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--and in Philo (flor. A.C. 41).-Of the preserved by tradition only, (as max canon of the Jews in Palestine.--Its be instanced in many of the Provertis sources to be found in the New Tes- and Psalms,)-or even on the part of tament - Josephus, (nat. A. C. 37,) the original writers, by oceasion of Melito, (flor. See. ü.)-Origen, (nat. their composing or abbreviating their A. C. 185, mort. A. C. 253,) --Jeroin own or the writings of other authors. (A. C. 422).-The Talmud (Sec. ii.- - Of the destruction of the originał iv.).—The result of the whole being autographs.—The new copy made subthat, according to history, all the books sequent to the Babylonian exile, depoof our present editions of the Hebrew sited in the Temple.-External and Bible were considered canonical. internal character of this copy-not

Chap. II. Of the History of the exempt from error written with at Text of the Scriptures of the Old breviations; for instance, numeral letTesta:nent, $ 58–138, pp. 152. ters used in it, instead of the numbers

Original exterior of the writings of being written in words at length.the Old Testament-how and when Destruction of the copy belonging to they were collected. Of the materials the Temple.— Increase of copies-giroriginally used by the Hebrews for ing rise to numerous variations in the writing--in all probability like the Ro- text which had their origin in repetimans they had their libros linteos.- tions of certain passages-in Scholia Of the oldest alphabet in use among in Medrashim, (allegorical interpretathem.-Proofs from history, tradition tions)-in alterations conformably to and ancient coins, that the Hebrews the Targumim, the Perushim, and originally made use of the Phænico- the spirit of the Hebrew Grammar-in Egyptian alphabet in writing. The conjectures made ex ingenio-in intensquare Chaldæan consonants intro- tional falsifications—in misplacing sinduced after the Babylonian exile. Of gle words, and even whole paragraphs the vowel points-most probably only-in mistakes between consonants of three were used by the writers of the a similar appearance and form, or of Old Testament and even these only a similar sound—in a custom of read. on particular occasions, and to pre- ing differently from the aetual contents vent misconceptions. Of accents and of the text-in mistakes of memory other signs. - The Hebrews wrote all in an arbitrary use of the matres lecthe words in a line connectedly, and tionis,in an intimacy with other oriwithout the smallest separation. The ental dialects-in an erroneous interfinal consonants regarded by some as pretation of abbreviations and division divisions of the words.-Like the writ. of words-in mistakes made with letings of the Greek poets, the metrical ters used to fill up empty spaces in the Seriptures of the Old Testament also lines—in omissions of the same words written continuâ serie. -At what period when repeated or following together, the continua scriptio may have been in a predilection for elegantly written discontinued.—The division into verses, copies.-Of the Alexandrine Version. sections, chapters, and even books, of -Neglect of the original text.-The modern date.

New Testament.-Philo and Josephus External form of the Hebrew auto. chiefly refer to the Version of the Sepgraphs-or original copies of the Scrip- tuaginta.–Of the restoration of the tures of the Old Testament extant study of the original text.-The original prior to the Babylonian exile.--Internal text corrupted by the Jews. Of copies state of the autographs—exhibiting two of the Hebrew text in Greek letters.. distinct editions drawn up by the original of the first Polyglott of Origen.-08 authors-or a collection from different the state of the Hebrew text between authors by more modern compilers. the third and the sixth century.-0f These autographs, far from being free the Talmud.-Critical revisions of the from error-owing to different causes, Old Testament undertaken by the such as mistakes on the part of an Jews.-Origin of Chetib velo Keri and amanuensis, or even of the author Keri velo Chetib.-Of Jerom.-Cri. himself in pointing or spelling-or on tical revision of the Hebrew Bible at the part of such as took down portions Tiberias undertaken about the year of the present Seriptures of the Old 400.-State of the manuscripts at that Testament, which had till then been period, with particular reference to

that used by Jerom.-Of the Masora. sion in the Hexapla-. the Figürata-Collection of the manuscripts of the e. perhaps also the Philoxenian-d. the Old Testament in Palestine and Baby- translation of Mar Abba-e. of Jacob lon in the eighth century.—The pre- of Edessa-f. of Thomas of Heracleasent mode of pointing and accentuating g. of the Greek, preserved by Ephraim introduced between the eighth and Syrus-h. of Simeon, belonging to the tenth century.-Destruction of the Convent of St. Licinius-and, lastly, i. more ancient manuscripts. Of the the Versio Karkaphensis) ;-8. The fate of the Hebrew text of the Old Itala ; 9. The Georgian; and 10. The Testament prior to the discovery of Anglo-Saxon Version. prirting -Names of the most cele 6. Those following the Syriac Pebrated Jewish critics in Europe. -Opi- shito; a3, a. the Arabic Version of the nion of the present state of the Hebrew Psalms, printed in a Convent on Mount 1 text.--List of the printed editions of Lebanon in 1610--6. the Arabic trans: the Old Testament in Hebrew.-Ge- lation of Job_and the Chronicles, neral result of the foregoing.

printed in the Polyglott--c. an Arabic Chap III. Of the Advantages to be Psalter, contained in the British Muobtained from various Quarters, in in- seum-d. a Pentateuch of Abulfaradsh stituting a critical Inquiry into the Abdallah Ben Attajib-e. the Syriae Writings of the Old Testament. § 139 Hexapla of Hareth Ben Senan-and, f. -338, pp. 442.

the Chaldee Version of the Proverbs Great assistance to be gained from of Solomon. an examination of parallel passages End of Contents of Vol. I. of the Samaritan Pentateuch-of the

(To be continued.) Masora--and of the different Greek and other Versions. -The latter comprise two elasses, viz. first, such trans

SIR,

Torquay. lations as were made immediately from the Hebrew; as, 1. The Septuaginta ;

A college seems to have

engaged 2. Aquila ; 3. Syınmachus ; 4. Theo- the attention of several of your readers, dotion, in part; 5, 6, 7. The three I take the liberty of sending you a few anonymous Greeks ; 8. The manu- remarks on that subject. seript preserved in the Library of St. In the first place, it appears to me Mark at Venice; 9. T. Lapaputikov; highly desirable that all the efforts of 10. The Samaritan Version of the Pen- our body, in this way, should be contateuch ; 11. The different Chaldee centrated on one institution. I need Paraphrases ; 12. The Syriac Version of hardly go into much argument in supthe Polyglotts; 13. Sundry books of the port of this position, because it will be Arabic translation in the Polyglotts ; evident, to a very little reflection, that 14. The Arabic Version adhering to the the advantages of a place of education Samaritan Pentateuch; 15. Arabic Er- depend most essentially on its affording penii on the five books of Moses ; 16. the best instruction and liberal compeArabic translations by Saadias Ben Levi tition. Now, though all our contriAsnekoth; 17. A Hebrew Version butions should be devoted to one acaof the Chaldee passages contained in demy, and all our students brought Daniel and Ezra; and lastly, 18. The together there, it would still not be on Version of Jerom, from the original so ample a scale but that it might, Hebrew.–And, secondly, such trans- very advantageously, both with respect lations as were made indirectly from to tuition and competition, be much the Hebrew,or, in other words, ground- enlarged. How undesirable is it, then, ed on prior Versions from it'; such that we should divide our efforts in are,

attempting to support a plurality of a. Those adhering to the Septua- these institutions ! If we do this, we ginta; viz. 1. Theodotion, in part; 2. can assuredly never give to any one of The Arabic translation of the Poly- them that respectability and permaglotts, for the greater part; 3. A ma- nence, and those superior advantages, nuscript Pentateuch in the Medicean as a place of education, which we Library; 4. The Æthiopic; 5. The ought to aim at, and which we cerCoptic; 6. The Armenian Version; tainly can attain if we unite all our 7. Many Syriac Versions, (among exertions in the advancement of a which are included, a. the Syriac Ver- single establishment. This, then, is

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VOL. XVI.

3x

one point which I would recommendable situation. The ground and buildto the serious consideration of our ings connected with the present Acafriends ; and, besides the advantages of demy at York, are not at all such as this plan above-mentioned, I will add to make it an object to retain them : one more, namely, that it tends very and, I think, if the favourers of such a powerfully to promote a general union plan as I propose, would engage to of feeling among us, inasmuch as to provide ground and buildings on a have been educated together is a very handsome and worthy scale, such as strong and lasting bond of attachment should secure permanence and dignity, among men. I think this must also, in a suitable situation, it might proon the whole, be the most economical bably seem good to the Trustees of the plan, because the same tutors would York College to promise, that on such be able to instruct a greater number of reception being provided, they would pupils.

transplant that institution, and come İf, then, this be decided, that we are and take possession of their new quarto support one common academy, the ters. As to the situation which would next question is, what and where that be most desirable, I would first say, one shall be 1 answer, that at pre- that it cannot be Hackney, which is sent the College at York seems deci- not only very far from central, but also dedly to claim this patronage : it is at involved in the overgrown and vicious present the only one among us, and it metropolis. One of your corresponis a very excellent institution, liberally dents [p. II) has nained the neighsupported and ably superintended. bourhood of Birmingham, and he And I must confess, that I think those rightly regards Warwickshire as about will not act wisely, though they will the centre of the population of the act with the best intentions, who en- country. But the immediate vicinity courage the design of a new and dis- of Birmingham I deem objectionable, tinct academy. But while I am thus both because there is nothing superior an advocate for bending our whole in the aspect of the country, and on strength to supporting the Institution account of the various evils of so vast now at York, I inust take the liberty a manufacturing town. I have been of suggesting what I think would be at most of the principal towns in that a very important improvement with neighbourhood, and I think, very derespect to that establishment. It is cidedly, that there is none which comnothing less than that it should be bines so many advantages for our purremoved into a more central and more pose as Worcester. This city contains favourable situation : that is, I mean about fourteen thousand people ; it is to recommend such a step to the con a place of very good society, and alsideration of the Trustees. Once al- lowed by most who have seen it to be ready it has been moved, namely, from one of the handsomest towns in EnManchester to York, and I suppose gland. The situation is not only pleathere is no absolute impediment to a sant and healthful, but beautiful and repetition of this measure. A most grand. Washed by the noble river serious objection lies against York, Severn, it beholds rising, at about six from its being so very far to the north miles from it, the stately and diversified that it lies more in an extremity than range of the Malvern hills, which swell in the middle of the country. More- at once to the height of fourteen hunover, those who know the situation dred feet. Its immediate environs le will remember that it is very uninte- in the beautiful and luxuriant vale of resting in the midst of an immense the Severn, while all around it, though plain, so that the slight risings around not pressing upon it, are seen various only just enable one to see the distant handsome and lofty ranges of hills. It hills that bound it. It lies, too, quite lies from London 10 miles, from exposed to the north-east wind, as it Bristol 60, from Manchester 97; and coines from the northern ocean, and the more its advantages are considered, of course the climate is not very genial. the more clearly, I think, will it be Contemplating the future progress of perceived, that it is the best situation our body, I cannot but think that it for our purpose that could be chosen. would be a wise, though arduous, step,

EUELPIS. to remove this already flourishing Institution to a more central and favour

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Clapton,

so kind as to lend me. May I request Sir,

September 3, 1821. the favour of you to forward it to Sir S. TOUR readers, I am persuaded, T.; as well as a copy of each of the pam.

have been generally gratified by phlets, with my best compliments, and to the Review of the “ Indian Unitarian

favour me with your and Sir S. T.'s Controversy" (p. 477). I have now

opinion respecting my idea of Christianity, great pleasure in offering you the fol- opportunity may occur; as I am always

as expressel in those tracts, when an lowing communication, which, you open to conviction and correctiou?" will perceive, is immediately connected with that highly interesting subject.

Rammohun then expresses his deA few days since I was introduced termination “ to leave India” for Euto the acquaintance of an officer of the rope as soon as he can arrange his British army in India, who bore a dis- affairs, and his desire, which, however, tinguished part in the late Mahratta he did not accomplish, “ of going in war, of which he has since become the the same ship" with his correspondent. very able historian. In conversation Yet Colonel B. has no doubt of Ramwith this gentleman, who, on the close inohun's continued determination to of that war, resided at Madras, and visit England. has very lately returned to England, From the first paragraph, extracted I sought to gratify my curiosity re- from the Bramin's letter, it inay, I specting Rammohun Roy, whom I think, be conjectured, that he attrisoon found to be his friend and cor- butes to our Saviour a superhuman, respondent. My new acquaintance though by no means a divine nature. very obligingly offered me the two This, after all that has been advanced pamphlets which you have reviewed, to the contrary, I must consider as and a letter from Rammohun, which leaving Raminohun in possession of had accompanied them.

as strong a claim to the title of a This letter is dated Calcutta, Sept. Christian Unitarian, as if he thought 5, 1820. After expressing “ grateful of “the man Christ Jesus,” in the acknowledgments” of his correspon- manner which appears to my appredent Colonel B-r's “ frequent re- hension more scriptural. - The humembrance,” Rammohun thus pro- inanity of Christ,” as my friend Mr.

Fox has well remarked in his Lectures,

“ is not essential to Unita“ As to the opinion intimated by Sir (1819,) Samuel T-1, respecting the medium rianism ;-such limitation is inconcourse in Christian dogmas, I never have sistent with the etymology and njeanattempted to oppose it. í regret only ing of the term, and its historical use. that the followers of Jesus, in general, Dr. Price was an Unitarian as well as should have paid much greater attention Dr. Priestley, and so is every worto inquiries after his nature than to the shiper of the Father only, whether he observance of his commandments, when believe that Christ was created before we are well aware that no hunian ac. all worlds, or first existed when born quirements can ever discover the nature of Mary.” even of the most common and visible things, and, moreover, that such inquiries

There is mother subject connected are not enjoined by the divine revelation. with India, not yet mentioned in your

“On this consideration I have com- work, as I recollect, in which Unitapiled several passages of the New Testa- rians may be expected, in no long ment which I thought essential to Chris- time, to take a lively interest. I refer tianity, and published them under the to the efforts of some liberal-minded designation of Precepts of Jesus, at which Europeans at Madras to avail themthe Missionaries at Shrainampoor have selves of the enlightened views enterexpressed great displeasure, and called tained by the Marquis of Hastings me, in their review of the tract, an injurer respecting the liberty of the press. of the cause of truth. I was, therefore, Since the public discussion of that under the necessity of defending myself subject, at the India House in July few copies of which tracts I have the last, I have no scruple to name anopleasure to send you, under the care of ther friend of Rammohun, the HoCaptain s–, and intreat your accept- nourable Colonel Stanhope, who reance of them.

sided at Madras, on the conclusion of “I return, with my sincere acknow- the Mahratta war, in which lie bore a ledgments, the work which Sir S. T. was command, as one of the chief pro

ceeds :

moters of the free and manly declara- tion in life is little better than a comtions addressed, by a large number of mon servant." the principal inhabitants of that city, But I admire how your corresponto the government of Calcutta. There dent can have contemplated the most they were received in the manner which solemn and awfully-levelling subjects, such sentiments deserved; though not or where he has sojourned, if he exactly in the manner desired by the cannot suppose that a man of such a government of Madras.

“ situation in life,” according to his Colonel Stanhope was so obliging Christian nomenclature, “ the clumsy as to shew me, several months ago, candidate for holy orders,” may do some interesting papers on this sub- something ; or if he knows not that ject. Of his speech at the India House, such men have done much “ to comwhich I had the pleasure of hearing, fort the sick, to administer hope and and in which he appeared a zealous consolation to the dying, to animate and well-informed disciple of Milton's the penitent, and to reprove the guilAreopugitica, the fullest and most cor- ty." The annals of human misery in rect report is in the Morning Chronicle our jails and poor-houses, and in the of July 5th.

mud-walled cottage, which the luxuWhile we may thus congratulate rious palace yet" leaves to toilworn ourselves on promising appearances in penury, would, I believe, justify the far-distant lands, I am sorry to observe claim of such men to a large share of any thing which, however designed, these meritorious exertions, very proappears too well calculated to para- perly comprehended by M. S. in the lyze our efforts at home. Such I can- active duty of the Christian minister;" not help considering the “ Remon- while, with illustrious exceptions, too strance against Lay-Preaching". (p. many “priests of superior learning.” 447). The present is surely the time, and '“ of somewhat superior rank," if there ever was a time, when Unita- would, on no uncandid estimate, be rian Christians should encourage one found wanting.

Yet such appear another, if they have any thing to say to be your correspondent's only auto the people, to say on.

Yet at such thorized ministers, those“ proper a time M. S. advances into your arena, supplies,” who can alone preserve where he had scarcely a right of ad “the extempore prayer" free from mission without either giving the au- “ canting nonsense" and " imaginary thority of his name, or at least naming ornament,” and in whose absence the the “one or two chapels,” in which place” of Christian assembly “bad he complains that “ the vulgar and far better be closed.” illiterate” have been allowed to per But it is time to recollect the hazardform “the sacred offices of religion.” ous adventure in which I am engaging

Admitted, however, by your cour- This anonymous impugner of the luiry tesy, and secure, as one of Homer's may be some great clerk. His talents, half-divine heroes, in the mysterious as virtually described by himself, are, panoply of an anonymous signature, indeed, of the highest order. He is this champion of “priests,” of “su- “fully aware that there are few whose perior education,” and “ of somewhat opinions--would not be perused with superior rank,” proceeds to cast about greater interest and more solid con his arrors, even bitter words, “against viction.” Thus having substantiated lay-preaching ;” the only preaching, his claim to the amiable grace of huafter all, by which we may expect mility, we know where to look for that Christian Unitarianism will ever M. S. when he presently delivers it reach the people. This, I apprehend, as an axiom,“ that humility is found many“ an enlightened and respecta- only in those whose attainments are ble minister” will admit, and readily far above mediocrity.” acknowledge that the ability, at once Under these circumstances I cannot " to suit the sons of Wapping and act more discreetly than by now adoptWhitehall,” is as rare as it is invalu. ing the style of conciliation, and proable. Nor will such a minister lose ceeding to thank your anti-laical corany of his respectability, however such respondent for the rare information as M. S. may complain, when he he has been pleased to communicate. “ sanctions the performance of the Whatever doubts your readers inay religious duties in a man whose situa- have admitted on those subjects, they

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