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we be surprised that our hearers, observ. senting brethren” the enormity of the ing how much our behaviour is at variance sin of schism, when he recollects that with our exhortations, begin to suspect the Church, of which he is both a that we are not ourselves in reality per- prelate and an ornament, is itself a suaded of the truth of doctrines, to which schismatical church. we allow so slight an influence over our practice ?"
Introduction to the Study of the Old After some remarks upon the elergy Testament, by J. G. Eichhorn, 3 being allowed to provide for their fami
rols. 8vo. lies as well as other people, the Bishop Summary of Contents of Vol. II. thus proceeds:
HAP. III. Of the Advantages te “ Actions, however, which, considered in themselves, are indifferent, may assume
be obtained from various Quarters a character of positive good or evil, when towards instituting a critical Inquiry viewed in connexion with the effects pro- into the Writings of the Old Testament. duced by them on the minds of others. (Continued from Vol. I.) $ 339—404, Whether I shall enforce a particular right, pp. 232. or engage in certain amusements and pur Great assistance to be gained from suits, may, as far as regards the nature an examination of the writings of the of the acts themselves, be a matter of ancient Jews and Fathers of the church indifference. But it ceases to be so, if – also of the Talmud and of the Rabthe world has attached to the enforce. bies--and of the different MSS. extant ment of that right a notion of harshness and oppression, or has connected with editions of the Hebrew text.Obser
-as well as of the various printed those amusements and pursuits an idea of levity and dissipation. The influence which vations on the works of Philo, Josereligion possesses among the members of phus, Ephraim Syrus, Origen and any community, must in a great measure Jerom.-On the mode of quotation depend upon the respect and affection with adopted by the Talmud-and on the which they, regard its teachers. The writings of the Rabbies. Of Hebrew Christian minister will pause, therefore, manuscripts.-Of the Thoras of the before he does any act which can have synagogues-derivation of the name even a remote tendency to excite feelings substances on which they were written of an opposite description : or which, by-style of writing adopted-chief use inducing men to doubt the sincerity of his of the Thoras of the synagogues.-Of belief in the doctrines which he teaches, manuscripts written in square Chalmay indispose them to the cordial recep- dæan letters -substances on which tion of the doctrines themselves. Knowing that it is his first duty to win all they were written and materials used men to the cause of righteousness, he in writing them.-Of their external will not be too nice in weighing the rea. state-division into columns-and lines. sonableness of the sacrifices either of Of the character of the consonants, interest or inclination which they require - Little variation in the square letters from him, but will be ready to condescend made use of in the different MSS.-Of to their infirmities and prejudices. In the vowel points-marks and accents perusing the writings of the New Testa
- abbreviations mode adopted in ment, no circumstance appears to me more clearly to evince the divine inspiration of tween the lines--and between distinct
completing the lines -intervals bethe authors, than their intimate acquaintance with human nature, and the admi
books and paragraphs-margins-orrable adaptation of the rules which they der of the books contained in the MSS. lay down for the conduct of life, to the ornaments of the MSS.—variety of various relations in which man is placed signatures. Of the different operators with respect to his fellow.creatures. 'Were through whose hands a codex necessaI required to produce an instance in con- rily passed—the consonant writerfirmation of this remark, I would refer to the pointer and accentuator—the rethe caution delivered by St. Paul to the visor-the writer of the Masora-the Roman converts for their guidance upon critie and scholiast-the retoucher.certain points which the gospel had left of the countries from which the difindifferent — Let not your good be evil ferent MSS. take their origin.-Age spoken of.""
of the MSS.—their respective valueP.S. A sturdy Nonconformist will classification of them.-Of the MSS. smile at the gravity with which the of the Chinese Jews.-Of MSS. in good Bishop points out to his “ Dis- Rabbinical characters. Of the Her
brew Pentateuch written with Sama- Moses are the productions of different ritan letters.—General account of the authors. Of their sources.--ArrangeSamaritan MSS.-External state of ment of both works in Genesis-diffithe Samaritan MSS.–Of corrections culty in separating ther-attempt and signatures contained in them.- made to divide them. I. Record conAge of the Samaritan MSS.—Value taining the name Elohim.-II. Record and age of the Samaritan Pentateuch. bearing in it the name of Jehovah. -Of the different editions of the He- III. Other document introduced into brew text.Editions of the fifteenth Genesis, but, strictly speaking, belongand following centuries.-Editions with ing to neither record. Of the authencommentaries or other critical addi- ticity and genuineness of the book of tions.-Editions of the Hebrew-Sama- Genesis.-Objections to its age conritan Pentateuch.
sidered. Of its object. Part. II.
Of the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Introduction to the respective Books
Numbers and Deuteronomy. of the Old Testament.
Of their contents and internal ar$ 405–511, pp. 233—666.
rangement.--History of the Hebrews
prior to the birth of Moses, continued Of Moses.
from the record in Genesis, exhibiting The preservation of writings from the name of Elohim.- Various passages so early a period as the seventh cen. in these books appear to have been writtury after the flood not impossible.
ten at the time when the events which 1. The five books of Moses proved they record took place. --The books to be more ancient than any of the
of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, in other writings of the Old Testament- part compiled from detached essays.from their style--and from history.
Of the period of time in which they II. That the author cannot have were compiled.---Of Deuteronomy in lived subsequently to the time of Mo- particular. ---Of its author and of the ses is shewn from internal evidence author of Exodus, Leviticus and Numin the books themselves and from his- bers.--Objection to their being the tory. -Ezra cannot have been the productions of Moses considered...Of writer of them-nor are they the in- their
genuineness.---Literary history of ventions of the priesis about the time the Pentateuch. of Josiah, or of that particular priest Of the Book of Joshua. who was dispatched to the Samaritans ---neither can they be attributed to have been written at the time when
A great portion of its contents must David—or to Samuel-or to Joshua.
Joshua lived.---Difficult to suppose the III. Moses may have been the au- book of Joshua to have been written thor.–Preliminary remarks.- Account at the precise period of the conquest of Moses.—None but a man like Mo- of Canaan.--Obstacles attending such ses could have been the author of the books extant under his name.
a conjecture only to be removed by
admitting it to be the production of a Of* Genesis.
period subsequent to Joshua.--Plan of The book of Genesis is compiled the book-probable time in which it from ancient written documents or
was written. ---Of its author---its genurecords.—Of the mode of preserving ineness and authenticity--its history. accounts prior to the invention of of the Book of Judges. printing-and of the mode adopted in recording history when writing was
Inappropriate application of the first invented. The book of Genesis consists of two parts.---Of the author
term Judges.---The book of Judges contains several separate and distinct of the first sixteen chapters. Of their records.—The greatest part of Genesis consists of fragments from two dis- remainder. Of the genuineness and
age. Of the age and author of the tinct historical works. - This proved authenticity of the book of Judges.--from the various repetitions in it- Of its history. from the difference in point of styleand in point of character.-Both works
Of the Book of Ruth. originating in an æra prior to that of Object of this book...Of its age...
its great resemblance in style to the Internal difficulties on the score of books of Samuel and of the Kings.-- improbability considered. --Attempt to Its genuineness and authenticity not to reconcile them.History of the book be questioned.--Of its history. of Esther. Of the Books of Samuel.
End of Contents of Vol. III. 1. Of the Second Book of Samuel...
(To be continued.) Its relation to the First Book of Chronicles considered and explained.--Age
October 6, 1821. of the cursory life of David which it WAS at Marden Park in June : contains, and the additions to it.
II. Of the First Book of Samuel.--. your Correspondent N. L. T., p. The narrative of such events as it con- 448,) that Firmin's Walk is still in tains not written by a contemporary existence, and bears his name: though author--although compiled from an- it is not kept in very nice order. Also cient sources. Singular interpolation the pillar erected by Lady Clayton to in it..--Age of the books of Samuel in the memory of that excellent man their present state...-History of these remains in good preservation, and the books.
inscription is still legible. Marden of the Books of Kings.
Park is on the left hand side of the Nature of the eleven first chapters
road to Godstone : it is a beautiful of the First Book of Kings--and of place; and the summer-house on the the remainder of both books---in par- miles round. The mansion itself is in
top of the hill is conspicuous for many ticular reference to the Second Book of Chronicles.---Of the author of the distance. The old part, built by Sir
a hollow, and is not seen at any great books of the Kings. Sources from Robert Clayton, contains a great numwhich they are compiled.---Genuineness and authenticity of the books of that any of them bore the name of
ber of rooms; but I could not learn the Kings and of Samuel established. Firmin. Some very handsome modern --History of these books.
rooms have been added : and all togeOf the Books of the Chronicles. ther it forms a large, commodious,
They consist of three parts--the and, I may say, a stately mansion. first, containing genealogical tables, The property is still vested in the Clayintermixed with geographical and his- ton family ; but they do not reside torical observations--the second, a nar
there. It was lately let to Mr. Hatsell, rative of the lives of David and Solo- the venerable Clerk of the House of mon---and the last, the history of the Commons, who died there about a year kingdom of Juda.--
History of the ago, at a very advanced age. It is now books of the Chronicles.---Ezra, in all occupied by William Wilberforce, Esq., probability, the author of them...Of the pious and benevolent Member for their genuineness and authenticity.--- Bramber. Sir Robert and Lady ClayOf their history.
ton are buried in Bletchingly Church,
which is about four miles off, where a Of Ezra.
very splendid monument is erected to Accounts of Ezra....He is the author their memory with an appropriate inof the book under his name.---General scription, which pays a just tribute to observations.---Of the period in which their distinguished virtues. he lived and wrote...Genuineness and
T. B. authenticity of the book of Ezra.--. Its history. Of Nehemiah.
French Translation of the Bible Account of Nehemiah--undoubtedly
adopted by the Bible Society. the author of the book ascribed to him.
DISCOVERY has been made by -Period in which he lived and wrote the genuineness and authenticity of Remembrancer, of the “ Socinian" his book maintained---its history.
tendency of the Bible Society. LookOf Esther.
ing, he says, into the French Version
which the Society circulates, for "texts Of the age and writer of this book. in proof of the divine nature of Jesus
Christ,” he was greatly surprised to the known and established law of nafind that in 2 Cor. v. 19, the words ture in this case is, that water, terræ ότι Θεος ην εν Χριςο, , " that God was circumfluus humor, and all fluids conin Christ,” and are there rendered, tinually descend, by virtue of their graCar Dieu a réconcilié le monde avec vity and fluidity, till they find their
level, soi-même, par Christ, en n'imputant unless prevented by some firm and sopoint aux hommes leur péchés. (For lid and material barrier, such as is God has reconciled the world to him- visible to the human eye, and never self, by Christ, by not imputing to present an upright and perpendicular men their sins.) The Version in ques- side except in such circumstances. If, tion, says the perturbed writer, is that then, the waters of the Red Sea stood of Paris, 1805, and he intimates that up as they are represented to have it was preferred, for some sinister rea- done in the Book of Exodus, a known son, to that of Martin, which is the and established law of Auids was vioorthodox translation. * At a time," lated, or, if the term is offensive, he adds, “ when Socinianism is sup- departed from, or contradicted, or inposed to be making rapid strides terrupted, and the phenomenon effectthrough the ranks of the self-conceited ed through the medium of some other and superficially learned, is it not in- cause altogether out of the ordinary cumbent upon members of the Church course of nature. of England, who compose part of a Take the miracle of the feeding of society, by whose authority a corrupted the multitude with the five loaves and translation of the Bible is sent forth two fishes, and the case is precisely the into the world, to consider the awful same. Bereanus is even courteous responsibilty which they have in- enough to give us the rationale of this curred, and the evil consequences of miracle. “The multiplication of the their being thus instrumental in the loaves and fishes cannot be satiscirculation of error?” This sensibility factorily accounted for, but by supto “ Socinian" leanings and tendencies posing a continued addition of an hois not quite consistent with the common mogeneous substance, otherwise the vaunt, that “ Socinianism” is going one would not have been bread, nor out of the world.
the other fish.” To this exposition I
can have no objection, except that it Ashford, Kent, may be said that nature never multiSir,
Sept. 17, 1821. plies bread to us, but corn, of which A
Miracles in the last Number of lus inarata ferebat, and that, therefore, your Repository, and who subscribes there was no established law to viohimself Bereanus, (p. 463,) professes late. But Bereanus does, ultimately, to be much dissatisfied with Hume's refer us to an established law of nadefinition of a miracle, as well as with ture; for he adds, “Or, in other words, the definitions of several other authors. the loaves were multiplied by the same Hume says, a miracle is “a violation cause that produces farina in a grain of the laws of nature ;" Farmer says, of wheat.” Hence it is to be presumed, it is “a deviation from, or a contra- that he would account for the increase diction to, the known laws of nature;” of the fish or fishes in the same way; and Priestley defines it in nearly the yet nothing can be more evident than same terms. Bereanus regards all that this view of the subject is altogethese definitions as being faulty and ther erroneous as accounting for the incorrect.
I regard them as being miracle ; for what is it that produces perfectly correct, and if you take al- farina in a grain of wheat, or an addimost any one of the miracles, whether tion of bulk in a fish? The regular of Moses or of Christ, I will engage to and established law of nature produprove that it corresponds to the above cing or increasing the farina of a grain definitions.
of wheat, or the bulk or substance of Take the miracle of the separating a fish, is that of the slow and gradual of the waters of the Red Sea, so as to process of vegetation in the one case, leave the bottom dry, and to afford a and of the agency of the animal funcpassage to the Israelites on foot," the tions in the other. If, then, the bread waters being a wall unto them on their and fishes were multiplied instantaneright hand and on their left.” Now ously in the hands of Christ, or of his
disciples, the established law of nature power, which God enables a messenger with regard to the multiplication of to perform in attestation of his divine these substances was evidently violated, mission, by the immediate agency of or interrupted, or departed from, and physical or material causes." Why to object to the language of Hume, is the performance of the miracle should .but to wrangle about a term; for it be confined to the agency of physical conveys an idea to the mind that is per- or material causes, (if there be any fectly distinct, and definite, and ade- other causes in nature,) I am at a loss quate to the thing signified.
to conjecture. But the most remark. But Bereanus says it does not; and able thing in the definition is, that it why? Because, as it is alleged, the contains a contradiction. A miracle laws of nature are not known to us; is said to be superior to human power, “the causes which produce those and yet it is, at the saine time, said to effects of which we have an unalterable be performed by a human being. This experience, having hitherto eluded the human being is enabled, indeed, to pertest of experimental philosophy, and form it, by the especial favour of God, baffled the reasonings of human wis- and for a particular purpose. But dom.” This representation is discou. this, after all, is to make God the raging enough, it must be confessed; worker of the miracle, which Bereanus but iť it were even true, it would not readily acknowledges ; indeed nothing ‘atfect the point at issue. It must be else will do; for we cannot ascribe the admitted, indeed, that the experimen- working of a miracle to any being who -tal philosopher is not always so felici- is supposed to be unacquainted with tous as to detect the causes of the phe- the rationale of the process of operanomena which he investigates ; Felix tion, or incapable of commanding the qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas ; agency of the causes which are to pro.but when he cannot detect the efficient duce the desired effect. If we try, by cause, he can at least watch and ob- this criterion, the miracle of making serve the way in which it acts. This the sun stand still,, as alleged by some serves his purpose just as well as if he to have been achieved by Joshua, we knew the cause itself, for he can cal- shall find that he really had nothing culate upon its operations with the to do in the matter. Bereanus informs utmost certainty. It is the modus us, that he knew nothing of the diur. operandi, therefore, and not the causes nal revolution of the earth; and I of things, that is meant by the laws of contend, à fortiori, that he knew nothing nature. Thus there is a power exist- of the means of stopping it. How ing in nature, by which the planets then can we ascribe to him the pertend towards the sun as a centre, and formance of the miracle? If the phethat power philosophers have denomi- nomenon happened when he said, nated gravitation ; not that they pre- “Sun, stand thou still,” all he did was tend to have any knowledge of the to give an indication of the period at nature or essence of that power ; but which God was pleased to display the merely that it is convenient to give it miracle ; as the index of a clock points a name. But they have a very dis- out the instant at which the hour is to tinct conception and definite idea of strike. its modus operandi, or of the law by Still Bereanus is desirous of making which it acts; and that is truly and it appear, that what we call a miracle properly, and to all intents and pur- is not really a deviation from the geposes, a law of nature, which would neral laws of nature, but a consebe violated, or interrupted, or departed quence of their agency. I have no from, if this earth were to stand still, objection to the explaining of miracles or to fly off from its orbit at a tangent, in this way where it is practicable ; instead of continuing to revolve around and perhaps some of the miracles rethe sun in its usual course. It is evi- corded in Holy Writ have been in this dent, therefore, that Bereanus' idea way, successfully explained, particu, of what is meant by a law of nature, is larly by Mr. King, in his Morsels op not correct.
Criticism. But there are others, which, Let us now attend to the definition I am persuaded, it is not possible so that he would substitute in the place to explain. of Hume's. It is as follows: “A mi At any rate, I cannot think that racle is a work superior to human Bereanus has been successful in en