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Toms; after which Mr. Perry preached 5th of July, at Wisbeach. The Res. from Gal. i. 4: “ Who gave himself for Robert Aspland, of London, preached on our sins, that he might deliver us from the Wednesday evening to a respectable this present evil world, according to the audience from Matt. ir. 26—30, when will of God and our Father." From he gave a pleasing and encouraging view these words the preacher directed the of the gradual and certain progress of attention of his hearers to the doctrine religious truth, and its final triumph over of Satisfaction, both as it is held by Calvin
He delivered also two discourses and his more consistent followers, and on the Thursday, in which he gave a according to the more modern, ainbiguous masterly and scriptural explanation of and qualified view of it. The native defor the terms “ Son of Man" and “Son of mity and absurdity of the real Calvinistic God," as applied to Jesus Christ, and doctrine was exposed in true, but not in he enforced and recommended their pracexaggerated language, for no words can tical influence. The congregations were render the character of the Divine Being large, respectable and attentive, and the more vindictive, more inexorable, nor impressions made, we trust, will not be more unjust, than those which the great easily effaced. The different services were Genevan Reformer has employed. How iutroduced by Mr. Hawkes, of Lincoln, repugnant such opinions are to scripture, Mr. Evans, of Tavistock, Mr. Smith, of to reason, and to the best feelings of the Lutton, aud Mr. Treleaven, of Lynn. human heart, was most ably and con- Upwards of oue hundred ladies and genvincingly shewn, and the many and gross tlenien dined together at the Wisbeach absurdities and contradictions which be- Arms, Mr. Aspland in the Chair. In set them, were detected and exposed. the course of the afternoon a vumber of It was truly observed, in reference to the sentiments were given to call up those diluted doctrine of Satisfaction, that if gentlemen who might be disposed to adevery point which has been either con- dress the company on the objects of their ceded or reprobated by its modern advo- meeting. It was pleasing to observe, that cates were collected together, not even
the subject that excited the most likely the skeleton of Calvin's system of Atone- interest was Universal Education; for on ment would remain.
this being given four or five gentlemen After service the business of the So- addressed the company in succession, ciety was transacted, Mr. Bowles in the who all seemed to consider it as the Chair. The Report of the Committee “ anchor of our hope" for better times. for the past year was received, and the Much interesting information was given Secretary was directed to request its respecting the establishment of Sundayinsertion in the Christian Reformer. The schools, not only at Lincoln, Boston and thanks of the Society were unanimously Lynn, but also at Wisbeach, one has been given to Mr. Perry and Mr. Toms for lately instituted, which contains nearly their excellent sermons; and J. L. Marsh, 100 children of both sexes, who, in adEsq., and Mr. Edward Taylor, were con dition to reading, are also taught writing tinued in the offices of Treasurer and and arithmetic. Secretary for the ensuing year. The next
The afternoon being spent in the Meeting was appointed to be held at greatest harmony, the company retired Bury St. Edmunds, on the last Wedues- from the Inu to partake of tea, which day and Thursday in June 1822, and Mr. had been prepared at several of the Aspland was requested to preach, Forty friends' houses. After the evening's sergentlemen afterwards dined together at vice the friends separated with mutual the Bear Inn, Mr. Edward Taylor in the cougratulations on their happy meeting. Chair. In giving “ the health of Mr. And we may venture to aflirin, that never Fox, and prosperity to the Unitarian did a company, so large, separate with Fund," the Chairmau alluded to the Re- so much for pleasing recollection. port which was laid before the recent Mr. Aspland preached at Lynn on the Meeting of that Society, and the encou. Friday evening, to a respectable and ragiug prospect which it held out of the crowded audience. At the pressing soliprogress of Unitariauism on the Conti- citations of the friends at Wisbeach he nent, and in the United States. In the spent the Sunday there, and preached course of the afternoon Mr. Toms, Mr. twice, to even larger congregations than Perry, and Mr. Madge, addressed the on the preceding days, on subjects of the Meeting on subjects convected with the most serious import, which fixed the interests of the Society.
attention, warmed the heart, and, we
trust, led many to adopt the holy resoNorth-Eastern Unitarian Association. serve the Lord.”
Jution, “ Whatsoever others do, we will The Annual Meeting of the North
N. W. Eastern Unitarian Association was held Wisbeuch, July 12, 1821. on Wednesday and Thursday the 4th and
the Right Reverend Prelate acted as a 'The ASSOCIATION of UNITARIANs, judge, it certainly would have been more chietly from the West of Scotland, will satisfactory had he stated the reason on be lield in Glasgow, August the 12th.
which his decision was founded. It was Glasgoue, July 20,
contended, he knew, that the Bishop of
the diocese possessed a complete discrePreferment.
tionary power. It might be so; for he
confessed that he did not well understand Rev. SAMUEL BUTLER, D. D., Head the cauon law on the subject, and could Master of Shrewsbury School, to the only reason from analogy. He was told Archdeaconry of Derby.
that it was very difficult to ascertain
what the limits of the ecclesiastical PARLIAMENTARY.
powers were ; but with regard to the House of Lords, Thursday, June 14. question of examination, he must sup
Peterborough Questions. pose that a Right Reverend Prelate, in Lord King rose to call the attention giving judgment on it, must consider of the House to a case which appeared himself to be deciding in the character of to him to be of great importance, a case a judge. He must be bound by some in which the rights of the Rectors of the rules and principles, otherwise the deciChurch of England were directly involved, sion was arbitrary. If a judge in Westand which also affected the rights of the minster Hall commit error, or be guilty great body of the clergy. He held in his of abuse, bis conduct could be brought hand the petition of the Rev. Henry Wil- under the consideration of that House by liam Neville, a gentleman who had had a writ of error; and surely there must recourse to this mode of seeking redress be some remedy in the case of misconwith great reluctance, and who would duct by an Episcopal judge. He thought not have brought his complaint before that the power of examination was very their Lordships if he could have obtained properly given to the reverend bench redress in any other manner. The peti- opposite, with the view of ascertaining tioner held two livings in the diocese of the qualifications of the persons who Peterborough, to one of which it was were candidates for holy orders, or for necessary he should present a curate. The institution ; but the eighty-seren quesRev. John Green was accordingly pre- tions of the Right Reverend Prelate opposented. He came forward with proper site, which were printed, sent by post, testimonials of character and ability. He and answers desired to be returned in had already signed the Thirty-nine Arti- the same manner, could have no refercles, and was ready to be examined and ence to ability ; they were a test and to subscribe them again. This, however, nothing else. The noble Lord read some was not sufficient to satisfy the Reverend of the questions, and argued that from Prelate opposite, (the Bishop of Peter- their leading nature it was impossible to borough,) who insisted upon answers to regard them as any thing else than a 87 questious previously " framed and test; and if the Reverend Prelate meant printed, and on refusal to answer theni, them as a test, his objection then was, signified his determination to exclude thé that the law had provided a much better applicant from the curacy. This deter- one, and that neither the Right Reverend mination the petitioner remonstrated Prelate, nor the whole of the reverend against, but the Reverend Prelate pe- bench opposite, had any right to impose remptorily refused to relinquish his de- another. The 'Thirty-nine Articles were mand. He then appealed to the Arch- intended by the law to draw a line to a bishop of Canterbury, to whom he wrote certain extent about the church, and no on the 19th of June, but received no other authority was entitled to alter that answer until the 7th of August, having in boundary. This was creating quite a the interval written a second time to new power. The existing law said to request a prompt decision. The Arch- candidates, “ You shall not enter the bishop, in his letter, after apologizing for Church unless you subscribe the Thirtythe delay in replying, by stating that he nine Articles ;"' but in addition to this, had been more than usually occupied, the Right Reverend Prelate said, “ l'nless observed, that there was no doubt of the you take another test of my framing, I right of examination belonging to the will not institute you." The answer bishop of the diocese, and that that right which the Right Reverend Prelate had was so obvious, that he supposed the given to the petitioner's letter admitted applicant must have since complied with that he had established a new standard what the bishop required of him. This, for himself; for in it he observed, that he (Lord King) observed, was by no with a knowledge of his standard the means a proper answer, as no grounds government had appointed him to one for the opinion given were stated. As bishopric and translated him to another.
As this was the case, he should be glad clergyman of the parish, or the answer to know whether the eighty-seven ques- mnight depend upou the church warden's tions of the Right Reverend Prelate had notions on the subject of evangelical docbeen adopted as a test by ministry or trine. There were also questions put as not. But why bring forward this argu to adulterers and fornicators, and whement of the new standard having been ther there were common swearers in the adopted by the Right Reverend Prelate's parish. This was a must extraordinary patrons ? If he had had any convincing kind of inquiry. Evil-speaking, lying and argument, it would have been better to slandering were condemned by Scripture ; have used it than to have overwhelmed but here the churchwardens of a whole the unfortunate petitioner with the vpi- diocese were invited to speak all the ill nion of his patrons. This was telling they could of their neighbours. The him that the most powerful persons in putting of such questions might, for aught the country, and those who might have he kuew, be very legal according to the ultimately to decide on his case, were common law ; but what he complained secured against him. He was informed of was the imprudence of circulating that he might seek what remedy he them. The invitation to men to pry into pleased ; but it was made known to him and condemn the conduct of their neighbeforehand that his application would be bours could not fail to give excitemeut 10 of no avail. This new standard night bad passious. When there was a general most seriously affect the prospects in life outcry of danger to religion and the of persons educated for the Church with church, he should have expected that a view to settling within a particular every one would have seen the improdiocese. He had heard this new standard priety of such a proceeding; and certainly of doctrine described as cobwebs for he never could have supposed that the catching Calvinists, and that it could give Right Reverend Prelate, who, he was pain to nobody but Calvinists. The com- told, was the greatest polemical writer parison did not appear perfectly correct, of the age, would have been guilty of the for flies sometimes escaped from a spider imprudence of endeavouring to force on even after being entangled in his toils, the clergy of the country a new standard but with this cobweb the unfortunate of doctrine. The petition being, on the Calvinist must unavoidably fall under the motion of the noble Lord, read, he then fangs of his powerful antagonist. He moved that it be laid on the table. regretted that such a practice had been The Bishop of PETERBOROUGH, after adopted, for nothing was more likely to recapitulating the heads of the petition, create a schism in the Church. Avother observed, that the petitioner stopped prelate might choose to put a different short on stating that he had appealed to construction on the Thirty-nine Articles the Archbishop, and did not mention from that given to them by the Reverend what was afterwards done. What the Prelate opposite; and thus a spirit of petitioner had omitted he would now dissension would be excited. It was, supply. In the month of September he therefore, most important that the Thir- nominated another curate; and the perty-nine Articles, which might justly be son so nominated submitted to the exacalled articles of peace, should be the mination now objected to, and was lionly standard of doctrine. He referred censed. On March the 21st, however, their Lordships to the history of the more than six months after the second Thirty-nine Articles, and observed, that nomination, he intimated his intention there was reason to believe that they had of bringing the subject before the Legisbeen drawn up in a Calvinistic sense. Jature. But the regular course of appeal Upon the whole, he thought that a pre- is to the metropolitan only; and this late of the Church of England might be course the petitioner had not only taken, content with the articles of religion as but had submitted to the proper authority they had been drawn up by the Reformers by the appointment of another curate. of the Church. But the conduct of the in saying this, however, he did not wish Right Reverend Prelate was not only to bar inquiry: their Lordships would calculated to disturb the peace of the see that the right of examination, which Church, but that of a great part of the was at first contested, was now adınitted; cominunity. He had not only framed and the only objection made was to the these eighty-seven questions for clergy- mode of examination. Now his was a men, but had addressed a set of questions, very common mode, namely, that of proof a very extraordinary nature, to the posing questions and requiring answers. churchwardens of his diocese. Among This mode was necessary; for, by what other things it was asked, “ Does your other means could a bishop obtain due minister lead a sober and esemplary knowledge of the opinions held by aplite?” This might be put to a farmer plicants? But the objection was, that not much inclined to speak well of the the questious were of 100 searching a
nature for those who disliked them. The scription to a test or standard. If in fact was, that the case submitted to their subscribing the answers, it appeared that Lordships was really a question of theo a new standard was subscribed, it was logy; and he believed no inquiry of the the standard of the person who answered, nature of the present was ever get insti- not of the examiner. But the signature tuted in their Lordships' House. The was only required to authenticate the truth of religious doctrines could not be answers, and not as a subscription to a fit subject for discussion in either House any new standard of faith. It was not of Parliament. If any inquiry on this sufficient to give a thing a name, and petition were gone into, he apprehended then declaim against it; the question that their Lordships could not alter, far first to be determined was, whether the less prohibit, the questions alluded to. name was properly applied. He was at The 48th canon made examination on a loss to understand how a string of the Church Liturgy and Thirty-nine Ar- questions could be called a standard of ticles the duty of the bishop; and that faith. That name might belong to the mode of examination which he had answers; but without a perversion of adopted was that which was best calcu- terms it could not be applied to the queslated for his diocese. The same ques- tions. If his own declaration of attachtions had been used ever since he was a ment to the doctrines of the Church, bishop, and had not been objected to; supported by the references under the but if he were wrong, could their Lord- heads of chapters to the Liturgy and ships interfere for the purpose of correct- the Thirty-nine Articles were not cre. ing or removing the questions? If the dited, he would appeal to all his publi48th canon were to be altered, that surely cations. On receiving answers to the could be done only by the same autho- questions, if he found any deviation from rity that made it. Be the allegations of the doctrines of the Church, he never the petition what they might, still the rejected without remonstrance, and somesubject was not within the jurisdiction of times he had succeeded in correcting their Lordships. But he did not say this deviations. Only those who refused to from fear to meet the allegations ; he answer at all were rejected in the first would shew that they were gross misre- instance. His conduct had always been presentations. He would, therefore, de- open ; nothing was therefore so easy as scribe the examination. The questions bringing proof, if there were any wellreferred to in the petition were arranged founded complaint against him, and in under distinct heads or chapters, and such a case the absence of proof shewed erery chapter contained references to the the impossibility of producing any. The Liturgy of the Church and the Thirty- noble Lord had endeavoured to extract nine Articles. The object of the inqui- from his letter to the petitioner an adries was to know whether the religious mission of setting up a new standard of opinions of the applicant accorded with faith. But had his standard been differthe doctrines of the Established Church. ent from that of the Established Church, The petitioner could not pretend that he he surely would not have been raised to did not know this, because he had re the bench on which he sat. His publiceived an explanation, stating the object cations were before the public; his opiof the examination ; and that explana- nions were well known ; and when he tion he had printed in his statement of spoke of his standard, he meant no new the correspondence. The petitioner and standard, but the old standard of Church the applicant must therefore have known doctrine. The mode of examination that the standard alluded to in the cor- which he had thought fit to adopt was respondence meant only the standard of particularly necessary at the present time. the doctrines of the Church; and yet If great care were not taken, the Church it was ventured to be asserted in the of England would fall into that anomalous petition that he (the Bishop) had set up
state which was exhibited by another a new and arbitrary standard. If these church in a part of Switzerland, the allegations contained a particle of truth, clergy of which subscribed to a Calvinistic it would be the duty, not of their Lord- test, and preached Socinian doctrines.* ships, but of the courocation to interfere. Far from his having forsaken the * This statement produced the folstandard of the Established Church, it lowing letter in the Times newspaper of had been his endeavour to preserve it; June and had his endeavours for that object not been successful, their Lordships “ Amongst other statements in the would never have heard of the present speech of the Bishop of Peterborough, in complaint. Nothing could be more ab- the debate of Thursday last, is one which surd than to suppose that the putting may serve to shew how far the correcta series of questions was requiring sub- ness of that Right Reverend Prelate is
The noble Lord had dwelt much on the answered in the way which the Right questions not being calculated to ascer- Reverend Prelate appeared to desire, tain the ability of the person examined : composed a new standard or not. Al but they were not framed with that view; agreed that the Right Reverend Prelate they were intended to ascertain doctrine, had a right of examination ; but the point not talents. But what had been their at issue was, whether his eighty-seven effect during the period they had been questions arose naturally out of the course used ? The number of persons refused of examination on the Thirty-nine Artiordination after answering was one. The cles, or were leading questions, which, number of curates refused license after as being to be answered only in one answering was also one. The number way, constituted a new code of Church rejected for not answering at all was two, doctrine. of whom the petitioner was one. Where The Archbishop of CANTERBURY acever there was any irregularity of doc- counted for his delay in not answering trine, these questions were calculated to earlier the letter of the petitioner, which detect it. They were disliked by the propounded certain questions to him as petitioner and others, who had raised a to whether the Bishop was justified in noise and clamour against them; but the conduct which he had pursued. The they were approved by the great body of Right Reverend Prelate referred the pethe clergy, because they were calculated titioner to the 48th canon of the Church. to check fanaticism, from which the Lord CALTHORPE spoke in favour of Church had now more to apprehend than receiving the petition. The Right Refrom any other thing. He had now shewn verend Archbishop could not have done that the allegations of the petitioner- otherwise than refer to the 48th canon ; namely, that he had set up a new standard nor did he blame him for so doing. But of faith ; that he required subscription to it appeared to him that the conduct of that standard; and that his standard the Right Reverend Prelate (the Bishop superseded the old standard of the Church of Peterborough of whom he wished to -were utterly void of truth. He would speak with all personal respect, not only then leave it to their Lordships to deter- on account of his character, wh'ch diá mine in what way they ought to dispose not require any eulogium from him, but of this petition.
on account of his zeal for the interests of Lord King said the Right Reverend the Church,) if it should be followed np Prelate must know, that when the Arti- by other Right Reverend Prelates, would cles were proposed in a particular way,
be fatal to the inviolable standard of faith the clergymen had nothing else to do which was contained in the Articles of than to submit. The point at issue was, the Church. The Liturgy, which was whether the eighty-seven questions to be founded on these Articles, had endured
for nearly three centuries ; nor could any
form of worship more pure or more free to be depended upon. It is, that, whilst from objection be devised. It had been the clergy of Genera sign a Calvinistic interpreted liberally and largely, (not too confession, they are themselves Socinian. liberally or largely in his opinion, and In answer to this I wonld say
he would say that its security consisted “1. That the Church of Genera, for in such a latitude of interpretation being nearly a century, since the year 1728, allowed. He would repeat that, if the have renounced the confession of Calvin. conduct of the Right Reverend Prelate
“2. For nearly as long a time have was followed by the other bishops, it they renounced the catechism, or any might be fatal to the interests of the other test but the Scriptures.
Church. At a time when the Establish“ 3. By the règlement of May 3, 1817, ment required the most strenuous efforts they proscribed from their pulpits the of its friends to support it, and when it mention of original sin, effectual grace or
was notorious that a considerable portion predestination.
of its members, from the want of funds, “ 4. That there is no proof whatever could not be educated as the Right Rethat the Church of Geneva is Socinian. verend Prelate might desire, he (Lord Its catechism is Arian in doctrine, and Calthorpe) could not conceive any thing this is the opinion of the Compagnie of more injurious than to agitate such a Pasteurs, with the exception of very few question as the present, or to adopt a of its members, who are orthodox. i principle which would warrant the exerconclude, therefore, that the members of cise of any species of persecution. He the Church of Geneva, if they are not as
regretted that the discussion had been orthodox as the Bishop of Peterborough, rendered necessary, but hoped that the are not hypocrites.
Right Reverend Prelate would exercise
his authority, so as to conciliate his “ A FRIEND TO TRUTH AND CHARITY.” clergy, and thus secure to the Church