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It fell out as was expected, for no for he saw I hated the Assembly, and sooner had they entered on Divinity, suspected me to be not orthodox. Por but the villain Edgley (for such he was which reasons I myself expected no on many other accounts) immediately compliment from him and was glad asked me what I thought of the Logos. of it, because I seemed to have a dread I told him I thought he was God, and and an aversion to preach in Plymouth. with God, as St. John describes him. However, after some time he had He was then proceeding to explica- thoughts of owning me as a brother, tions in order to eptrap me, and would as he chose to express himself, and know whether I thought him equal sent his assistant, Mr. Henry Brett, with the Father, but Mr. Peirce inter to ask me to give him, not Mr. Hardposed, and said I had given a plain ing, a sermon. This looked to me answer, and insisted on saying no more rather like a permission than a friendly on it ; this was seconded by both Mr. invitation, and as the pulpit was not Withers and Cox, and so my exami- Mr. Brett's I begged to be excused. nation was soon over. I was told that He said he came with Mr. Harding's they made a very handsome report to approbation; I answered, that appeared the Assembly concerning me, but I to me no more than a bare leave or am certain their good opinion could liberty, which was no temptation to never be founded on what I said at one who was far from fond of running that time, for I very well remember I into his pulpit. However, I said, if was in the utmost confusion through- he really wanted a lift I would supply out the whole, and made nothing the any country minister's place that should figure that a young fellow did who preach for him, and I did so. Every was examined with me, who, I am one knew I had preached for Mr. certain, was on the whole a very great Brett, though I preached abroad, and blockhead. I was introduced in the wondered why I did not as well preach Assembly by Mr. Withers, who was a at home.

at home. This whisper obliged Mr. great hater of priests and priestcraft, Harding to give out that he had asked and a very worthy, learned man. Í me, but I had refused. I then told was complimented by several on both the whole story to every body, and I sides, particularly by Mr. Sandercock, told himself at an house where I acciwho shook me by the hand, and said dentally met him, that he had used he was glad to see me thus far. Enty me ill, for what reason he best knew. looked as if he was ready to return I did preach at his meeting some time any compliment I should make him, after, to the great satisfaction of my but I had none for him; and I don't father, but little of my own. I likeremember that I ever spoke to him or wise preached once or twice at the ke to me after for the rest of his life. Baptist meeting, and these were the I had a text and a thesis given me to only times I ever preached in Plymouth preach upon and to defend at Newton or that my father heard me, and this before such ministers as would attend, I record as a most grievous disappointwhich was done the October following, ment to him, considering to what shifts where I received a certificate signed he had put me, and what steps I had by six ministers to signify that I was taken purely to gratify an invincible, a liccused candidate by order of the enthusiastic passion. In the very next Assembly. And now my father began Assembly after this, Mr. Peirce's affair to make sure of my preaching at Ply- came to a crisis. The orthodox made mouth, but he did not consider that I a public declaration of their faith in stood on very bad terins both with the Trinity, agreeable to the Articles Harding and Enty. It was plain that and Creeds of the Church of England the latter was heartily disguisted for and to the Assembly's Catechism, and the part I had acted at the Assembly, every body believed them. Mr. Peirce that all acquaintance between us was and his friends hastily set their names at an end, and that no compliment to a paper, in which they declared they could be expected from that quarter : were no Arians, and that they believed what the former would do was uncer- the Scriptures, for which almost every tain, for though on one hand external body laughed at them, and said that civilities passed between us, as we had they in a inanner confessed the Assemhad no personal quarrel, and as my bly's charge, and assured the world of father was a payer to his meeting, yet it under their hands. I unluckily for there was no real friendship existing, my private interest happened to be


one of the brave fellows that signed it, Dunster Court, Mincing Lane, the consequence of which was, that SIR, March 20, 1821. there was scarce any for me to preach

SEVERAL years have elapsed since

I broken congregations, who had good Professor Eichhorn's Critical Enqui. nature and charity enough to stand by ries into the Writings of the Old and their ministers, whose reputation, in- New Testaments, but the little encouterest and usefulness was absolutely ruined by the rage, aspersions and bring out his work on the Apocryphal

in violence of the other party. And thus ended my short warfare almost deterred me from prosecuting

Scriptures of the Old Testament, has among the paltry, spiritual wicked- the design. In the mean time, it has nesses with whom it was my ill luck occurred to me that a Summary of to be concerned. I have often thought, the Contents of the Professor's Introwith some surprise, how a person of duction to the Study of the New Tes. my father's education and business, tament may be interesting to many of who got all he had by his own labour your readers, to whom the original and diligence, should never entertain may be unknown; and under this imany thoughts of enabling me either to pression I take the liberty of transaugment what he should leave me, or mitting to you the enclosed translation at least to preserve it. But bigotry, of the Contents of the First Volume, nnaccountable, destructive bigotry, was to be my eril genius with regard to give it a place in your Repository;

that you may, if you think proper, this world. And now I am come to the year that I have adhered to the author's

observing merely, by way of conclusion, 1723, which after long and tedious phraseology, and that, if it suits your infirmities put an end to his life and purpose, 1 shall furnish you regularly my ministry. I had no notion of with the Contents of the remaining keeping up a character which was now

three volumes. become ridiculous and universally cen

T. T. sured, without being able to do some good to others or to myself

. During Introduction to the Study of the New the bustle I was in, I did make a shift

Testament, by J. G. Eichhorn, in to keep my honour and honesty un

4 vols. * tainted, and a very hard shift it was. I thought I should never come off with Contents of Vol. I. pp. 680. more innocence, and, therefore, I fully 1. Of the Oldest Gospels. resolved to leave off while it was well. Those portions of the life of Jesus There is but one thing more about which in the apostolical times were which I am solicitous, and that is my deemed the most important, and formindependence. I can part with many ed the basis of a course of instructions things which some are very fond of, in Christianity, comprising all the for the sake of this ; for as I never remarkable transactions which took have, so I hope I never shall feel the place from the time of his appearance tortures of ambition, the stings of in public as a teacher, to his final envy, or fears of poverty. Hitherto I separation from his disciples after his have been happy in my situation and resurrection, formed, in all probability, way of living, but how long or how far the contents of the first scriptural I am so to be indulged, time only can sketch of the life of Jesus. discover. The world, as Milton sings, This sketch is no longer extant : is all before me, and Providence my for the catholic Gospels of Matthew, guide. I hope I shall do no harm in Mark and Luke, comprise more pe"the world. Though I am not qualified tions of the life of Jesus than those to do much good, I will do my duty and be contented. If with my honesty, liberty, independence and peace, "I enjoy an humble competence, I am seen, Mon. Repos. VII. 355, 356, and a

Some account of this work may be happy, but if not,

considerable translated extract from it, Te Deum laudamus.

VII. 357-362. See also references to
Eichhorn's work on the Apocrypha, in
N.'s Essay on the Book of Wisdom, X.
473-175, ED,

here adverted to; besides which, Gos. harmony or diatessaron of other gospels very different from those were pels or from the use of the Gospel in use even at the conclusion of the of the Hebrews. second century:

4. The Gospel of Cerinthus ap1. Of the Gospel of the Hebrews. proached in some respect to Justin's - It was a Gospel drawn up by He- Memoirs of the Apostles. brews—under which appellation the 5. The Harmony, of. Tatianus twelve apostles were not understood agreed with the Gospel of the Hebrews till after the fourth century-hence it in such passages as it exhibits accordis uncertain why it is ascribed to more ing to Matthew, but in those narrated Hebrews than one--it was written in according to Luke, it approached to the Aramaean dialect-and only made the Gospel of Marcion. use of by Nazarenes and Ebionites in 6. Of the Gospels of the Apostolic Syria and Palestine-but considered as Fathers. The apostolical fathers were a very ancient writing by all who were ignorant of the catholic Gospels. acquainted with it-it was not the 1. Barnabas must either have colsame as the Gospel now extant, under lected such portions of the discourses the name of Matthew, but was related of Jesus as his writings contain from to it-at first it was a brief composi- traditions, or if he quotes from scription, but was gradually increased from tural records at all, his quotations are time to time by various additions certainly not taken from the canonical passages corresponding with some of Gospels. these additions may be found in the 2. Clemens of Rome cites nothing catholic Gospels, but of others there in his first Epistle to the Corinthians is no trace to be met with some of which corresponds with the contents these are inere amplifications of one of the catholic Gospels-but, on the common text; others only different contrary, in his second Epistle agrees translations of an Aramaean text in one particular passage with the it is possible that the Elcesaites also Gospel of the Egyptians. may have used it.

3. Ignatius differs equally from the 2. The Gospel of Marcion--related catholic Gospels, but agrees in one in the order of Luke-in the very place with the Gospel of the Hebrews. words of Luke-but with variations 4. Polycarp certainly does not harwith a more defective style of narrative monize with any of the catholic Gos-with omissions of single verses and pels, although no scriptural record can whole paragraphs-at times it exhibits be traced as the source of that Epistle only the hasty outlines of a transaction known under his name. which Luke has afterwards completed From the above is inferred that the and worked up-it commenced with catholic Gospels were not in use prior the period of time when Jesus ap. to the conclusion of the second cenpeared as a teacher, but did not com- tury, but that other writings nearly prise the concluding passages extant related to them were current up to in Luke still it was not a mutilated that period, which in the sequel have Gospel according to Luke, but shorter, been lost. and wholly independent of his, although These Gospels, which have so perelated to it, being in fact the source rished, sprung from one common root, from which Luke directly or indirectly separating afterwards in two distinct gathered his materials.


each of which again produced 3. Justin's Memoirs of the Apostles its separate shoots. are, in so far, related to the Gospel i. The first of these principal of Matthew, as they comprise a narra- branches, from which the catholic tive of the youthful history of Jesus Gospel according to Matthew is deyet differ from it in point of expres- rived, comprises sion, in a variety of additions, and as 1. The Gospel of the Hebrews. being a more imperfect narrative. 2. The Gospel of Cerinthus. differing in additions, which are partly 3. Justin's Memoirs of the Aposto be traced in the Gospel according tles. to Luke-and partly to be found in 4. Tatian's Harmony of the Gospels Do Gospel now extant. These discre- (according to one account). pancies do not proceed from mere . The second principal branch, quotations from memory-or from any from which the catholic Gospel ac


2 D

cording to Luke, takes its origin, has tions peculiar to each Evangelist produced

who made use of a Greek translation 1. The Gospel of Marcion.

founded, however, on no document 2. Tatian's Diatėssaron (according accessible to both. to another account).

Origin of the Gospel according to The root from which both branches Mark. originate (or, in other words, the 3. Passages common to Matthew common source of all the Gospels and Luke only—these were admitted which have perished) was a very an- into the Gospels of both, from written cient summary of the life of Jesus, sources, wholly independent of each an archi-original Gospel (Urevange- other-in two distinct narratives and lium).

equally distinct Greek translations from II. Of the three first Catholic Gos- the Aramaean dialect, but with one pels in general.

and the same Greek scriptural record 1. Of the Archi-original Gospel, for their common basis. (Urevangelium,) or such passages as Origin of the catholic Gospels acare to be found in all the three Gospels cording to Matthew and Luke. -In these passages the Evangelists did Fresh confirmation of the origin of not make use of each other—but all these Gospels, as deduced from the availed themselves of one common above-on the supposition that the source-which contained all the prin- Greek Gospel according to Mark was cipal transactions of the life of Jesus, the scriptural narrative used in drawin a well-connected narrative, the first ing up these translations. part of which, however, was not drawn 4. Passages peculiar to each indiviup in strict chronological order, on dual evangelist-general view of the which account it is altered in the manner in which the catholic Gospels Gospel according to Matthew-it was, have been compiled from the sources moreover, originally written in the above described. Aramaean dialect-and was in the Of other Hypotheses regarding the sequel recomposed with additions, by Origin of the Gospels. different hands. These augmented 1. Mark did not borrow from Mateditions were variously translated into thew or Luke. Greek, founded on the basis of a Greek 2. Matthew and Luke did not borversion of the original Gospel, common row from Mark. to all.--Attempts to analyse the three 3. The three Evangelists did not Gospels, with a view to restore the borrow from the Gospel of the Hearchi-original Gospel (Urevangelium). brews-or from any traditional Gospel

2. Of Additions to the Archi-ori- -neither did Mark and Luke borrow grinal Gospel, (Urevangelium,) con- from a Greek edition of Matthew.sisting of passages to be found in two Objections to the grounds hitherto adof the Gospels only, or even in one duced in favour of the sources from alone-such are

whence the catholic Gospels took their 1. Passages contained only in the rise-advantages likely to result from Gospels according to Matthew and discovering the true source of the Mark—these have been adopted by Gospels. both from the same scriptural source ifi. Of each of the three first --which was not one of the Gospels Gospels, namely, of Matthew, Mark themselves, but a narrative independent and Luke, in particular. and (listinct from either--drawn up in 1. Of* Matthew.-Accounts extant the Aramaean dialect, and translated respecting him-and his Gospel-to by different writers—who in the pro- what extent he may be considered the gress of their work availed themselves author of the Gospel under his name of a certain Greek document open to a.such passages must not be ascribed all—these passages were, moreover, to Matthew as are to be found in his written and augmented by various per- Gospel alone_b. nor even a portion

of those passages which he possesses 2. Passages which are only to be in common, partly with Luke and traced in the Gospels of Mark and partly with Mark-c. but of those Luke—these were gathered from some alone is he to be deemed the author, common scriptural source--composçd which his Gospel has in common with in the Arainacan dialectwith addi- both the Gospels of Luke and Mark.


Advantages of the above discovery Sir, Hackney, March 29, 1821. in how far Matthew may be HAthe circulation of a mis-state

CAVING been instrumental in have written in the Hebrew language -principal contents of Matthew-his ment originally, but certainly unintenGospel intended for the use of Jewish tionally, made by Michaelis, I beg you Christians of the historical talent of will allow me to correct it. That the editor of the Gospel according to mis-statement regarded the destruction Matthew-age of the Gospel according of the MSS. at Alcalá, from which to Matthew - Justin's Memoirs of the Ximenes' Polyglot was made. [Mon. Apostles shewn to be an earlier, but Repos. XIV. 596, Note.] more imperfect Gospel, approaching, Those MSS. never were einployed, however, near to the catholic Gospel though the story has been frequently of Matthew in regard to its subject repeated, for the purpose of making and contents.

rockets. The oldest catalogue which 2. Of Mark.-Notices respecting exists of the books at the Alcalá Unihiin and his Gospel—his Gospel was versity is of the date of 1745. There not composed at Rome from oral com- is a prologue to it complaining of munications had with Peter-nor can damage done to other MSS. of less it be proved that he actually wrote value, but no reference to any loss of after the demise of Peter-or that he these scriptural documents. In the published his Gospel at two different middle of the last century a famous times :-of its origin and authenticity fire-work manufacturer (called Torija) -uncertainty respecting the place and lived at Alcalá, but he was a man of country for which it was originally letters, with whom the most eminent designed—its conclusion ascertained to of the professors were accustomed to be genuine.

associate :-it is impossible he should 3. Of Luke.-Accounts of Luke have been instrumental in such an act Theophilus, for whom his Gospel was of barbarism. But what demonstrates drawn up, probably lived in Italy-it the falsity of the supposition is, that is unknown where and at what period Alvaro Gomez, who in the 16th cenit was written-of its authenticity— tury published his work, " De rebus the sources of it-previous to the time gestis Cardinalis Francisci Ximenes in which Luke wrote, other attempts de Cisneros,” there affirms that the had been made to collect together the number of Hebrew MSS. in the Univarious imperfect sources of which he versity was only seven, and seven is availed himself—for instance, in the the number that now remains. Gospel of Marcion.

The period in which these MSS. IV. Obserrations on the three first are said to have been so indignantly Erangelists collectirely,

treated was one when the library was Cause of the dearth of genuine under the judicious care of a man of accounts respecting the three first considerable eminence, and when the Gospels-age of the superscriptions whole of the MSS., amounting to 160, ascribing the Gospels to them-of their were handsomely bound. There are want of chronological order-ineffec- at Alcalá, indeed, no Greek MSS. of tual attempts made to harmonize them the whole Bible; but we are told by -carly corruptions of their texts, Gomez that Leo the Tenth lent to owing to

Ximenes those he required from the 1. Apocryphal Gospels.

Vatican, which were returned as soon 2. Alterations purposely made by as the Polyglot was completed. These heretics.

were probably taken charge of by 3. Alterations purposely introduced Demetrius the Greek, who was sent by catholic teachers,

into Spain at this period by the Pope. 4. Attempts at verbal criticisms.

It must not be forgotten that Ximenes' 5. Modes of appointing the lessons character was one of a strange affecfor the church.

tion for economy, of which every thing 6. Alterations in reference to paral- at Alcalá hears proofs.' That which lel passages

he could borrow he would not buy. 7. Alterations of scholiasts. His ambition, proud as it was, was End of Contents of Vol.l. ministered to by his avarice as well as

his vanity.


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