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Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700
Carlo M. Cipolla
Limited preview - 2004
activity agricultural Amsterdam Antwerp areas artisans average Baltic Bologna charity Church Cipolla cities cloth coins consumption craftsmen demand denarius Dutch East economic eighteenth century England English epidemics European expansion expenditure exports fact factors famine fifteenth fixed capital Florence Florentine florins fluyt foreign trade fourteenth century France French Genoa Germany gold guilds Holland horses important income increase Industrial Revolution innovations investment iron Italian Italy labor land London Low Countries manufacturing medieval merchants metal Middle Ages Milan million monetary Montaldeo mortality Nicolaes Witsen northern percent percentage period Pistoia plague poor preindustrial Europe production Renaissance Republic of Venice rich sail saving second half sector seventeenth century ships silk silver sixteenth and seventeenth sixteenth century social Source southern Spain Sweden Table techniques technological textiles thirteenth century total population towns Tuscany twelfth century Venetian Venice wages water mills wealth wool woollen workers wrote