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and some other automata, might have had their be. ginning there ;! &c. Again, p. 91.--- Little worth remark is to be found till towards the 16th cena tury; and then clock-work was revived or wholly invented anew in Germany, as is generally thought, because the ancient pieces are of German work."

A skilful watch-maker informs me, that clocks have not been commonly made in England much more than one hundred years backward.

To the inartificial construction of these first pieces of mechanism executed in Germany, we may suppose Shakspere alludes. The clock at Hampton Court, which was set up in 1540 (as appears fr m the inscription affixed to it), is said to be the first ever fabricated in England.

STEEVENS. I have heard a French proverb that compares any thing that intricate and out of order to the coq de Strasburg, that belongs to the machinery of the townclock.

S. W. 209.

-sue, and groan;] And, which is not in either of the authentick copies of this play, the quarto 1598, or the folio, 1623, was added, to supply the metre, by the editor of the second folio.

MALONE. 210. Some men must love my lady, and some Joan.] To this line Mi. Theobald extends his second act, not injudiciously, but, as was before observed, without sufficient authority.



Line 19. HERE, good my glass, mm) To understand how the princess has her glass so ready at hand in a casual conversation, it must be remem. bered that in those days it was the fashion among the French ladies to wear a looking-glass, as Mr. Bayle coarsely represents it, on-their bellies; that is, to have a small mirror set in gold hanging at their girdle, by which they occasionally viewed their faces or adjusted their hair.

JOHNSON. Dr. Johnson, perhaps, is mistaken. She had no occasion to have recourse to any other looking glass than the Forester, whom she rewards for having shewn her to herself as in a mirror. STEBVENS. 33. When, for fame's sake, for praise, an outward


We bend to that the working of the heart :] Tlie harmony of the measure, the easiness.of the expression, and the good sense in the thought, all concur to re.. commend these two lines to the reader's notice.

WARBURTON. 36. puthat my heart means no ill.] That my heart means no ill, is the same with to whom my

heart means no ill : the common phrase suppresses the particle, as I mean him (not to him] no harm. JOHNSON. 37• that self-sovereignty] Not a sovereignty

over, but in, themselves. So, self-sufficiency, selfconsequence, &c.

MALONE, 42. -a member of the common-wealth.] Here, I believe, is a kind of jest intended : a member of the common-wealth is put for one of the common people, one of the meanest.

JOHNSON 50. An your waist, mistress, were as slender as my

wit, One of these maids' girdles for your waist should

be fit.] It is plain that the ladies' girdles would not fit the princess. For v:hen she has referred the clown to the chickest and the tallest, he turns immediately to her with the blunt apology, truth is truth; and again tells her, you are the thickest here. Perhaps he mentions the slenderness of his own wit to excuse his bluntness.


-Boyet, you can carve ; Break up this capon.] 1. c. open this letter. Our poet uses this metaphor, as the French do their poulet ; which signifies both a young fowl and a love-letter. Poulet amatoria literæ, says Richelet ; and quotes from Voiture, Repondre au plus obligeant poulet du monde ; to reply to the most obliging letter in the world.' The Italians use the same manner of ex. pression, when they call a love-epistle, una policetta

I owed the hint of this equivocal use of the word to my ingenious friend Mr. Bishop.

THEOBALD. Henry IV. consulting with Sully about his marriage, says, " My niece of Guise would please me best, not3



withstanding the malicious reports, that she loves poulets in paper, better than in a fricasée."-A message is called a cold pigeon, in the letter concerning the entertainments at Killingworth-Castle.

FARMER. One of Lord Chesterfield's Letters, 8vo. Vol. III. p. 114, gives us the reason why poulet meant amatoria litera.

TOLLET. To break up was a peculiar phrase in carving.

PERCY. So, in Westward-Hoe, by Decker and Webster, 1607: at “ the skirt of that sheet, in black-work is wrought his name : break not up the wild-fowl till anon."

Again, in Ben Johnson's Masque of Gipsies Metamorphosed :

“ A London cuckold hot from the spit,
“ And when the carver up had broke him," &c.

STEEVENS, 62. Break the neck of the wax,- te] Still alluding to the capon.

JOHNSON So, in the True Tragedie of Marius and Scilla, 1594 : “ Lectorius read, and break these letters up."


-More fairer than fair, beautiful than beauteous, etuer, &c.] I would read, fairer that fæir, more beautiful, &c.

TYRWHITT, 67. illustrate-) For illustrious. It is often used by Chapman in his translation of Homer. Steevens. 68. king Cophetua.---] The ballad of King Cophetua



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and the Beggar Maid, may be seen in the Reliques of Ancient Poetry, Vol. I. The beggar's name was Penelophon, here corrupted.

PERCY. The poet alludes to this song in Romeo and Juliet, Henry IV. Part II. and Richard II.

STEEVENS. 72. saw, two ;] The old copy read- see. Mr. Rowe corrected it.

MALONE, 90. Thus dost thou hear, &c.] These six lines appear to be a quotation from some ridiculous poem of that time.

WAR BURTON. 99. going o'er it] A pun upon the word stile.

MUSGRAVE were while.] Just now; a little while ago. So Raleigh : Here lies Hobbinol, our shepherd while e'er."

JOHNSON. A phantasm,- -] On the books of the Sta. tioners-Company, Feb, 6, 1608, is entered, “a book called Phantasm, the Italian Taylor and his Boy ; made by Mr. Armin, servant to his majesty." · It probably contains the history of Monarcho, of whom Dr. Farmer speaks in the following note, to which I have subjoined an additional instance. STEEVENS.

a Monarcho ;- -] The allusion is to a fantastical character of the time.“ Popular applause (says Meres) doo nourish some, neither do they gape after any other thing, but vaine praise and glorie,

-as in our age Peter Shakerlye of Paulis, and Monarcho that lived about the court.” p. 178.



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