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stanzas, the reader may consult Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold.

The trebly hundred triumphs.

Stanza lxxxii, line 2. Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for the number of triumphs. He is followed by Panvi. nius; and Panvinius by Mr. Gibbon and the modern writers.

43. Oh thou , whose chariot rolld on Fortune's

wheel, etc.

Stanza lxxxiii, line 1. Certainly were it not for these two traits in the life of Sylla, alluded to in this stanza, we should regard him as a monster unredeemed by any ad. mirable quality. The atonement of his volnntary resignation of empire may perhaps be accepted by us, as it seems to have satisfied the Romans, who if they had not respected must have destroyed him. There could be no mean, no division yf opinion; they must have all thought, like Eu. erates, that what had appeared ambition was a love of glory, and that what had been mistaken for pride was a real grandeur of soul?).

44. And laid him with the earth's preceding clay.

Stanza Ixxxvi. line 4. On the third of September Cromwell gained the victory of Dunbar; a year afterwards he obtained «his crowning mercy, of Worcester; and a few years after, on the same day, which he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for him, died. 1) Seigneur, vous changez tontes mes idées de la façon dont

je vous vois agir. Je croyois que vous aviez de l'ambition, mais aucun amour pour la gloire : je voyois bien que votre âme étoit baute ; mais je ne soupçonnois pas qu'elle fut grande.» — Dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate.

And thou, dread statue! still existent in
The austerest form of naked majesty.

Stanz Lxxxvii. lines 1 and 2. The projected division of the Spada Pompey has already been recorded by the historian of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Mr. Gibbon found it in the memorials of Flaminius Vacca 1), and it may be added to his mention of it that Pope Julius 111. gave the contending owners five hundred crowns for the statue; and presented it to Cardinal Capo di Ferro, who had prevented the judgment of Solomon from being executed upon the image. In a more civilized age this statue was exposed to an actual operation : for the French who acted the Brutus of Voltaire in the Coliseum resolved that their Caesar should fall at the base of that Pompey, which was sup; posed to have been sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. 'The nine foot hero was therefore removed to the arena of the amphitheatre, and to facilitate its transport suffered the temporary amputation of its right arm. The republican tragedians had to plead that the arm was a resto. ration: but their accusers do not believe that the integrity of the statue would have protected it. The love of finding every coincidence has discovered the true Caesarean ichor in a stain near the right knee; but colder criticism has rejected not only the blood but the portrait, and assigned the globe of power rather to the first of the emperors than to the last of the republican masters of Rome. Winkelmann ?) is loth to allow an heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa, a contemporary almost, is heroic; and naked Roman figures were only very rare, absolutely forbidden. The face accords much better with the «hominein integrum et castum et gravem3),» 1) Memoire, num. lvii. pag. 9. ap. Montfaucon, Diarium Ita.

licum. 2) Storia delle Arti, etc. lib ix. cap. 1. pag. 321, 322. tom, ii. 3) Cicer. Epist. ad Atticum, xi. 6.


than with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stern for him who was beautiful, says Sue. tonius, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pom. pey ?). The objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary, and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of this statue, with that which received the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the spot where it was discovered ?). Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the statue after the curia was either burnt or taken down 3). Part of the Pompejan shade 4), the portico, existed in the beginning of the XV th century, and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says Blondus 5). At all events, so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.

46. And thou, the thunder - stricken nurse of Rome!

Stanza lxxxviii. line 1. Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded most probably with images of the foster-mother

1) Published by Causeus in his Museum Romanum. 2) Storia delle Arti, etc. Ibid. 3) Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31, and in vit. C. J. Caesar.

Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Pitiscus to Suetonius, pag. 224. 4) «Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra.»

Ovid. Ar. Aman 5) Roma instaurata , lib. ii. fo, 31.

cap. 88.

of her founder: but there were two she-wolfes of whom history makes particular mention. One of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysius ?) at the temple of Romulus, under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned by the Latin historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal fig tree 2). The other was that which Cicero 3) has celebrated both in prose and verse, and which the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to by the orator 4). The

1) Χάλκεα ποιήματα παλαιάς εργασίας.

Antiq. Rom. lib. 1. 2) "Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantiam conditorum urbis

sub uberibus lapae posuerunt.» Liv. Hist. lib. x. cap. Ixix.

This was in the year U. C. 455, or. 457. 3) “ Tum statua Nattae, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque

et Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis ictis conciderunt ,
De Divinat. ii. 20. “ Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem
condidit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio parvum at.
que lactantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis. ,
In Catilin. iii. 8.

u Hic silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix
Martia, quae parvos Mavortis semine natos
Uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigebat
Quae tum cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu
Concidit, atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquat. »

De Consulatu, lib. ii. (lib. i. de Divinat. cap. ii.) *) 'Εν γαρ τω καπητολίω ανδριάντες τε

πολλοί υπό κεραυνών συνέχωνεύθησαν, και αγάλματα άλλα τε, και Διώς επί κίονος ίδρυμένου, εικών τε τις λυκάινης συν τε τω Ρώμη και συν τω Ρωμύλω ιδρυμένη έπεσε.

Dion Hist. lib. xxxvii. pag. 37. edit. Rob. Steph. 1548. He goes on to mention that the letters of the columns on which the laws were written were liquefied and become duvdgá. All that the Romans did was to erect a large statue to Jupiter, looking to. wards the east: no mention is afterwards made of the woll. question agitated by the antiquaries is, whether the wolf now in the conservators' palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one nor the other. The earlier writers differ as much as the moderns : Lucius Faunus 1) says, that it is the one alluded to by both, which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinus ?) calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and Marlianus 3) talks of it as the one mentioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents ) Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of

This happened in A. U. C. 689. The abate Pea, in noticing this passage of Dion (Storia della Arti, etc. tom. i. pag. 202. note x.) says, Non ostante, aggiunge Dione, che fosse ben fermata (the wolf), by which it is clear the Abate translated the Xylandro - Leunclavian version, which puts quamvis stability for the original ιδρυμένη, a word that does not mean ben - fermata, but only raised, as may be distinctly seen from another passage of the same Dion : 'HBoviñon μεν ουν ο Αγρίππας και τον Αύγουστον ενταύθα ιδρύσαι. Ηist. lib. Ivi. Dion says that Agrippa “wished to raise a statue of Augustus in the

Pantheon., 1) "In eadem porticu aenea lupa , cujus uberibus Romulus ac

Remus lactantes inhiant, conspicitur: de hac Cicero et Vir.
gilius semper intellexere. Livius hoc signum ab Aedilibas
ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent foeneratores, positum in-
nuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Picum Ruminalem
pueri fuerant expositi locatum pro certo est. » Luc. Pauni
de Antiq. Urb. Rom. lib. ii. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. i.

In his XVIIth chapter he repeats that the statues were there, but not that they were found there. 2) Ap. Nardini Roma Vetus, lib. v. cap. iv. 3) Marliani Urb. Rom. topograph. lib. ii. cap. ix. He mentions

another wolf and twins in the Vatican. lib. v. cap. xxi. 4) “Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent, quam adpinximus,

quae é comitio in Basilicam Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitolium postea relata sit, quamvis Marlianus antiquam Capitolinam esse maluit a Tullio descriptam, cui ut in re nimis dubia, trepidė adsentimur.» Just. Rycquii de Capit. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250. edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696.

quo loco

P: 217.

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