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bowing himselfe in signe of a reverent acceptance. When the leader sees his follower thus prepared, he soups up his broath, turnes the bottom of the cup upward, and in ostentation of his dexteritie, gives the cup a phillip, to make it cry Twango. And thus the first scene is acted. The cup being newly replenished to the breadth of an haire, he that is the pledger must now beginne his part, and thus it goes round throughout the whole company, provided alwaies by a cannon set downe by the founder, there must be three at the least still uncovered, till the health hath had the full passage: which is no sooner ended, but another begins againe."

In the second part of Dekker's Honest Whore, 1630, is the following: “Will you fall on your maribones and pledge this health, 'tis to my mistris ?” So in Shakerley Marmion's Antiquary, act ii. :

“ Drank to your health whole nights in hippocrase

Upon my knees, with more religion

Than e'er I said my prayers, which Heaven forgive me." Pledging is again mentioned, act iv. : “To our noble duke's health, I can drink no lesse, not a drop. lesse ; and


and his servants will pledge me, I am sure.

In Heywood's Philocothonista, 1635, p. 12, we read: “Divers authors report of Alexander, that, carousing one day with twenty persons in his company, hee dranke healths to every man round, and pledged them severally againe : and as he was to rise, Calisthenes, the Sophist, coming into the banqueting house, the king offered him a deepe quaffing bowle, which he modestly refused, for which being taxed by one there present, hee said aloud, I desire not, oli, Alexander, to receive a pledge from thee, by taking which I shall be presently inforced to inquire for a physition." There is a remarkable passage in Ward's Living Speeches of Dying Christians, (Sermons, 1636, p. 144). My Saviour began to mee in a bitter cup, and shall I not pledge him ?' i. e. drink the same. From the speech of Lawrence Saunders.

In a Brief Character of the Low Countries under the States, 1652, p. 57, speaking of a Dutch feast, the author tells us : “At those times it goes hard with a stranger; all in curtesie will be drinking to him, and all that do so he inust pledge : till he doth, the fill'd cups circle round his trencher, from whence they are not taken away till emptyed.”

I know not what the following passage means in Samuel Rowland's Satyres ; Humour's Ordinarie :

“ Tom is no more like thee than chalk's like cheese
To pledge a health, or to drink up-se-frieze :

Fill him a beaker,' he will never flinch," &c. The term Upsie-freeze occurs again, Dekker's Dead Term, or Westminster's Speech to London, 1607: “Fellowes there are that followe mee, who in deepe bowles shall drowne the Dutchman, and make him lie under the table. At his owne weapon of upsie freeze will they dare him, and beat him with wine-pots till he be dead drunke.” So, in Massinger's Virgin Martyr, act ii. sc. 1, Spungius calls Bacchus "the god of brewed wine and sugar, great patron of rob-pots, upsy free:y tipplers, and supernaculum-takers." In Times Curtaine drawne, or the Anatomie of Vanitie, &c., by Richard Brathwayte, Oxonian, 1621, in “ Ebrius experiens, or the Drunkaru's Humour,” is the subsequent passage :

" To it we went, we two being all were left,

(For all the rest of sense were quite bereft,)
Where either cail'd for wine that best did please,
Thus helter-skelter drunke we upsefrese.?
I was conjured by my kissing friend
To pledge him but an health, and then depart,
Which if did, Is’de ever have his heart.
I gave assent; the health, five senses were,
(Though scarce one sense did 'twixt us both appeare,)
Which as he drunk I pledg'd; both pledg'd and drunk,

Seeing him now full charg'd behinde I shrunke," &c. In a curious satirical little book in my possession, dedicated to George Doddington, and written about the time of Charles II., I find the following, Introd. p. 9: “Awake! thou noblest drunkard, Bacchus, thou must likewise stand to me (if, at least, thou canst for reeling), teach me how to take the German's OP SIJN FRIZE, the Danish Rowsa, the Switzer's

' Beaker, a bowl or dish for containing liquor : probably from the Italian bicchiere, patera, scyphus. Dr. Johnson defines it " a cup with the spout in the form of a bird's beak ;" but gives us no proof that such was the form of the beaker in ancient times.

Upse-Dutch, a heavy kind of Dutch beer, formerly much used in England: Upse-Freese, a similar drink imported from Friesland: To drink upse-Dutch, to drink swinishly, like a Dutchman.” Halliwell's Dictionary, p. 905.

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Stoop of Rhenish, the Italian Parmasant, the Englishman's healths and frolicks. Hide not a drop of thy moist mystery from me, thou plumpest swill-bowl.”

In England's Bane, or the Description of Drunkennesse, by Thomas Young, 1617, are some curious passages concerning the then customs of drinking: “I myselfe have seen and (to my grief of conscience) may now say have in presence, yea and amongst others, been an actor in the businesse, when upon our knees, after healthes to many private punkes, a health have been drunke to all the whoores in the world. . . He is a man of no fashion that cannot drinke supernaculum, carouse the hunters hoop, quaffe upsey-freese crosse, bowse in Permoysaunt, in Pimlico, in Crambo, with healthes, gloves, numpes, frolicks, and a thousand such domineering inventions, as by the bell, by the cards, by the dye, by the dozen, by the yard, and so by measure we drink out of measure.—There are in London drinking schooles : so that drunkennesse is professed with us as a liberall arte and science. ... I have seene a company amongst the very woods and forests (he speaks of the New Forest and Windsor Forest), drinking for a muggle. Sixe determined to trie their strengths who could drinke most glasses for the muggle. The first drinkes a glasse of a pint, the second two, the next three, and so every one multiplieth till the last taketh sixe. Then the first beginneth againe and taketh seven, and in this manner they drinke thrice a peece round, every man taking a glasse more than his fellow, so that he that dranke least, which was the first, drank one and twentie pints, and the sixth man thirty-six.” Our author ob

“Before we were acquainted with the lingering wars of the Low Countries, drunkennes was held in the highest degree of hatred that might be amongst us.”

În the dedication to the Drunkard's Cup, a sermon by Robert Harris, President of Trinity College, Oxford, in his Works, 1653, is the following curious passage :

6. There is (they say) an art of drinking now, and in the world it is become a great profession. There are degrees and titles given

1 It is singular that a part of this should have been borrowed from Pierce Pennilesse, his Supplication to the Divell, by Thomas Nash, Gent., 1595, “ Nowe he is nobody that cannot drinke Supernagulum, carouse the Hunter's Hoope, quaffe Upse freze Crosse, with healths, gloves, mumpes, polockes, and a thousand such domineering inventions."

serves :

under the names of Roaring Boyes, Damned Crew, &c. There are lawes and ceremonies to be observed both by the firsts and seconds, &c. There is a drinking by the foot, by the yard, &c., a drinking by the douzens, by the scores, &c. for the wager, for the victory, man against man, house against house, town against town, and how not? There are also terms of art, fetched from hell (for the better distinguishing of the practitioners) ; one is coloured, another is foxt, a third is gone to the dogs, a fourth is well to live, &c.”

In the body of the sermon, he mentions “the strange saucinesse of base vermine, in tossing the name of his most ercellent majesty in their foaming mouthes, and in daring to make that a shooing horne to draw on drink, by drinking healths to him.” The following, at p. 307, is curious : “I doe not speake of those beasts that must be answered and have right done them, in the same measure, gesture, course, &c., but of such onely as leave you to your measure (you will keepe a turne and your time in pledging), is it any hurt to pledge such? How pledge them? You mistake if you thinke that we speake against any true civility. If thou lust to pledge the Lord's prophets in woes, pledge good fellowes in their measures and challenges : if not so, learne still to sharpe a peremptory answer to an unreasonable demand. Say—I will pray for the king's health, and drinke for mine ovne.In page 299 we find “somewhat whitled,and in page 304,

buckt with drink," as terms expressing the different degrees of drunkenness.

In Gayton's Festivous Notes upon Don Quixote, 1654, p. 234, I find a singular passage, which I confess I do not thoroughly understand, concerning the then modes of drinking. He is describing a drinking bout of female gossips : “Dispatching a lusty rummer of Rhenish to little Periwig, who passed it instantly to Steepen Malten, and she conveigh'd with much agility to Daplusee, who made bold to stretch the countesses gowne into a pledge, and cover and come, which was the only plausible mode of drinking they delighted in: this was precisely observed by the other three, that their moistned braines gave leave for their glibb’d tongues to chat liberally." The following occurs in Herrick's Hesperides, p. 146:

“ Remember us in cups full crown'd

And let our citie-health go round,

Quite through the young maids and the men,
To the ninth number, if not tenne;
Untill the fired chesnuts leape
For joy, to see the fruits ye reape
From the plumpe challice and the cup

That tempts till it be tossed up.
What can the following mean? Ibid. p. 87 :

“ Call me the sonne of beere, and then confine

Me to the tap, the tost, the turfe; let wine

Ne'er shine upon me.” In Folly in Print: or a Book of Rhymes, published about 1660, in "a catch made before the king's coming to Worcester with the Scottish army,” is the following:

“ Each man upon his back
Shall swallow his sack,

This health will indure no shrinking ;
The rest shall dance round
Him that lies on the ground;

Fore me this is excellent drinking." In the character of “A Bad Husband,” at the end of England's Jests Refined and Improved, 1687, occur the following traits : " He is a passionate lover of morning-draughts, which he generally continues till dinner-time; a rigid exacter of num-groats and collector-general of foys' and biberidge.? He admires the prudence of that apothegm, lets drink first : and would rather sell 20 per cent. to loss than make a dry bargain.

Sir Frederick Morton Eden, in his State of the Poor, 1797, i. 560, gives us the following passage from Fergusson's Farmer's Ingle:

On some feast day, the wee-things buskit braw

Shall heeze her heart up wi' a silent joy,
Fu’ cadgie that her head was up, and saw

Her ain spun cleething on a darling oy,

Careless tho' death should make the feast her foy." After explaining oy, in a note, to signify grandchild, from the Gaelic ogha, he tells us, “A foy is the feast a person, who is about to leave a place, gives to his friends before his departure. The metaphorical application of the word in the above passage is eminently beautiful and happy."

“ BEVERAGE, Beverege, or Beveridge, reward, consequence. 'Tis a word now in use for a refreshment between dinner and supper; and we use the word when any one pays for wearing new clothes, &c.” Hearne's Glossary to Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, in v. Grose says, “ There is a kind of beverage called Foot-ale, required from one entering on a new occupation." If I mistake not, this is called in some places, " to set your footing.

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