of two contracting parties.

Time was when the spontaneous fruits of the earth satisfied the human race, when their drink was water, the undressed skins of beasts their clothing, and the shadowing branches of a tree their place of rest. Emerging from this rude state, man became a hunter and fisher: he next entered the condition of a shepherd; from that he advanced to the rank of an agriculturist, and finally reached the station of a commercialist and manufacturer. When society has arrived at this last stage, it is said to have attained the point of civilization, and the component classes of a community so circumstanced, are distributed in the tripartite classification of landlords, capitalists, and operatives; the first living on the rent of land, the second being maintained by the profits of stock, and the third being subsisted by the wages of labour.

In order to have a clear view of the origin and gradual development of national wealth, it may be well to notice those general and elementary principles which are apparent in the rise and progress of all political communities, from barbarism to civilization. It is the knowledge of those principles which reduces the art of government into a science, and the judicious application of them to the varying condition of a country, and Vol. I.-No. 5.


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