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Now if this be the opinion of philofophers themfelves concerning philosophy, that it may be persued with so much ardor and enthusiasm, that even the over-ftrain'd persuit may border on madness; how agreeable is it to the character of the wild, undisciplin'd Antony, to call even Brutus Mad, the sober Brutus, the philosopher and patriot ? Such as Antony look on all virtue and patriotism, as enthusiasm and madnels.

I will here add an instance or two of words and manners of expression from other languages, which Shakespeare has introduced into his plays.

In Hamlet, Act III.

4. That he, as 'twere by accident, may here Affront Ophelia.”

i. e. meet her face to face. Ital. affrontare.

In Macbeth, Act III.

« No, this my hand will rather « Thy multitudinous sea incarnadine,

Making the green one red." i. e. make it red, (as Shakespeare himself explains it) of the carnation colour. Ital. colore incarnatino.

In Henry V. Act IV.

And newly move “ With casted nough and fresh legerity.”

i. e. alacrity, lightness. Fr. legereté. Ital. leggerezza. He seems to allude to that fine image in Virgil, Aen. II, 471. of Pyrrhus.

Qualis ubi in lucem coluber, malagramina pastus, Frigida tub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat ;

; Nunc pofitis 10 novus exuviis, nitidusque juventâ, , Lubrica sublato convolvit pectore terga, Arduus ad folem, et linguis micat ora trisulcis.

In the Tempest, A& II. Gonzalo is giving an account of his imaginary commonwealth.

“ No name of magistrate ; " Letters should not be known ; wealth ; po

verty, « And use of service, none; contract, succession, Bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none."

Bourn, from the French word, Borne, a bound or limit : which was not known, as the poets sung, in the golden age. Perhaps from Boves,

10 Novus, Virgil uses this word in allufion to his name NEOPTOLEMUS, the new or young warrior.


collis, tumulus: these being the original boundarys. Again, in Antony and Cleopatra, Act I.

" I'll fet a bourn how far to be belov'd.”

i. e..a boundary, a limit. A Bourne, signifies with us, a head of a fountaine ; and towns, whose names end in bourn, are situated upon springs of water : perhaps from the Greek word Bpúerv, scaturire. I cannot help observing that Shakespeare in the former passage,

“ Bourn, bound of land;" adds an explanation of the word, which is no unusual thing with the best writers. In K. Lear, Act IV. he uses it in it's original signification according to the Greek etymology, “ Edg. From the dread summit of this chalky

56 bourn."

I don't remember any one passage, wherein he uses bourn for a spring-head.

In Hamlet, Act II. The " mobled queen : this designedly affected expression seems to be formed

10 I once thought it should be mabled, 1. carelesly dressed. The word is used in the northern parts of England ; and by Sandys in his travels, p. 148. The elder mabble their heads in linnen, &c. 2.


from Virg. Aen. II, 40. Magnâ comitante caterva.

But Shakespeare has some Greek expressions. In Coriolanus, Act II.

66 It is held " That valour is the chiefeft virtue, and “ Moft dignifies the baver." i. e. the poffeffor. So baving signifies fortune and riches. Macbeth, Act I.

“ My noble partner “ You greet with present grace and great pre

16 diction 5. Of noble baving.

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Having, Gr. xsta. Lat. babentia. In Sophocles, Aj. X. 157

Algos gap qo's EXONO' • Glóveo fenten.
Ilgos Tów exovla, i. e. to the HAVER.
Hence Virgil, Geor. II, 499.
« Aut doluit miferans inopem, aut invidit

“ Habenti.”
HABENTI, i. e. the HAVER.
In Hamlet, Ac V.
« Clown. Ay, tell me that and unyoke."


i. e.


i. e. put an end to your labours : alluding to, what the Greeks called by one word, Brauto's, the time for unyoking. Hom. Il. 6': 779.

ΗμG- δ' ήέλια μέθενείσσαιο βελυιόνδε. Schol. επί την εσπέραν δείλης, καθ' ον καιρον οι βοές απολυόναι των έρπων. From this one word Horace has made a whole stanza. L. III. Od. 6.

“ Sol ubi montium
“ Mutaret umbras, et juga demeret
“ Bobus fatigatis, amicum

Tempus agens abeunte curru.”

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Hence too our Milton in his Mask.

« Two such I saw, what time the labour'd oxe « In his loose traces from the furrow came."

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Our English word Drphan comes from óPavo's, ab op Quós being as it were left in darkness, left void of their greatest blessing their

parents, the light and guide of their steps. 'DeQavès is spoken of one in the dark and obfcurity: ορφανός, ο άσημος και μηκέτι εμφανής, fays an ancient grammarian on the Ajax of Sophocles. Now allowing Shakespeare to use the word orphan, as a Grecian would have used it, how elegantly does he call the fairies, the orphan heirs of

destiny :

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