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Now Horatio's reply would have lost its poinancy, had Hamlet called his uncle, a paddock for surely a toad or + paddock is a much viler animal than an ass.

Again, in that well-known place where the ghost speaks to Hamlet, nothing, as it seems to me, should be altered but a trifling spelling: " 5 Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, “ Unhouzzled, disappointed, unaneald.”

UNHOUSEL'D, I. e. not having received the sacrament. Houfel, is the eucharift or sacrament. Sax. buf. Lat. poftiola : to housel, is to give

4 The word is ftill us'd in some parts of England; from the Anglos. pada, bufo. Germ. padde. So in Macbech. Ac I.

i Witch. I come, I come Grimalkin.

A familiar calls with the voice of a cata 2 Witch. Padock calls."

Another familiar calls with the croaking of a toad. This Passage in Macbeth has not been rightly understood.

5 Mr. Theobald has very rightly explain'd this passage : but why instead of disappointed he substitutes unappointed, I can't find any reason ; nor does he himself give any. In fome editions, without any authority or critical skill, they have printed,

Unhoufel'd, unanginted, unanneald.

N 2


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the facrament to one on his death-bed : And Certes ones a year at left it is lawful to be boufeled. Chaucer in the parson's tale, p. 212.

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His own two hands, for such a turn most fit, « The boufling fire did kindle and provide, “ And holy water thereon sprinkled wide." i. e. the facramental fire. Alluding to the ancient custom of marriages. DISAPPOINTED, having missed of my appointment by the priest ; not confessed and been absolved. Appointment is so used in Measure for Measure, Act III. Your best appointment make with speed ; i.e. what reconciliation for your fins, what penance is appointed you. UNANNEIL'D, not having the last anneylynge, extreme unction : aneled, anoyled, from the Lat. oleo inuetus. This word I find used by Holingshed, in the life of

6 See Plutarch. In Quæft. Roman. And hence Ovid is to be explained in Epift. XIII. 8. 9. Hypermnestra to Lynceus.

Me pater igne licet, QUEM NON VIOLAVIMUS, urat.''

And Lib. II. Art. Amat. y. 597.

Ifa viri caprent (fi jam captanda putabunt) " Quos faciunt justos IGNIS I unda viros.''

K. John ;

K. John ; speaking of the interdiction laid on the King and this land by the Pope, he adds, “ It was not so ftreit, for there were diverse

places occupied with divine service all that “ time, by certeine priviledges purchased either “ then or before. Children were also christened, " and men houseled and annoiled through all o the land, except such as were in the bill of “ excommunication by name expressed.". I cannot here but admire the ignorance as well as boldness of those editors, who have changed this undoubtedly genuine reading.

In Othello, Act V.

“ I've rubb'd this young Quat almost to the sense " And he grows angry. Iago is speaking of Roderigo, a quarrelsome and lewd young fellow. Now of all birds a Quail is the most quarrelsome and lewd, a fit emblem of this rake. The Romans fought them as we fight our cocks. Ovid. Amor. L. II. eleg. VI.

Ecce coturnices inter sua praelia vivunt,

In Antony and Cleopatra, Act II. Antony says of Octavius, His quails ever beat mine. The lewdness of this bird is mention'd by Xenophon


in his memoirs of Socrates, L. II. c. Í: Ouršv
και άλλα υπό λανείας, οίον οίτε OPTYΓΕΣ και οι πέρδικες
προς την της θηλείας φωνήν τή επιθυμία και την ελπίδα
των αφροδισίων φερόμενοι, και εξισάμενοι και τα δεινά
αναλογίζεσθαι, τούς θηράτροις εμπίπίεσιν και Are there
not other créatures that by reason of their wanton-
ness, as quails and partridges, which skro a laf-
civious de fire of their females run to their call, void
of all sense of danger, and thus fall into the sports-
men's snares? Hence it seems no bad etymology
which some give of this word quail, deriving it
from the Greek xaxtīv, in allusion to it's calling
for it's mate. In Troilus and Cressida, Act V.
young wanton wenches are metaphorically named
quails. . Thersites calls Agamemnon, An honest
fellow and one that loves quails. The quail thère-
fore, male or female, is a just emblem of the
followers of Venus in either fex. But consider-
ing it too as a fighting bird, how properly is it
apply'd to Roderigo, who foolishly followed
Desdemona, and at laft, quarrelling with Caffio,
was killed in the fray? Can we doubt then, but
that Shakespeare originally intended to write,
" I've rubb'd this young quail almost to the sense,
“ And he grows angry

He intended, I fay, to write, 'as he perhaps then
spelt it, quale, and omitting the last letter, the


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on SHAKESPEARE. 183 transcriber gave us a strange kind of word, which fome of the editors have alter'd into knot and quab: the meaning of which words, as applicable to this place, is not in my power to explain.

In Antony and Cleopatra, Act II,
« Antony. Say to me, whose fortune shall

" rise higher,
Caesar's or mine?
Soothsayer. “Caesar's. Therefore, O Antony,

“ stay not by his fide. • Thy Daemon (that's thy spirit which keeps

" thee) is « Noble, couragious, high, unmatchable, " Where Caesar's is not. But near him thy

Angel s Becomes A FEAR, as being o'erpower'd; and

" therefore “ Make space enough between you." A letter is here omitted, and we must read afeard. So the word is spelt in Spencer, B. VI. C, I. st. 19.

Against him stoutly ran, as nought AFEARD." 'Tis often used by Shakespeare. Merry Wives of Windsor, Act III. Slend. I care not for that,


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