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tiality, and rest in the result of such always, followed by a similar change.” examination. When I say that we in this definition a necessary connexought to do this, I do not now mean ion of cause and effect is not denied ; morally, but philosophically. It is in neither is it affined; and in the this way that we judge of other facts, author's opinion, the definition is the and if we refuse to judge of miracles fullest which the relation philosophion the same principle, we shall be in cally admits. It is complete without danger of rejecting what, to say the it ; and, consequently, the expression least, may be true, and what, if true, Philosophical Necessity should be dismust be most interesting and impor- missed from the language of philosctant.

phy; for if Necessity is not to be E. COGAN admitted in the definition of the rela

tion of cause and effect, in what other

case can it have a philosophical use or SIR,

Brighton. meaning? If his opinion was right, WHAT the question of Philoso- and it might be difficult to prove it

phical Necessity is a merely ver- wrong, certainty and universality of bal dispute, was, I believe, long the concomitance express fully and comopinion of the late Dr. Cogan, and it pletely the relation of cause and effect; was certainly his last opinion on that and when we assert necessary connex. subject. In his volume of Ethical ion, nothing more can be meant than Questions he has stated and defended certain and universal concurrence. If it with his accustomed clearness and we imagine that we perceive something ability : intentum enim animum velut more, a closer bond between the two arcum habebat, nec languescens suc events described by the term Naces. cumbebat senectuti.

sity, we imagine what is not fact. If, indeed, the question is, whether Our knowledge is bounded by our obwhat we will is determined by what servation, and constant concomitance we think, it can receive but one an- is all that is observed. Let this be swer from all mankind; and as little granted, and he who fears the consecan it be questioned, that what we quences or dislikes the name of Philothink depends upon a variety of causes sophical Necessity ascribed to human of which we are not the authors. actions, or to any other natural facts, Hence nothing is gained to the side of may be consoled by the legitimate the freedom of the will by throwing conclusion,--that, to confess that every back the difficulty, as your ingenious volition of the mind of man has a Correspondent S. (pp. 596---598] ap- cause, and that this cause can be pears to do, from the volitions to the nothing else than the state of the mind views, and looking to the understand which immediately preceded it, is not ing for that independence which was to acknowledge its volitions necessary. sought for in vain in the will.

“The mere relation of uniform ante He who is inclined to think that the cedence appears to me," saith our dispute is solely about a word, and Enquirer, * to constitute all that can that if the term Necessity were re be philosophically meant in the words jected the controversy would be at an power or causation, to whatever obend, may be pleased to remark, how jects, material or spiritual, the words well that offensive word can be spared may be applied.” Every man to whom by those who affirm, notwithstanding, the same appears, may forthwith disthat the volitions and the judgments miss from his philosophical vocabuof the mind are related as cause and lary the name of Necessity. For him effect. Dr. Brown, following in the that thinks otherwise there is no altertrack of Hume, has given the subjoined native, but to maintain that volitions definition of a cause, in his Enquiry have no cause, or that they are what into the Relation of Cause and Effect: they are necessarily. “ A cause, in the fullest definition

JOHN MORELL which it philosophically admits, may be said to be that which immediately SIR,

Nov. 6, 1821.

CARIOUS copies of the following stances, has been always, and will be been at least seven years in circulation,

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at length a very incorrect copy was selves like persons on whose minds vital published in the “Monthly Magazine” Christianity and undissembled piety had for September last, and inserted from the predominance; and after the meeting thence in the “ Christian Reformer concluded, they did not hastily leave it, for October, VII. 384.

but, with that condescension and kindness I send you the following as a cor- able a manner on every occasion, they

which they have shewn in so remarkrect copy; and thouglı the respectable stood to shake hands with, and take nowriter of it may regret that any ex- tice of several Friends who were near tract of his letter has been published, them; and before getting into his carriage he cannot, I am persuaded, disapprove the Emperor told Wm. Allen who he would this public correction of it.

have to wait upon him with the address, The time selected for publishing fixing the following third day to receive this extract of a private letter, so long it, saying, that he wished for a private after it was written, I know not how conference, therefore he would not have to account for. Whether it was in

more attend than he had named. Wil. tended to support, on such evidence, liam Allen, however, made interest aftera full reliance on the humble, pacific Grellett to be admitted.

wards with the Ambassador for Stephen and unambitious character of this great Prince" and distinguished having any attendants with him, and we,

The Emperor received us without member of the celebrated “Holy Al William Allen, S. Grellett and myself, liance;" or to insinuate a strong dis- continued with him near an hour. cordance between his actions and the “ As soon as we began to enter the professions he was pleased to make to room, the Emperor came forward to us, The deputation of Friends on this occa- and shook hands with each of us in the sion, who were three of their approved most condescending and affectionate manministers, I am wholly ignorant. Two ner; and when William Allen presented of them have since been at Petersburgh, the address to him, he took it, but did William Allen and Stephen Grellett, not open it, having previously said, he but I have not heard that the Emperor for the audience, to be taken up by

should not wish the time he should allot was as accessible to them there as in reading an address ; as he had seen the London.

copy which was delivered to the AmbasF.

sador on leave being asked to present it. Account of the Private Conference of The books were then presented, and the

Alexander, Emperor of Russia, Emperor opened each of them, inquiring, with John Wilkinson, of High Wy what they treated of. The books


at the same time, with apparent interest, combe, Stephen Grellett, of New York, and William Allen, of Plough tracts ; Penn's no Cross, no Crown;'

* Barclay's Apology ;' • The Book of ExCourt, Lombard Street, in the

• Summary of Penn's Maxims. After he summer of 1814, when the Emperor had accepted the books, he turned towards and the King of Prussia were in us, and expressed himself with great London.

kindness, and in very full terms, concernExtract of a Letter from J. Wilkinson ing the satisfaction he felt at having been to Thomas Clarkson, dated 21st of whether it was held in the same way as

at the meeting, and wished to know the 7th Month, 1814.

our meetings usually are. After an account of the unsuccessful “ He was informed that it was, but endeavours of the deputation of Friends that there is not always speaking in our to obtain an interview with the King

mcetings. of Prussia, he says,

“Do you then,' said he, read the

Scriptures in them Very different, indeed, from this «'« We are not in that practice, bewhat passed with the Emperor of Russia, cause we believe true worship to consist who, before the address was presented to in the prostration of the soul before God, him, went to the meeting at Westminster and we do not consider it necessary for on a first-day morning, (19th of last any thing to be read or spoken to produce Month,) taking with him his sister, the that effect.' Duchess of Oldenburgh, his Ambassador, “« This is my opinion also,' replied Count Lieven, and two young Princes ; the Emperor ; and, with regard to one, I believe, was his nephew, Prince prayer, have you any form of prayer?' Oldenburgh, (not the Duchess's son, the «•We have not; because we believe other's title I have forgot. Both the that in ni ayer the soul must communicate Emperor and his sister conducted the

on in such a manner as best

suits its condition at the time prayer is unaffected, humble and pious counteoffered up.

nance, manners and expressions of that « In that,' replied the Emperor, 'I truly great Prince, who seems indeed to fully agree with you. I believe I can be walking in the light, and to be filled truly say there is not a day passes in with the love of truth and goodness. In which I do not pray, but it is not in any him the power and awe of the Almighty set form of words ; for I soon found my are eminently displayed; for how can one mind would not be satisfied without using see a frail mortal, who, in the midst of such language as at the moment is appli. worldly glory, and almost adored bry surcable to its condition; but, you know, rounding multitudes, instead of being Jesus Christ gave a set form of words to puffed up with it, is, with the spirit of his disciples.'

a humble Christian, triumphing over pride « « He did ; yet we conceive it was and vanity? How can one see an humonly to instruct them in what it was most ble creature who has been nursed up in essential they should petition for, without the land of despotism, and that in the ineaning to confine them to those very midst of dark superstition, and yet filled words on all occasions.'

with liberality and light? How can one “"] think you are right,' said the see this without at the same time being Emperor. He then put many judicious sensible of the beauty and truth of our questions to us, in order to be made Saviour's assurance With God all things acquainted with the leading features of are possible'? It has indeed been a les the doctrine, discipline and practice of son which I earnestly desire may not be the Society, and appeared well satisfied thrown away upon me, and which I hope with the answers he received. With re- will have a beneficial effect upon many. gard to the operation of the Divine Spirit “I must not onit just mentioning, on the mind, he expressed himself in that upon being spoken to on the subject such a manner, as one cannot conceive of the slave trade, the Emperor unequiany thing short of his being an humble vocally declared his sense of the enormity and faithful follower- of its holy and se of it, saying of the Africans, “They are cret guidance. After making many in- our brethren, and are like ourselves. He quiries about the Society, he said, in the also expressed himself in a very satisfacmost affectionate manner, How is it tory manner as to the part he had taken that none of your people have been into to get it abolished entirely." Russia ? If any of them come into my country on a religious account, don't let nicated to

The following account was commuthem wait for an introduction, but let Grellett, personally:

- by Stephen them come immediately to me; I shall be glad to see them ; repeating, ' I shall “ Stephen Grellett remarking to the be glad to see them.'

Emperor the satisfaction of his haring " Towards the conclusion of the audi- such a sister, (as the Duchess of Oldenence, s. Grellett, in a respectful and burgh,) the Emperor replied, “ It is, inaffectionate manner, expressed the strong deed. She is the gift of Heaven; it is a desire he felt for the Emperor's preser- great pleasure to speak to her, for she is vation, under the heavy burthens and sensible of the influence of the Divine complicated duties which, in his exalted Spirit on her own heart; we can open station, must necessarily be allotted him. our minds to each other; it is of no use Whilst S. Grellett was speaking, the to speak to those who have not felt it.' Emperor took him by the hand, and, On hearing S. G. relate some particulars with a countenance full of nobility, min- of his own life, the Emperor observed, gled with Christian tenderness, replied, I consider you as safely landed, whilst • What you have said is a cordial to my I have to combat with troubles and diffimind, and will long continue to be culties, and am surrounded with many strengthening to ine;' and when we temptations. Why don't some of your parted with him, he shook hands with people visit my country? If any do, each of us, after saying, 'I part with don't make applications to others, but you as a friend and a brother.'

come immediately to me; I promise you “ I cannot but feel myself very unwor- protection, and every assistance in 'my thy to have been present on such an in- power.' He made many inquiries re. teresting and important occasion, more specting the principles of Friends, and especially having been one of only three; said, 'I am one with you in sentiment but, perhaps, if there had been many, respecting the spirituality of your wor. the Emperor would not have felt the ship; I wish to pray, not in form, but as same unreserved freedom. For many I am assisted by the divine principle in days I seemned as though I had been ex- my own heart ;' inquired how they passed posed to a blaze of light, so powerfully their time—whether they were consistent was I impressed with the dignified, yet and happy in domestic lite. On being


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told how they divided the day, he re- scribing the progress of an army of marked, “ It is the most natural, and locusts, some term should be used such as I should like-not as many who

inore significant than that adopted by spend so much time in drinking wine,

our translators; for when plain Enwhich is below the dignity of man:' asked if Friends had any colleges for the edu- glishmen sce the word people in the cation of their young men ; thought it text, they naturally conclude that the would be better if they had ; and inquired prophet is in reality predicting the if any went to Oxford or Cambridge if march of a powerful army of rational they would adopt the costume.

beings. With these remarks 1 desire On taking leave of S. G., he said, respectfully to submit the following Take my hand as a friend and a bro- version and punctuation to the consither. I have had great satisfaction in deration of your readers : this interview, and hope, when parted, “Blow


the trumpet in Zion, and we shall often think of each other.' “ In giving this very interesting ac- let all the inhabitants of the land

sound an alarm in my holy mountain : count S. G. said, no words could convey tremble ; for the day of Jehovah comes, the fulness of his satisfaction in having for it approaches ; a day of darkness paid this visit. I believe he may be truly and of gloom, a day of clouds and of called a CuRISTIAN Prince."

thick darkness. As the dawn spreads

upon the mountains, so shall a great Alnwick, and strong army: nothing has been September 5, 1821.

like them from ancient times, neither VE second chapter of the pro- shall any thing resemble them again

phecy of Joel is made to com- through future ages.". mence, in our version, with the fols

WILLIAM PROBERT. lowing words and punctuation :“ Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain :

Cùm tua prævideas oculis mala lippus let all the inhabitants of the land

inunctis, tremble: for the day of the Lord

Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis acucometh, for it is nigh at hand : a day

tum, of darkness and of gloominess, a day

Quam aut aquila, aut serpens Epidanrius ?

Hor. of clouds and of thick durkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains ;


Nov. 13, 1821.

COU hath not been ever the like, neither practice to record occasionally shall be any more after it, even to the the opinions of Orthodoxy. The folyears of many generations."

lowing may not prove unacceptable to Upon this passage I beg to observe, some of your readers. 1. That instead of the colon after the

“ In these matters I am so fearful words tremble and hand, the semi- that I dare not speak farther; yea, colon should be used, as the subsequent almost none otherwise, than THE TEXT clauses are too intimately connected doth (as it were) lead me by the with those which precede to admit the hand.Martyn's Letters. colon. 2. The sentence should end at "If we set up these notions of our the word darkness in the second verse, own as the standard of faith, and rebecause complete sense is formed at quire a peremptory assent TO ALL THE that word. What follows begins ano INFERENCES which appear to flow ther sentence ; has an evident relation from them, WE QUIT THE TRUE, THE to the great and strong people alluded REVEALED GOD, AND BETAKE OURto; and affords a most beautiful simile SELVES TO THE IDOLS OF OUR OWN respecting the rapid and universal BRAIN.Copleston on Predestination. spread of the invaders. 3. The phrase Had only the spirit of these two

a great people and a strong” has short periods been generalized and something clumsy in it; and it would acted up to by the disciples of Christ, be more agreeable with the idiom of would there have been an Athanasian the English language to turn it into- in Christendom? Were they so now, a great and strong people. 4. The would one remain in Christendom? word by rendered people, denotes an A BIBLE-ONLY-CHRISTIAN. associated body, and as the connexion clearly proves that the prophet is de


pp. 658,

Introduction to the Study of the Old miah having once existed this co

Testament, by J. G. Eichhorn, 3 jecture apparently confirmed by a vols. 8vo.

comparison between the readings of (Continued from p. 584.)

the text of the Masora and of the Sep

tuagint.---Observations on both edi. Summary of Contents of Vol. III.

tions.---Instead of admitting two ori

ginal editions, others suppose the conWITH THREE INDICES.

ciseness of the text of the Septuagint of the Prophets.

to originate in its being an intentional

abbreviation of the Hebrew.-This, RELIMINARY observations on however, highly improbable. - The their oracles. -Of the notions promul- appear to be the gennine production gated by Moses respecting them.-- of Jeremiah.--The rest (including the Description of the Prophets of the passage in Matt. xxvii

. 9) in no wise Hebrews-and of their oracles :--the to be attributed to him.-History of latter were delivered in a poetical style. the book of Jeremiah. Of their sources and the mode adopted in their publication.-Scrip

Exekiel. tural origin of the Hebrew prophecies Life of Ezekiel.-Connexion between and oracles....Of the manner in which the oracles of Ezekiel and those of his they were probably collected.–Of the

contemporary, Jeremiah.—Of the colsuperscriptions prefixed to them.- lection of his oracles. All the chapDecided proofs of the authenticity of ters of the book of Ezekiel appear to the prophetical books of the Old Tes- originate in one and the same writer, tament.

even admitting that it originally con Isaiah.

sisted of two distinct parts, the first His life.---Various oracles no ways comprising the first thirty-nine chap attributable to him are contained in ters, and the second the remainderthe book under his name—some of Of the general character of Ezekiel. them being undoubtedly of recent

Brief observations on his poetical chadate. The present form of the book racter.--History of the book of Eze

kiel. of Isaiah to be traced in a period subsequent to the Babylonian exile.

Hosea. Origin of the collection of prophecies

All accounts of Hosea extremely under the name of Isaiah. - The book

scanty, nor is much more than the of Isaiah exhibits a species of antho- name of his father, and the period logy of oracles in general, of which in which he lived, with any degree of the prophecies of Isaiah probably certainty known.--The book of Hosen formed the basis.-Advantages to be consists of two parts, the former com, gained from this view of its origin.-- prising the three first chapters, and Objections to it considered and refuted. the latter the remainder. Of its con- Various interpolations and glosses tents and character.-Its history. to be discovered in this book. The superscriptions or titles frequently

Joel. erroneous.

---Of the poetical character Little is known respecting Joel, one of Isaiah.-History of the book of of the most original poets of the Ho Isaiah.

brews---even the precise period in Jeremiah.

which he flourished is uncertain-alHis life.-Character of the oracles though it is highly probable that he of Jeremiah-peculiarity in the mode lived in an age antecedent to that in adopted by him for publishing them. which most of the prophets flourished, He dictated them to Baruch--nor whose works are now extant.-Of the was it till the fourth year of the reign origin and contents of the book of of Jojakim that he commenced his Joel--and of the poetical character of work. Of the consequences thereof. the author.-Various imitations have -Of the confusion which appears in been made of the style of Joel, as the collection extant of the oracles of may be seen, amongst others, in the Jeremiah---probability of two distinct Apocalypse.--History of the book of original editions of the text of Jere. Joel.

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