Modern Painters ...

Front Cover
Smith, Elder, and Company, 1856 - ART - 234 pages
John Ruskin was the most influential art critic during the Victorian period. His five volume book Modern Painters was written in opposition against art critics who were opposed to the paintings of J.M.W. Turner. Ruskin was a collector of Turner's works and the two were friends. In his writings, Ruskin was a harsh critic towards classical art, and believe that the landscape paintings of Turner and others demonstrated a superior understanding of "truth."
 

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Contents

Of the Theoretic Faculty as concerned with Pleasures of Sense 1 Explanation of the term Theoretic
11
Use of the terms Temperate and Intemperate
12
Groundsof inferiority in the pleasures which are subjects of intemperance
13
Evidence of higher rank in pleasures of sight and hearing
14
How the lower pleasures may be elevated in rank
15
How degraded by heartless reception
16
How exalted by affection
17
Of Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Impressions of Sense 1 By what test is the health of the perceptive faculty to be determined?
18
And in what sense may the terms Right and Wrong be attached to its conclusions?
19
What power we have over impressions of sense
20
Ultimate conclusions universal
21
How rewarded
22
The necessity of submission in early stages of judgment
23
How distinguishable from false taste
24
The danger of a spirit of choice
25
With what liabilities to error
26
The term Beauty how limitable in the outset Divided into typical and vital
27
Of False Opinions held concerning Beauty 1 Of the false opinion that Truth is Beauty and vice versa
28
The twofold operation of Custom It deadens sensation but confirms affection
29
But never either creates or destroys the essence of Beauty
30
Instances SO 7 Of the false opinion that Beauty depends on the Association of Ideas
31
Association accidental The extent of its influence
32
The dignity of its function
33
And what caution it renders necessary in the examination of them
34
First Of Infinity or the Type of Divine Incomprehensibility 1 Impossibility of adequately treating the subject
36
The child instinct respecting space
37
Continued in after life
38
Infinity how necessary in art
39
Conditions of its necessity
40
How the dignity of treatment is proportioned to the expression of Infinity
41
Among the Venetians
42
Other modes in which the power of Infinity is felt
43
The Beauty of Curvature
44
The Beauty of Gradation
45
How necessary in art
46
The general conception of Divine Unity
47
The several kinds of Unity Subjections Original Of Sequence and of Membership
50
Variety Why required
51
The love of change How morbid and evil
53
And towards Unity of Sequence
55
The value of Apparent Proportion in Curvature
57
How produced in natural forms
58
Apparent Proportion in lines
59
Constructive Proportion Its influence in plants
60
And animals
61
Summary
62
Of Repose or the Type of Divine Permanence 1 Universal feeling respecting the necessity of repose in art Its sources
63
Repose how expressed in matter
64
The necessity to repose of an implied energy
65
Its universal value as a test of art
66
Instances in the Laocoon and Theseus
67
And in altar tombs
68
Of Symmetry or the Type of Divine Justice 1 Symmetry what and how found in organic nature
70
To what its agreeableness is referable Various instances
71
Of Purity or the Type of Divine Energy 1 The Influence of Light as a sacred symbol
73
Originally derived from conditions of matter
74
Perfect Beauty of Surface in what consisting
75
Energy how expressed by purity of matter
76
Spirituality how so expressed
77
Of Moderation or the Type of Government by Law 1 Meaning of the terms Chasteness and Refinement
78
Finish by great masters esteemed essential
80
It is the girdle of Beauty
81
How difficult of attainment yet essential to all good
82
General Inferences respecting Typical Beauty 1 The subject incompletely treated yet admitting of general conclusions
83
Typical Beauty not created for mans sake
84
Of Vital Beauty I Of Relative Vital Beauty 1 Transition from typical to vital Beauty
86
The perfection of the Theoretic faculty as concerned with vital Beauty is Charity
87
Only with respect to plants less affection than sympathy
88
Which is proportioned to the appearance of Energy in the Plants
89
This sympathy is unselfish and does not regard utility
90
Especially with respect to animals
91
The second perfection of the Theoretic faculty as concerned with life is justice of moral judgment
92
How impeded
93
The influence of moral expression
94
As also in plants
95
Recapitulation
96
II Of Generic Vital Beauty 1 The beauty of fulfilment of appointed function in every animal
98
The two senses of the word Ideal Either it refers to action of the imagination
99
Or to perfection of type
100
Of Ideal form First in the lower animals
101
Ideal form in vegetables
102
Admits of variety in the Ideal of the former
103
Instance in the Soldanclla and Ranunculus
104
The Beauty of repose and felicity how consistent with such Ideal
105
The ideality of art
106
III Of Vital Beauty in Man 1 Condition of the human creature entirely different from that of the lower animals
108
How the conception of the bodily Ideal is reached
109
Modifications of the bodily Ideal owing to influence of mind First Of Intellect
110
Secondly Sensuality
120
How connected with impurity of colour
121
Rubens Correggio and Guido
122
Thirdly Ferocity and Fear The latter how to be distinguished from Awe
123
Ferocity is joined always with Fear Its unpardonableness
124
Of passion generally
126
Recapitulation
127
General Conclusions respecting the Theoretic Faculty 1 There are no sources of the emotion of Beauty more than those found in things visible
129
tion removable
130
What objections may be made to this conclusion
131
How interrupted by false feeling
132
Greatness and truth are sometimes by the Deity sustained and spoken in and through Evil men
133
The second objection arising from the coldness of Christian men to external Beauty
134
Reasons for this coldness in the anxieties of the world These anxieties overwrought and criminal
135
Theoria the service of Heaven
136
OF THE IMAGINATIVE FACULTY Chapter I Of the Three Forms of Imagination 1 A partial examination only of the Imagination is to be attempt...
137
The works of the Metaphysicians how nugatory with respect to this faculty
138
This instance nugatory
139
Various instances
140
Penetrative Associative Contemplative
141
Of Imagination Associative 1 Of simple Conception
142
How connected with Verbal knowledge
143
Characteristics of Composition
144
Imagination not yet manifested
145
Imagination associative is the corelative conception of imperfect com ponent parts
146
The grasp and dignity of Imagination
147
Its limits
148
How manifested in treatment of uncertain relations Its deficiency illustrated
149
Laws of art the safeguard of the unimaginative
150
The monotony of unimaginative treatment
151
Imagination never repeats itself
152
Instances of absence of Imagination Claude Gaspar Foussin
153
Its presence Salvator Nicolo Poussin Titian Tintoret
154
And Turner
155
The sign of imaginative work is its appearance of absolute truth
156
Of Imagination Penetrative 1 Imagination penetrative is concerned not with the combining but the apprehending of things
158
The Imagination seizes always by the innermost point
159
It acts intuitively and without reasoning
160
Absence of Imagination how shown
161
Fancy how involved with Imagination
163
Fancy is never serious
164
Fancy restless
165
And suggestive of the Imagination
166
Imagination addresses itself to Imagination
168
The Annunciation
169
The Baptism of Christ Its treatment by various painters
170
By Tintoret
171
The Crucifixion
172
The Massacre of the Innocents
174
Various works in the Scuola di San Rocco
175
The Last Judgment How treated by various painters
176
By Tintoret
177
The imaginative Verity how distinguished from realism
178
Bandinelli Canova Mino da Fiesole
179
Recapitulation The perfect function of the Imagination is the in tuitive perception of Ultimate Truth
182
Imagination how vulgarly understood
183
How its cultivation is dependent on the moral feelings
184
And on habitual reference to nature
185
Of Imagination Contemplative 1 Imagination contemplative is not part of the essence but only a habit or mode of the faculty
186
Is not in itself capable of adding to the charm of fair things
187
But gives to the Imagination its regardant power over them
188
S The third office of Fancy distinguished from Imagination contemplative
189
Various instances
191
Morbid or Nervous Fancy
194
Except under narrow limits First Abstract rendering of form without colour
195
Or of both without texture
196
Abstraction of typical representation of animal form
197
Either when it is symbolically used
198
Exception in delicate and superimposed ornament
199
Abstraction necessary from imperfection of materials
200
Exaggeration Its laws and limits First In scale of representation
201
Secondly of things capable of variety of scale
202
Thirdly necessary in expression of characteristic features on dimi nished scale
203
Recapitulation
204
Of the Superhuman Ideal 1 The subject is not to be here treated in detail
205
And these are in or through creature forms familiar to us
206
First of the expression of Inspiration
207
No representation of that which is more than creature is possible
208
Supernatural character expressed by modification of accessaries
209
Landscape of Benozzo Gozzoli
210
Such landscape is not to be imitated
211
Colour and Decoration their use in representations of the Super natural
212
And Colour pure
213
Anatomical development how far admissible
214
Symmetry how valuable
215
Conclusion
216
Addenda
219

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