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far was a port below Calais called * Vitsan or Whitfan. The old German words Wat Awe; i. e. fat or fruitful earth, the Romans called Batavia. When the north-east part of Scotland was pronounced by the natives Cal dun, i. e. a hill of hazel, the Romans soon gave it their Latin termination, and called it Caledonia. Many other names of places our antiquarians and etymologists easily trace, if they can get but the radical word. This rule then is universally true, that all nations make foreign words fubmit to their manner of pronunciation. However our Shakespeare does not abuse proper names like Chaucer or Spencer, tho' he has elegantly suited many of them to the English mouth.

In his Midsummer-Night's Dream, Act II, he hints at a story told by Plutarch in the life of Theseus, of one lepegam, daughter of the famous robber Sinis, whom Theseus New : he, true hero-like, killed the father and then debauched the daughter. Her he calls very poetically Perigenia.

Cleopatra had a fon by Julius Caesar, whom Plutarch tells us was called Kassagíwov, Shakespeare in Antony and Cleopatra very properly writes it Cesario, not Cefarion ; phátw, does not

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2 Camden's Brit. p. 254.


make in Latin or English Platon, but Plato.
And 3 Priscian the Grammarian observes that
the Latins omit the n at the latter end of proper
names. So - Cicero in his Tufculan disputa-
tions : Hinc ille Agamemno Homericus. And
Virgil. Aen. VIII, 603.
$6 Haud procul hinc Tarcho, et Tyrrheni tuta,

"ç tenebant."

From whence Aen. X, 290. Instead of

-Speculatus litora Tarchon, we must write Tarcho.

Perhaps to avoid the meeting of two vowels,
he followed the Grecian spelling, in Aen. VII,

Odit et ipfe pater Pluton, odere forore
Tartareae monstrum.

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The Jews name in the Merchant of Venice Scialac, he makes English and calls Shylock. In Romeo and Juliet, Montecchi and Capello, are Montague and Capulet. Sir Johan of Boundis, in Chaucer's legend of Gamelyn, he changes into, Sir Rowland of Boys, in his play called As you

3 Prifc. l. 6. p. 690,

Cic. Tasc. difp. III, 26.

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like it. Amleth, he writes Hamlet ; and Gunöbeline or Kymbeline, he calls Cymbeline.

Macbeth's father is variously written in the Scotish chronicles.. Macbeth fil. Findleg : Innes of Scotland p. 791. Macbeth Mac-Finleg : Ibid. p. 803. Machabeus Filius Finele : Johan. de Fordin Scot. L. IV. C. 44. Salve, Maccabaee Thane Glammis ; nam eum magiftratum defuncto paulo ante patre Synele acceperat. Hector Boeth. Scot. hist. L. XII.

Sinell thane of Gammis : Holingsh. p. 168. “By Sinel's death, I know, I'm thane of Glamis.”.

So our author, in Macbeth, Act I.

5 In Cicero's offices B. II. c. ix. is the following passage, Itaque propter aequabilem praedae partitionem, et BARGULUS ILLYRIUS LATRO, de


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'Tis very plain if the plays called ift, 2d, &c. parts of Henry VI. were written by our poet, that he had red Cicero's offices. I wonder this paffage should escape the diligent search of Mr. Theobald. I lately turned to the edition printed at Oxford, where I found Bardylis had taken possession of the copy, but no mention made of Ci, çero. In the last edition indeed I found THE TRUE PI; RATE.-But Shakespeare seems to me to have had his eye on other passages of Cicero's offices. In the IIId part of Henry VI. Act I.


quo eft apud Theopompum, magnas opes habuit. Thus the editions in Shakespear's time ; and thus I found it in two manuscripts. In the fecond

part of K. Henry VI. Ac IV. Suffolk says,

" This villain here, “ Being captain of a pinnance, threatens more “ Than Bargulus the strong Illyrian pirate.

In some later editions 'tis printed in Cicero, Bardylis Illyrius latro. For my own part, I really imagine that Cicero gave this Illyrian name a Roman pronunciation and turn : but why the editors of Cicero print it Bardylis, I don't know; Plutarch in the life of Pyrrhus writes it Βάρδυλλις. .


York. I took an oath that he should quietly reign. © Edw. But for a kingdom any oath may be broken."

Cicero de Off. L. III. f. 21.

Nam fi violandum eft jus, regnandi gratia

Violandum eft."
In Romeo and Juliet, Act I.

“ I measuring his affections by my own,
“ That most are hufied, when they're most alone,

Persu'd my humour.” Cic. Lib. III, f. 1. Nunquam fe minus otiofum ele, quàm cum otiofus ; nec minus folum, quàm cum folus effet.

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In Julius Caesar, he has some variations in proper names : Plutarch, Máquados. Shake{peare, Murellus : And Decimus Brutus Albinus, he calls Decius Brutus. Plut. Odoos, viz, an island near Philippi : Shak. Tharsus. Plut. Aágdxvos. Shak. Dardanius.

In Antony and Cleopatra. Plut. Aequileños. Shak. Dercetas.

In K. Henry VIII. A III.

King. Now, my Lords, “ Saw you the Cardinal ?

Nor. My Lord, we have « Stood here observing him. SOME STRANGE COM


IS IN HIS BRAIN ; he bites his lips, and starts, “ Stops on a sudden, looks upon the ground, “ Then lays his finger on his temple ; ftrait, “ Springs out into fast gate, then stops again ; « Strikes his break hard, and then anon he cafts « His eye againft the moon : in most strange poftures " We've seen him fet himself.

King. It well may be, 66 THERE IS A MUTINY IN'S MIND."

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This observation, true in nature, he seems to have had from Cicero de Of. L. I. f. 36. Cavendum eft autem, ne aut tarditatibus utamur in greffu mollioribus, ut pomparum ferculis fimiles effe videamur, aut in feftinationibus suscipiamus nimias celeritates ; quae cùm fiunt, anhelitus moventur, multus mutantur, ora torquentur : EX QUIBU'S MAGNA SIGNIFICATIO FIT NON ADESSE CONSTANTIAM.

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