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and from all accusation of having used violence ; so that the persons then convoked might avouch that the person died fairly, and without suffering any personal injury. The dead were thus exhibited by ancient nations, and perhaps the cnstom was introduced here by the Romans.”

It was customary, according to Strutt, i. 66, in the Christian burials of the Anglo-Saxons, to leave the head and shoulders of the corpse uncovered till the time of burial, that relations, &c. might take a last view of their deceased friend. To this day we yet retain (in our way) this old custom, leaving the coffin of the deceased unscrewed till the time of burial.

Among the extracts from the Berkeley MSS. read before the Society of Antiquaries, the following occasioned a general smile: “From the time of the death of Maurice, the fourth Lord Berkeley, which happened June 8, 1368, untill his interment, the reeve of his manor of Hinton spent three quarters and seaven bushells of beanes in fatting one hundred geese towards his funerall, and divers other reeves of other manors the like, in geese, duckes, and other pultry." Walsingham, p. 405, says, when Richard the Second was buried at Langley, erat qui eos invitaret ad prandium post laborem.”

In Strype's edition of Stow's Survey of London, i. 259, we read from Registr. Lond. : “ Margaret Atkinson, widow, by her will, October 18, 1544, orders that the next Sunday after her burial there be provided two dozen of bread, a kilderkin of ale, two gammons of bacon, three shoulders of mutton, and two couple of rabbits, desiring all the parish, as well rich as poor, to take part thereof; and a table to be set in the midst of the church, with every thing necessary thereto.” In 1556, at the funeral of Sir John Gresham, knight, mercer, the church and streets were all hung with black, and arms, great store. A sermon was preached by the Archdeacon of Canterbury, “and after, all the company came home to as great a dinner as had been seen for a fish day, for all that came : for nothing was lacking. Ibid. At the funeral of Thomas Percy, 1561, Jate skinner to Queen Mary, he was "attended to his burial in Saint Mary Aldermary church with twenty black gowns and coats, twenty clerks singing, &c. The floor strewed with rushes for the chief mourners. Mr. Crowley preached. Afterwards was a great dole of money: and then all went home to a dinner. The Company of Skinners to their hall, to dine together. At this funeral all the mourners offered, and so did the said company.” In 1562, at the funeral of Sir Humphrey Brown, knight, Lord Chief Justice, Dec. 15, Mr. Reneger made the sermon, and after, they went home to a great dinner. The church was hung with black, and arms. The helmet and crest were offered (on the altar), and after that his target; after that his sword; then his coat-armour; then his standard was offered, and his pennon: and after all, the mourners, and judges, and serjeants of the law, and servants, offered.

Waldron, in his Description of the Isle of Man, p. 170, says: “As to their funerals, they give no invitation, but everybody that had any acquaintance with the deceased comes, either on foot or horseback. I have seen sometimes, at a Mank's burial, upwards of an hundred horsemen, and twice the number on foot. All these are entertained at long tables, spread with all sorts of cold provision, and rum and brandy flies about at a lavish rate."

Misson, in his Travels in England, translated by Ozell, p. 91, under the head of Funerals, says : “Before they set out, and after they return, it is usual to present the guests with something to drink, either red or white wine,, boiled with sugar and cinnamon, or some other such liquor. Every one drinks two or three cups. Butler, the keeper of a tavern (the Crown and Sceptre, in St. Martin's-street), told me that there was a tun of red port wine drank at his wife's burial, besides mulled white wine. Note, no me ever go to women's burials, nor the wornen to men’s, so that there were none but women at the drinking of Butler's wine.”

In the Minute Book of the Society of Antiquaries of London, July 21, 1725, i. 169, we read : “Mr. Anderson gave the society an account of the manner of a Highland lord's funeral. The body is put into a litter between two horses, and, attended by the whole clan, is brought to the place of burial in the churchyard. The nearest relations dig the grave, the neighbours having set out the ground, so that it may not encroach on the graves of others. While this is performing, some hired women, for that purpose, lament the dead, setting forth his genealogy and noble exploits. After the body is interred, a hundred black cattle, and two or three hundred sheep, are killed for the entertainment of the company.”

In the Statistical Account of Scotland, vi. 487, parish of Kincardine, Perth, we read: “The desire of what is called a decent funeral, i. e. one to which all the inhabitants of the district are invited, and at which every part of the usual entertainment is given, is one of the strongest in the poor. The espense of it amounts to nearly two pounds. This sum, therefore, erery person in mean circumstances is anxious to lay up, and he will not spare it unless reduced to the greatest extremity. So Gray:

“ E'en in our ashes live their wonted fires." Ibid. ix. 513, complaints occur against the expensive mode of conducting burials in the parish of Dunlop, in Ayrshire. It is pointed out as an object of taxation. Ibid. x. 469, parish of Lochbroom, co. Ross : “At their burials and marriages, we are told, the inhabitants too much adhere to the folly of their ancestors. On these occasions they have a custom of feasting a great number of their friends and neighbours, and this often at an expense which proves greatly to the prejudice of poor orphans and young people; although these feasts are seldom productive of any quarrels or irregularities among them.” Ibid. xv. 372, parish of Campsie, co. Stirling, we read : “ It was customary, till within these few years, when any head of a family died, to invite the whole parish ; they were serred on boards in the barn, where a prayer was pronounced before and after the service, which duty was most religiously observed. The entertainment consisted of the following parts: first, there was a drink of ale, then a dram, then a piece of shortbread, then another dram of some other species of liquor, then a piece of currant-bread, and a third dram, either of spirits or wine, which was followed by loaves and cheese, pipes and tobacco. This was the old funeral entertainment in the parish of Campsie, and was styled their service; and sometimes this was repeated, and was then styled a double service, and it was sure of being repeated at the dredgy. A funeral cost at least a hundred pounds Scots, to any family who followed the old

The most active young man was pointed out to the office of server; and in those days, while the manners were simple, and at the same time serious, it was no small bonour to be a server at a burial. However distant any part of the parish was from the place of interment, it was customary for


the attendants to carry the corpse on hand-spokes. The mode of invitation to the entertainment was by some special messenger, which was styled bidding to the burial, the form being nearly in the following words : “You are desired to come to such-a-one's burial to-morrow, against ten hours. No person was invited by letter; and, though invited against ten of the clock, the corpse never was interred till the evening, time not being so much valued in those days.” Ibid. xviii. 123, parish of Gargunnock, co. Stirling: “The manner of conducting funerals in the country needs much amendment. From the death to the interment the house is thronged by night and day, and the conversation is often very unsuitable to the occasion. The whole parish is invited at ten o'clock in the forenoon of the day of the funeral, but it is soon enough to attend at three o'clock in the afternoon. Every one is entertained with a variety of meats and drinks. Not a few return to the dirge, and sometimes forget what they have been doing and where they are. Attempts have been lately made to provide a remedy for this evil; but old customs are not easily abolished.” Ibid. p. 174, parish of Carmunnock, co. Lanark, the minister tells us : “ We must mention a custom which still prevails, and which certainly ought to be abolished. It is usual in this parish, as in many other parts of Scotland, when a death has taken place, to invite on such occasions the greater part of the country round; and though called to attend at an early hour in the forenoon, yet it is generally towards evening before they think of carrying forth the corpse to the churchyard for interment. While, on these occasions, the good folks are assembled, though they never run into excess, yet no small expense is incurred by the family, who often vie with those around them in giving, as they call it, an honourable burial to their deceased friend. Such a custom is attended with many evils, and frequently involves in debt, or reduces to poverty, many families otherwise frugal and industrious, by this piece of useless parade and ill-judged expense.”

In Whimsies, or a New Cast of Characters, 1631, p. 89, speaking of a launderer, the author says : “ So much she hath reserved out of the labours of her life, as will buy some small portion of diet-bread, comfits, and burnt claret, to welcome in her neighbours now at her departing, of whose cost they never

so freely tasted while she was living."! Ibid. p. 195, in describing a yealous ( jealous) neighbour, the author concludes with observing: “Meate for his funerall pye is shred, some few ceremoniall teares on his funerall pile are shed; but the wormes are scarce entered his shroud, his corpse flowers not fully dead, till this yealous earthworme is forgot, and another more amorous, but lesse yealous, mounted his bed.”

Mons. Jorevin, who travelled in England in the beginning of King Charles the Second's reign, speaking of a lord's burial at Shrewsbury, which his host procured him a sight of, tells us : “The relations and friends being assembled in the house of the defunct, the minister advanced into the middle of the chamber, where, before the company, he made a funeral oration, representing the great actions of the deceased, his virtues, his qualities, his title of nobility, and those of the whole family, &c. It is to be remarked, that during the oration there stood upon the coffin a large pot of wine, out of which every one drank to the health of the deceased. This being finished, six men took


and carried it on their sholders to the church,” &c. Antiq. Repert. ii. 105.

A writer in the Gent. Mag. for March, 1780, p. 129, says : “Our ancient funerals, as well as some modern ones, were closed with merry-makings, at least equal to the preceding sorrow, most of the testators directing, among other things, victuals and drink to be distributed at their exequies ; one in particular, I remember, orders a sum of money for a drinking for his soul.Another writer, apparently describing the manners of Yorkshire, lxviii. 573, for July, 1798, says: “At funerals, on which occasion a large party is generally invited, the attendant who serves the company with ale or wine, has upon the handle of the tankard a piece of lemon-peel, and also upon her left arm a clean white napkin. I believe these customs are invariably observed. From what cause they originated, some ingenious correspondent may be able to inform me."

1 " In northern customs duty was exprest

To friends departed by their fun'ral feast.
Tho' I've consulted Hollingshead and Stow,
I find it very difficult to know
Who, to refresh th' attendants to the grave,
Burnt claret first, or Naples-bisket gave.”

King's Art of Cookery, p. 65.

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